A study into selected personalities from arts and sciences nearly past or contemporary , examining the influence these people wielded as to setting positive trends and looking into how they changed our lives for the better .
Born: Sigismund Schlomo Freud
6 May 1856
Freiberg in Mähren , Moravia,
(now Příbor , Czech Republic)
Died:23 September 1939 (aged 83)
Fields: Neurology Psychotherapy
Institutions: University of Vienna
Known for: Psychoanalysis
Notable awards: Goethe Prize (1930)
of the Royal Society
Spouse: Martha Bernays (m. 1886–1939, his death)
an Austrian neurologist who
became known as the founding
father of psychoanalysis.
Psychoanalysis is a clinical
treating psychopathology through
dialogue between a patient and a
The conscious mind is what you are
aware of at any particular moment, your
present perceptions, memories, thoughts,
fantasies, feelings, what have you.
It was first introduced in connection
with the phenomenon of repression, to
explain what happens to ideas that are
It includes all the things that are not easily available to
awareness, including many things that have their
origins there, such as our drives or instincts, and
things that are put there because we can't bear to
look at them, such as the memories and emotions
associated with trauma.
The unconscious is the source of our
motivations, whether they be simple
desires for food or sex, neurotic
compulsions, or the motives of an
artist or scientist. And yet, we are
often driven to deny or resist
becoming conscious of these motives,
and they are often available to us only
in disguised form.
The id, the ego, and the superego
The id (="the It“)
is the completely
of the psyche that
operates on the
principle" and is
the source of basic
drives; it seeks
The super-ego is the
moral component of
the psyche, which
takes into account no
in which the morally
right thing may not
be right for a given
The rational ego attempts to exact a
balance between the
impractical hedonism of the id and the
equally impractical moralism of the super-
ego; it is the part of the psyche that is
usually reflected most directly in a
When ego is overburdened or threatened
by its tasks, it may employ defense
mechanisms including denial repression,
undoing, rationalization, repression,
and displacement. This concept is usually
represented by the "Iceberg Model". This
model represents the roles the Id, Ego,
and Super Ego play in relation to
conscious and unconscious thought.
Freud compared the relationship between
the ego and the id to that between a
charioteer and his horses: the horses
provide the energy and drive, while the
charioteer provides direction.
Freud believed that the function of
dreams is to preserve sleep by
representing as fulfilled wishes that would
otherwise awaken the dreamer.
He also believed that there is a specific
psychological technique through which
dreams can be interpreted, and that, if
the technique is successfully
accomplished, each dream is revealed as
a psychical structure, which has a
significant meaning and functioning in the
mental activities of the awakened life.
The great question that has never
been answered, and which I have not
yet been able to answer, despite my
thirty years of research into the
feminine soul, is “What does a
(SIGMUND FREUD, Ernest Jones' Sigmund Freud: Life
Bertrand Arthur William Russell was born at Trelleck on 18th
May, 1872. At the age of three he was left an orphan. His father
had wished him to be brought up as an agnostic. Instead of
being sent to school he was taught by governesses and tutors,
and acquired a perfect knowledge of French and German.
After spending some months in Berlin studying social
democracy, they went to live near Haslemere, where he
devoted his time to the study of philosophy.Then, visited the
Mathematical Congress at Paris. He was offered a post at
Harvard university, but was refused a passport.
Russell was a prominent anti-war activist; he championed anti-
imperialism and went to prison for his pacifism during World
War I.Later, he campaigned against Adolf Hitler.
•He was a British philosopher , mathematician and
pacifist . Russell as a writer and man continued the
family tradition in political thought and action,
with anti-war action .
•Considered one of the founders of analytic
philosophy along with his protégé Wittgenstein.
•One of his first projects was the Principia
•Other famous works: "Political Ideals", "History of
Philosophy." His text "Why I am not a Christian" was
a manifesto of atheism.
•In 1950 he was awarded the Nobel Prize.
In this volume Bertrand Russell outlines
the basic tenets of his political code.
Political Ideals is an important survey of
capitalism, socialism and the organisation
Political Ideals was written during the
World War One, but still significant to
every reader interested in the nature of
man's responsibilities and privileges as a
It is in many ways, a statement, of Bertrand
Russell's beliefs, a declaration of the
ideas that have influenced his thinking on
the major events of the twentieth century.
• Typical dislike towards any kind of
fanaticism is the statement: “There
will never die for my ideas ,because I
may have made a mistake ideas .
•“Fanaticism is the gravest danger
there is: I might almost say that I was
fanatical against fanaticism.”
•“The love and knowledge to push up
into the heavens , but always pity to
return to the earth . Screams of pain
echoed in my heart hungry children ,
victims tortured old man who were left
helpless . I long to alleviate the pain ,
but I can not and so , and I suffer .”
Russell's activism against British participation
in World War I led to fines, a loss of freedom
of travel within Britain and he that he had
interfered in British foreign politic was
eventually sentenced to prison in 1918 on the
tenuous grounds but was still closely
supervised until the end of the war.
In 1958, Russell became the first president of
the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. He
resigned two years later and formed the
Committee of 100.
In 1955, Russell released the Russell-Einstein
Manifesto, co-signed by Albert Einstein and nine
other leading scientists, a document which led to the
first of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and
World Affairs in 1957.
The Russell–Einstein Manifesto was issued in
London on 9 July 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the
midst of the Cold War. It highlighted the dangers
posed by nuclear weapons and called for world
leaders to seek peaceful resolutions to international
The Bertrand Russell Peace
Foundation was established in 1963. The
foundation aims to continue the work of
the philosopher and activist Bertrand
Russell in the areas of peace, social
justice, and human rights, with a specific
focus on the dangers of nuclear war. Its
director was Ken Coates.
Spokesman Books is the publishing
imprint of the Bertrand Russell Peace
Foundation and publishes books on
politics, peace and disarmament, and
Russell died of influenza on 2 February 1970
at his home in Wales.
In 1980 a memorial to Russell was
commissioned by a committee. It consists of
a bust of Russell in Red Lion Square in
He was born in 15 of October 1844 grew up in a small town in
Prussia and his parents where Carl Ludwig Nietzsche and
Franziska Oehler, he also had a younger sister Elizabeth and
An insident that affected him was his fathers deathe in 1849 and
his brothers a year after
He attended a boys' school and thena private
school. Τhere he learned Greek Latin Hebrew
and French and was also was composing
music and poems
He began his studies in theology and classical
philology at the university of Bonn at 1864
and he was offered to teach as a professor
before completing his doctorate which he
Nietzche was mostly affected by the work of
philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer.
Other affections may come from David
Strauss‟s Life of Jesus, his professor Friedrich
Wilhelm Ritschl and his friend Erwin Rohde as
well as Richard Wagner
The major part of his work concearn morals
and how it was formed through the ages.
He is mostly known about his ideas about the
Death of God, the superman, the eternal
reccurence and The will to power
God is dead. God remains dead. And we have
killed him. Yet his shadow still looms. How shall
we comfort ourselves, the murderers of all
This statement may be a proof of the
philosophers atheistic belifs or as many say a
better understanding of divinity after his
observations that God not as a person but as
values and morals has being “killed” by people
of the West
According to Lampert, "the death of God must be
followed by a long twilight of piety and nihilism.
Zarathustra's gift of the overman is given to a
mankind not aware of the problem to which the
overman is the solution.“
The overman is to man as is man to ape
The overman is the complete opposite of the
Last man (one that takes no risks and lives in
complete comfort, something that the
A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical
outlook and is an indication of his deep
understanding of human behavior
According to Nietzsche human behavior is
defined mostly by their need to prove and
exert their strength rather than the need to
With this notion he rejected many concepts
of other philosophers such as Schopenhauer's
This is the concept which Nietzsche himself
believes is the most important of his ideas.
It is the idea that the universe has been
recurring, and will continue to recur, in a
self-similar form an infinite number of times
across infinite time or space
He has affected mankind in a different and
not completely good way and has been a
philosopher analyzed by many mostly over
the last few decades.
People of the 20th century that
have affected the
Herbert Marcuse (1898–1979) was
one of the most prominent
members of the Frankfurt School
or The Institute for Social
Research in Frankfurt am Main.
The Frankfurt School was formed
in 1922 but went into exile in the
United States in the early 1930s
during the reign of the Third
Reich. Although most of his
colleagues returned to Germany
after the World War Two,
Marcuse remained in the United
Herbert Marcuse was born on July 19, 1898 in Berlin.
Marcuse studied at the universities of Berlin and Freiburg.
He was a prominent figure in the Frankfurt-based Institute
for Social Research - what later became known as the
In 1916 Marcuse was called to military duty. It was in the
military where his political education began, although
during this period his political involvement was brief. The
experience of war and the German Revolution led Marcuse
to a study of Marxism as he tried to understand “the
dynamics of capitalism and imperialism, as well as the
failure of the German Revolution” .
Great Refusal, the
end of Utopia,
work as free play,
The bookends of Marcuse's literary,
philosophical, and political life are both works
on aesthetics. In 1922 he completed a doctoral
dissertation entitled Der deutsche
Künstlerroman (The German Artist-Novel). One
year before his death he published The Aesthetic
Dimension: Toward A Critique of Marxist
Celebrated as the "Father of the New Left", his
best known works are Eros and Civilization
(1955) and One-Dimensional Man (1964). His
Marxist scholarship inspired many radical
intellectuals and political activists in the 1960s
and '70s, both in the U.S. and internationally.
•The work offers a wide-ranging critique of both
contemporary capitalism and the Communist society of the
Soviet Union, documenting the parallel rise of new forms
of social repression in both these societies, as well as the
decline of revolutionary potential in the West. Marcuse
argues that "advanced industrial society" created false
needs, which integrated individuals into the existing
system of production and consumption via mass media,
advertising, industrial management, and contemporary
modes of thought.
•This results in a "one-dimensional" universe of thought and
behaviour, in which aptitude and ability for critical thought
and oppositional behaviour wither away. Against this
Herbert Marcuse died in July 29,1979.
His works that he left was:
Hegel's Ontology and Theory of Historicity (1932) originally written
Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory (1941).
Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud (1955).
Soviet Marxism: A Critical Analysis (1958)
One-Dimensional Man (1964).
A Critique of Pure Tolerance (1965) Written with Robert Paul Wolff
and Barrington Moore, Jr.
Negations: Essays in Critical Theory (1968)
An Essay on Liberation (1969)
Counterrevolution and Revolt (1972)
The Aesthetic Dimension: Toward a Critique of Marxist Aesthetics
Five Lectures (1969)
Albert Einstein‟s Life
"Any intelligent fool can make things bigger,
more complex, and more violent. It takes a
touch of genius -- and a lot of courage -- to
move in the opposite direction."
Albert was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, in the
Albert was a typical boy in elementary school with
difficulties in his speech, yet he was the top student.
His curiosity began when his father showed him a
pocket compass and thought “There must be
something in there that causes the needle to spin
besides the “empty space”.”
Einstein built models and mechanical devices just for
fun which showed his mathematical skills.
When his fathers company failed in 1894, his
family moved to different places.
He then decided to stay in Munich to finish his
His father intended for him to pursue in
When Einstein joined his family in Pavia, he
wrote his first scientific work The
Investigation of the State of Aether in
Einstein finished secondary school at age 17.
Einstein met Mileva Marić the same year he enrolled at the
Polytechnic. Over the years their friendship developed into
In early 1902, They had a daughter named Lieserl.
A year later, Einstein and Mileva married.
They then had two sons names Hans Albert and Eduard.
After 16 years of marriage Einstein and Marić divorced for
the reason that they had been living their lives apart for 5
Einstein remarried a couple months later with Elsa
Lowenthal. They both immigrated to the United States.
She then died in 1936.
After completing his thesis with Alfred Kleiner, Albert was
awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich.
That same year, in 1905 Albert published 4 “Annus Mirabilis”
papers which were on the photoelectric effect, Brownian
motion, special relativity, and the equivalence of matter
and energy. These papers introduced him to his academic
Three years later, he was recognized as a leading scientist
and became a professor.
Einstein was forced to leave Germany and
enter the U.S due to the new Chancellor,
Albert had never felt so Jewish in his life.
Other scientists emigrated to the United
Before the beginning of World War II, Albert
was forced to write a letter to the president
of the United States, to inform him about
Hitler‟s plans in developing an atomic bomb.
The letter gave Franklin D. Roosevelt the idea
to join the race on building bombs.
On April 17, 1955 Albert suffered from internal
bleeding caused by the rupture of an
abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Albert did not want surgery and said “I want to
go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life
artificially. I have done my share, it is time
to go. I will do it elegantly.”
Einstein died at the age of 76. He was having
to work until the last day of his life.
During the autopsy, the pathologist removed
Einstein‟s brain without the permission of his
family in hope that neuroscience of the
future will be able to figure out why Albert
Einstein was so intelligent.
Albert Einstein Theories
Produced 4 revolutionary papers
1. Particle Nature: Nature of light can be explained
through math (contradicts prior beliefs)
2. Brownian Motion: explained random movements of
particles to prove existence of atoms
3. Electro Dynamics: Simultaneity is impossible and space
and time are relative led to theory of Relativity
4. Mass & Energy equivalence: Shows that mass can be
converted into energy E=mc2
Theory of Special relativity said that in
certain situations space and time are
This contradicted many beliefs and led
many people to question their beliefs in the
universe and god
General Relativity states that gravity
distorts spacetime mathematically his
theories were correct needed proof used
pictures of an eclipse to show that light is
bent by gravity proves anywhere that
gravity is space and time are relative shakes
peoples belief in universe and god even
Einstein motivated many Scientists including
Bohr was motivated by Einstein to study
atoms and radiation
1920: Discovered that the movement of
electrons was completely random
Made people disbelieve in god because
certain things in life were by chance
Einstein wanted to connect the
electromagnetic field and gravitational field
to prove this was supposed to disprove Bohr
Showed Einstein was getting older he
wanted to keep physics the way they were
no sudden changes because it did not agree
with his belief in god
1939: Einstein was convinced by European researchers
that his theory of mass energy equivalence could lead to
the creation of high powered explosions
Einstein wrote to president Roosevelt to warn him about
This began the Manhattan project which was responsible
for researching the destructive power of splitting atoms
Einstein was not hired because he was a possible security
risk but did solve some equations for the project
Imagination is more important than knowledge.
The only reason for time is so that everything doesn't
happen at once.
Everything should be as simple as possible, but not
The world is a dangerous place to live;not because of
the people who are evil, but because of the people
who don’t do anything about it.
A person who never made a mistake never tried
I fear the day that technology will surpass our human
interaction. The world will have a generation of
Einstein was the most influential scientist of
modern time and possibly ever
Although his theories are difficult for the
common person to understand the concepts
and results of his theories changed the
course of world history
Tim Burton is an
American film director.
He use comedy in order to
Many of his films are
based on his drawings and
his experiences of his
Burton start making short films
in his backyard on Evergreen
Street using crude stop motion
animation techniques or shoot
them on 8mm film without sound
(one of his oldest know juvenile
films is The Island of Doctor
Agor , which he made when he
was 13 years old).
He has direct 30 movies and 7
stop motion films without
Often does the beginning
credits sequence with the
camera going through
something or following
He often likes to open his
films with a quiet nighttime
Fathers are portrayed in a negative
light in his films. Whether they be
dead (Batman(1989)), purposely
ditched their children (Batman
Returns(1992)), the main characters
have remorse against them because of
bad childhood memories (Sleepy
Hollow(1999),Charlie and the
Chocolate Factory (2005), or weren't
there while their child was growing
up (Sweeney Tood: The Demon Barber
Characters often wear striped
clothing, particularly black-and-
white stripes (for example,
Beetlejuice, Sweeney and Mrs.
Lovett in "Sweeney Todd", Katrina
in "Sleepy Hollow", and
Tweedledum and Tweedledee in
"Alice in Wonderland").
Often shows factory assembly
line sequences (e.g. Edward
and the Chocolate Factory
(2005) and 9 (2009)).
His films often have a
Gothic feel to them, often
including Christmas and/or
Plot often focuses around a
Frequently uses composer
Frequently features dead
or dismembered dogs
Many of his films feature
distrust the lead
Obsession with horror
actors: he makes movies
(Vincent (1982), Ed Wood
(1994)), or he actually
casts them in his films ).
Often shows scarecrows in
His movies always opens
with a personal version of
the studio's logo
Usually includes fantasy
elements in his films
Most his films tend to be
either dark or colorful,
and sometimes contain
scenes of both.
Affectionate homages to
the films of his childhood
Long unwashed hair, black
clothing and large
His characters are often
friendly and optimistic
despite their bleak
Effective use of musical
Extremely dark Gothic
atmosphere in buildings
and set design
Many of his films
castles, churches or other
His stories are often set in
non specific locations and
incorporate elements from
Britain and America
His antagonists are often
coldly superior, brutal and
thuggish but avoid getting
noticed by other
His heroes are often
cowardly and bizarre yet
also intelligent and highly
Jeffrey Jones, Paul
Reubens, Glenn Shadix, Michael
Keaton, Lisa Marie,Johnny
Depp, Helena Bonham
Carter, Michael Gough, Deep
Roy and Christopher Lee.
Tim Burton’s most famous
* Beetlejuice (1988)
* Batman (1989)
* Edward Scissorhands (1990)
*The Nightmare before
* Ed Wood (1994)
* Sleepy Hollow (1999)
* Big Fish (2003)
* Charlie and the Chocolate
* Sweeney Todd: The Demon
Barber of Fleet Street
Timothy Walter Burton was born in 1958, in the city of Burbank,
His mother is Jean Burton, the owner of a cat-themed gift shop, and his
father is Bill Burton, a former minor league baseball player. He also has
a younger brother( whom used him as his actor on his first short film)
Burton studied at Burbank High School, but he was not a particularly good
He was a very introspective person, and found his pleasure in painting,
drawing and watching films. His future work would be heavily influenced
by the works of such childhood heroes as Dr. Seuss and Roald Dahl.
After graduating from Burbank High School with Jeff
Riekenberg, Burton attended the California Institute of the
Arts to study character animation. Some of his classmates
were John Lasseter, Nancy Beiman, Brad Bird, John Musker
and Henry Selick. (In the future, Selick and Burton would work
together in The Nightmare Before Christmas and James and
the Giant Peach.)
As a student in CalArts, Burton made the shorts Stalk of the
Celery Monster and King and Octopus. They remain only in
Early career: 1980s
Burton graduated from CalArts in Santa Clarita, California in
1979. The success of his short film Stalk of the Celery Monster
attracted the attention of Walt Disney Productions' animation
studio, who offered young Burton an animator's apprenticeship
at their studio. He worked as an animator, storyboard artist
and concept artist on films such as The Fox and the Hound,
The Black Cauldron and Tron.
However, Burton's personal style clashed with Disney's
standards, and he longed to work on solo projects.
While at Disney in 1982, Burton made his first short,
Vincent, a six-minute black-and-white stop motion film
based on a poem written by the filmmaker, and depicting
a young boy who fantasizes that he is his hero Vincent
Price, with Price himself providing narration. The film
was produced by Rick Heinrichs, whom Burton had
befriended while working in the concept art department
at Disney. The film was shown at the Chicago Film
Festival and released, alongside the teen drama Tex, for
two weeks in one Los Angeles cinema.
In 2009, the short went on display in the Museum of
Modern Art, and in 2011 the short also played at the Tim
Burton art exhibit at the LACMA.
Burton's next live-action short, Frankenweenie, was
released in 1984. It tells the story of a young boy who
tries to revive his dog after it is run over by a car. After
Frankenweenie was completed, Disney fired Burton,
under the pretext of him spending the company's
resources on doing a film that would be too dark and
scary for children to see.
Pursuing then an opportunity to make a full-length film, he was
approached by Griffin Dunne to direct the black comedy film
After Hours. However, after Martin Scorsese's project The Last
Temptation of Christ was cancelled (although it would later be
completed and released in 1988), he showed an interest in
directing it. Respectfully, Burton bowed out.
Burton reunited with Johnny Depp on the film Ed
Wood (1994). From that moment Johnny Depp and Burton
will work together many times (Edward Scissorhands , The
Nightmare before Christmas , Sleepy Hollow Charlie and
the Chocolate Factory e.t.c )
While on the set of Planet of the Apes (2001),
Burton met Helena Bonham Carter, to whom
he is now currently engaged and has a son
His early film career was
fueled by almost unbelievable
good luck, but it's his talent
and originality that have kept
him at the top of the
• He has 16 wins ((Best Feature
for "Corpse Bride"
Corpse Bride (2005) on British
Animation Awards etc.))
• and 40 nominations ((Best
Frankenweenie (2012) , Best
Animated Feature Film of the Year
Corpse Bride (2005) on the
Academy Awards, USA etc )).
"I remember when I was younger, I had these
two windows in my room, nice windows that
looked out onto the lawn, and for some
reason my parents walled them up and gave
me this little slit window that I had to climb
up on a desk to see out of. To this day I
never asked them why; I should ask them.“
"Nobody had his style. That's something I try
to do in my films. You have your own kind of
cryptic messages in there - cryptic things
that most people wouldn't understand but
are important to you. Things that kind of
keep you going through the process."
"There was one moment, and it happened in
school. I had a big final exam--we were
supposed to write a 20-page report on this
book about Houdini [Harry Houdini]. I
probably would have loved reading it, but I
didn't, so I just decided to make a little
super-8 movie based on it. I tied myself to
the railroad tracks and all that. I mean, this
is kid stuff, but it impressed the teacher,
and I got an A. And that was maybe my first
turning point, when I said, 'Yeah, I wouldn't
mind being a filmmaker.' "
Did you know
that Burton use
to draw Edward
sinse he was 16
will be the
one, on his
He made silent and black and white films.
Because of his sad childhood , he tried (and achieved) to make films with happy ending no matter how difficult the situation for the hero was .
His films always takes place in a society of poverty and sadness.
He was known worldwide by the nickname
Charlie and in Greece as „„Charlot‟‟.
He was an English actor and director who
created his masterpieces in the first decades of
Charles also was the script writer and the
director in his movies.
Because of his movies modern times and great
dictator was categorized as one of the most
important creators of the seventh art.
The Great Dictator
He was born in London, England.
Both of his parents were artists Music Hall
called Charles Chaplin and Hannah Harriet
His father was an alcoholic and one year
after Charles was born, he abandoned his
He had miserable childhood. Due to his mother‟s
sickness and consequently her resignation from her
work, they were made to move out continuously
and live under bleak conditions.
A few years later, his mother was transferred into a
psychiatric clinic and her two children into an
orphanage from which they had their worst
His first contact with the art was in the age
of five when he replaced his sick mother for
a show. He sang a famous song in a funny
way, receiving an enormous applause.
Later, he became a member of a troupe.
I suppose that‟s one of the ironies of life
doing the wrong thing at the right time.
We think too much and feel too little.
I have many problems in my life . But my lips
don‟t know that , they always smile !
My pain may be the reason for somebody‟s laugh.
But my laugh must never be the reason for
Life is a magnificent thing, even to a jellyfish…The
trouble is you won‟t fight . You‟ve given up. But
there‟s something just as inevitable as death. And
that‟s life. Think of the power of universe turning
the Earth, growing the trees. That‟s the same
power within you , if you‟ll only have the courage
and the will to use it!
‘‘ You need power only when you want to do
something harmful , otherwise love is
enough to get everything done.’’
We all wonder why Charlie was dressed in this strange
and at the same time funny way.
The answer is that once his boss said to him : „„ We
need something funny . Find a suit for a comedy ,
whatever you want.‟‟
And then, he ran to his dress department which he
shared with several other comedians and started looking
their closets. He took from each of them something.
Finally, he got a piece of black cloth and stuck it as
In an interview he said : ‘‘
I had no idea of the
character . But the
moment I was dressed ,
the clothes and the make-
up made me feel the
person he was. I began to
know him , and by the
time I walked onto the
stage he was fully born.’’
The first time that Charlie got
an Oscar he won the longest
applause of the history of the
awards . Total ,he won four
Oscars and other nineteen
In the early morning of Christmas 1977,
Charlie Chaplin died in his sleep. He was 88
After his death, the director Rene Clair
wrote : „„He was a monument of the cinema,
of all countries and of all times…the most
beautiful gift the cinema made to us.‟‟
However , how many years go by, Charles will
always have a special place in our hearts. He will
teach us again and again that even the poverty, the
misery can not make us stop hoping and dreaming
of a better tomorrow.
Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock was an English film
director and producer.
He pioneered many techniques in the suspense and
psychological thriller genres.
After a successful career in British cinema in both
silent films and early talkies, renowned as England's
best director, Hitchcock moved to Hollywood in
1939 and became a U.S. citizen in 1955.
Over a career spanning more than six decades,
Hitchcock directed more than fifty films.
He pioneered the use of a camera made to move in a
way that mimics a person's gaze, forcing viewers to
engage in a form of voyeurism.
He framed shots to maximise anxiety, fear, or
empathy, and used innovative film editing.
His stories often feature fugitives on the run from
the law alongside "icy blonde" female characters.
Many of Hitchcock's films have twist endings and
thrilling plots featuring depictions of violence,
murder, and crime.
Hitchcock's films also borrow many themes from
He likes to insert shots of a woman's hairstyle,
frequently in close-ups.
Often a plot device as a hiding place.
He was the first director who showed the flushing
of a toilet
It is a plot device in the form of a desired object
that the protagonist pursues. The most common type
of MacGuffin is an object such as papers or money.
The most famous actresses in his filmography were
Cameo (= A crew member of a movie playing a
Hitchcock often has a quick cameo in his films. He
made a live cameo appearance in 39 of his 52
surviving major films, beginning with The Lady
Fans would make sport of trying to spot his cameos.
He eventually began making his appearances within
the first half-hour of
his films because he knew viewers were watching for
him and he didn't want to divert their attention away
from the story's plot.
Hitchcock’s most famous movies are:
The man who knew too much (1934,1956)
The 39 steps (1935)
The lady vanishes (1938)
The birds (1963)
He was born in 1899 in England.
His father was a green grocer called William
Hitchcock and his mother was Emma Jane
Whelan. He had two older siblings, William and
He grew up in a very strict Roman Catholic
family. He attended St. Ignatius College and a
school for engineering and navigation.
He often described a lonely and sheltered
childhood worsened by his obesity.
In 1914, when he was 15 years old, his father
In the same year, he left St. Ignatius to study at
the London County Council School of
Engineering and Navigation.
During the First World War, Hitchcock was
rejected for military service because of his
In 1920s , Hitchcock joined the film industry.
He started off drawing the sets (he was a very
His first directing project came in 1922
titled Number 13 but due to financial problems the
production was cancelled.
In 1926, Hitchcock directed his first thriller,
The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog.
The film, released in January 1927, was a major
commercial and critical success in the United
Following the success of The Lodger, Hitchcock
hired a publicist to help strengthen his growing
In 1933, Hitchcock was working at Gaumont-British
His first film for the company, The Man Who Knew
Too Much (1934), was a success and his second, The
39 Steps (1935), is often considered one of the best
films from his early period.
On December of 1926, Hitchcock married his
assistant director, Alma Reville, in South
Their only child, daughter Patricia, was born on
July 1928. Alma was to become Hitchcock's closest
By the end of the 1930s Hitchcock's reputation was
beginning to soar overseas, with a New York
Times feature writer stating:
"Three unique and valuable institutions the British
have that we in America have not.
Magna Carta, the Tower Bridge and Alfred
Hitchcock, the greatest director of screen
melodramas in the world"
In March 1939, Hitchcock signed a seven-year
contract moved to Hollywood with his family.
In 1940, he made his first American movie,
Rebecca, based on a british novel.
The film won the Academy Award for Best Picture of
Hitchcock's films during the 1940s were
diverse, ranging from the romantic comedy
Mr. & Mrs. Smith (1941) to the courtroom
drama The Paradine Case (1947) and the
dark and disturbing film noir Shadow of a
In 1955, Hitchcock became a United States citizen.
The film, To Catch a Thief (1955) was Hitchcock's
last film starring Grace Kelly.
In 1956, she married Prince Rainer of Monaco, and
the residents of her new land were against her
making any more films.
Hitchcock successfully remade his own
film The Man Who Knew Too Much in 1956.
This time, the film starred Doris Day, who
sang the theme song, "Que Sera, Sera", which
won the Oscar for Best Original Song and
became a big hit for her.
Psycho is almost certainly Hitchcock's best-known
Psycho was shot in black-and-white on a spare set
and it was the most profitable film of Hitchcock's
career, earning $15 million by the end of the first
The public loved the film, with lines stretching
outside of theatres as people had to wait for the
It broke box-office records in China and the rest
of Asia, France, Britain, South America and
the United States.
The unprecedented violence of the
shower scene, the early death of the
heroine and the innocent lives
extinguished by a disturbed murderer
became the defining hallmarks of
Hitchcock's new horror movie genre
and have been copied by many
authors of subsequent horror films.
Hitchcock died in his Bel Air home of renal
failure on April 1980.
Hitchcock's funeral was held at a Catholic Church
in Beverly Hills, after which his body
was cremated and his remains were scattered over
the Pacific Ocean.
Hitchcock was a multiple nominee and winner of a
number of prestigious awards, receiving two Golden
Globes, eight Laurel Awards and five lifetime
He had also been nominated five times for, albeit
never winning, an Academy Award as Best Director.
His film Rebecca was nominated for 11 Oscars.
In addition to these, Hitchcock received
a knighthood in 1980 by Queen Elizabeth II
Variety magazine referred to him as, "probably the
best native director in England."
Hitchcock's innovations and vision have influenced a
great number of filmmakers, producers, and actors.
The magazine MovieMaker has described him as
the most influential filmmaker of all time, and he is
widely regarded as one of cinema's most significant
1st High School of Aegina
Team: Death deities
School Year: 2013-2014
Members: With the great director Alexandra Tantaoui, and guest
star Eleftheria Klimantiri, Daria Montina starring Froso Lalioti
Astérix) is a fictional
character, the titular
hero of the French
comic book series
The Adventures of
Created by Max
and film maker
responsible for a
Betty Boop is an
the Talkartoon an
d Betty Boop
series of films
produced by Max
She was a hit
due to her
created in the
1930’s, she is
today for that
First female flapper cartoon
ever First appearance: August 9 ,1930 in the cartoon
#the sixth installment
Helen Kane, a
In keeping with common
practice, Natwick made his
new character an animal, in
this case, a French poodle
Beginning with this cartoon, the
character's voice was performed by
several different voice actresses
until Mae Questel got the role, in
1931, and kept it for the rest of the
Natwick himself later
conceded that Betty's
original look was quite
ugly. The animator
redesigned her in 1932
to be recognizably
human in the
cartoon Any Rags
She was not
Boop" until the
short Stopping the
Show that same
This was also the first cartoon to
be officially part of the Betty
Boop series and not
first cartoon character to fully represent a sexual
Revealed her sexuality in contrast with other female
She wore short dresses and a garter belt
Her breasts were prominent, and she showed her
In her cartoons, other characters try to
sneak peeks at her while she's changing
the animators made sure to keep the character
"pure" and girl-like (officially, she was only 16 years
As Betty tells Koko the Clown in the film Boop-
Oop-A-Doop after being threatened by a salacious
ringmaster, "He couldn't take my boop-oop-a-
The adult sensibilities of Betty's cartoons made her a hit, and a wave of
merchandising soon swept the world. Meanwhile, Helen Kane, who had
inspired the character in 1930, sued the Fleischer studio in 1934 for
allegedly stealing her trademark look, dancing and singing style, and
catchphrase. Kane lost the suit (and her boop-oop-a-doop) when the
Fleischers proved that the phrase had been used by other performers
In the end,
1934 forced her
to wear a longer
skirt and less
Betty was no
longer a flapper;
she was a
housewife with a
little dog named
The animators struggled to keep Betty's cartoons interesting
by pairing her with popular comic strip characters, but none
of these films were very successful (though one such pairing
did propel Popeye into stardom of his own). Betty's cartoon
career came to an end, at least temporarily, in 1939
A Betty Boop comic strip by Max Fleischer was
syndicated from 1934 through 1937. From 1984
through 1987, another strip, Betty Boop and
Friends was produced by Brian Walker, Ned
Walker, Greg Walker, and Morgan Walker
The Little Mermaid (Ariel)
Ariel is the title character of Walt Disney Pictures' 28th animated film
The Little Mermaid (1989).Ariel has a very distinctive appearance,
with her long, flowing, bright red hair, aqua blue eyes, green
mermaid tail and a lavender seashell bra.
. In the films and television series, she is the seventh-born daughter of
King Triton and Queen Athena of an underwater kingdom of Merfolk.
She is often rebellious, and in the first film longs to be a part of the
human world. She marries Prince Eric, whom she rescued from a
shipwreck, and together they have a daughter, Melody.
The character is based on the title character of Hans Christian Andersen's "The
Little Mermaid" story, but was developed into a different personality for the 1989
animated film adaptation.
Hans Christian Andersen was born in the town of Odense, Denmark, on Tuesday, April 2,
1805. He was an only child. Andersen's father, also Hans, considered himself related to
nobility. His paternal grandmother had told his father that their family had in the past
belonged to a higher social class, but investigations prove these stories unfounded.
Ariel is the youngest
daughter of King
Triton and Queen
Athena, rulers of
Atlantica, and has six
older sisters. She is
often seen in the
Flounder, her best
father's advisor who
is often assigned to
watch over her. In
the television series
and first film, Ariel
has a fascination
with the human
world and often goes
off to find human
artifacts that she
displays in a secret
Ariel is often rebellious,
wandering off on her
own to explore her
frequently disobeys the
orders of her father or
conflict between the
characters. In The Little
Mermaid she is
depicted as being
willing to do anything
to be with Prince Eric,
even giving up her voice
to become human.
Clements described her
as a typical teenager,
prone to errors of
judgment. She also is
incredibly curious, and
her curiosity often leads
her into dangerous
Ariel is kind to others no matter what their circumstances, as
depicted in the television series. In an early episode, Ariel
helps an orphaned merboy who had fallen in with a bad
crowd. In another episode, Ariel befriends a supposed bad-
luck creature and protects it from Ursula and other merfolk
who wish it harm.
Ariel appears as an adult in Return to the Sea, and gives birth to a daughter named
Melody. Ariel is protective of her daughter, as Triton was of Ariel in the first film.
After Morgana threatens Melody, Ariel refuses to let Melody in the ocean. Ariel's
Beginning depicts her personality as it was in the original film, after Jodi Benson had
advocated returning the character to her roots. Ariel is once again rebellious, and
after her father decrees music to be banned in Atlantica she runs away with
Sebastian and his band.
FIGURES THAT AFFECTED THE CURRENT WESTERN CULTURE
COCO CHANEL SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR
• Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel was born in 1883.Chanel was born into
poverty in Saumur, France, and was taught to sew by the Catholic nuns who
raised her from the age of twelve. As a young woman, singing cabaret,
making dresses, she was possessed of an unusual, extreme confidence—a
quality that, no doubt, was key to the success she later enjoyed and the
triumphs she celebrated over competitors. As she confided to her friend
Paul Morand, the short-story writer, “Arrogance is in everything I do. It is in
my gestures, the harshness of my voice, in the glow of my gaze, in my
sinewy, tormented face.” She grew fond of inventing stories that glossed
over the less glamorous truths about her childhood. Yes, she was a
notorious fabulist—but the stories she spun seemed to become reality as
she rose to the pinnacle of fashionable society. . Her designs were
unfussed, sometimes deceptively so, and the woman was as enigmatic as
her work. She never married, but she was often on the arm of powerful,
handsome, wealthy men, who helped her finance early efforts and guided
the cultivation of important relationships, particularly during World War I.
Coco Chanel dies in 1971, having worked furiously to finish her latest
couture collection, which is staged two weeks later. The ivory tweed suits
and white evening dresses are met with a standing ovation.
Contribution to Femininity Through Fashion
• “I freed the body,” Coco Chanel once declared. And she did indeed, she created a new look
for women in the 20th century, creating clothes that were primarily comfortable with a snip
of her scissors and the use of liberating fabrics like jersey, revolutionize the way women
dress. In fact, Mademoiselle practically invented modernism in fashion. More than a
century after she began to design clothes, Chanel continues to loom large in the public
imagination, and in imitators‟ ateliers.
• Women could move and see the world in her clothes. “If you spoke to her of Christian Dior,
she would say, „What are you going to do with a coat that takes up an entire suitcase?”.
• Chanel came of age as a designer during the Great War, and during this period of
economic contraction her pared-down sensibility and use of economical fabrics seem to
distill not just what women wanted but what they needed. She tossed out the
overembellishment of Belle Époque fashion that stifled the body. Gone were corsets, too.
Chanel and the women who wore her work reveled in its chic simplicity. She was the first to
borrow from the boys, a concept that continues to be modern today.
• The seamlessness between clothing and feminism might indeed be what made Chanel
designs so desirable and so timeless. But the potently quotable, ever-confident Chanel
remarked on her legacy the best: “I created the most well-known style in the world,” she
said, “because fashion is ephemeral, but style is eternal.”
Chanel's Impact on the Fashion World
• As an individual, Coco is regarded as a genius and fashion icon. Coco is not
remembered for being the nicest woman in history, but she is remarkable due to her
immense creativity as a designer, and keen expertise in business.
• Many people can create "trendy" fashion. But every designer cannot create
innovative fashion with timeless appeal. As a dominant force in the fashion industry
Coco Chanel knew how to create a masterpiece. Her simple quote, "Fashion fades,
only style remains the same," captures the true essence of how she opted to
approach her career as a designer.
• During the twentieth century, by shrewdly employing every resource available to her,
Coco Gabrielle Bonheur, rose to prominence as a businesswoman, defining herself
as a foremost designer, who created the ultimate luxury brand -- CHANEL. Her brand
and legacy continue to live on in fashion today.
Born: 9 January 1908
Paris , France
Died: 14, April 1986
(aged 78) Paris,
philosopher, a public
activist and a social and
SBeauvoir began her
education in the
school for girls, the
Institut Adeline Désir
where she remained
until the age of 17.
It was here that she
met Elizabeth Mabille
(Zaza), with whom she
shared an intimate and
until ZaZa‟s untimely
death in 1929.
•Beauvoir passed the
baccalauréat exams in
mathematics and philosophy in
mathematics at the
Institut Catholique .
• She then studied
languages at the
passing exams in 1926
for Certificates of
Higher Studies in French
literature and Latin,
before beginning her
•Studying philosophy at the
Sorbonne, Beauvoir passed
exams for :
•Certificates in History of
• General Philosophy,
•Greek and Logic in 1927,
•Ethics in 1928,
Leibniz (German rationalist
philosopher) Léon Brunschvig and
completed her practice teaching at
the lycée Janson-de-Sailly with
fellow students, Merleau-Ponty and
Claude Lévi-Strauss – with both of
whom she remained in philosophical
dialogue.•In 1929, she took second
place in the highly
agrégation exam(a civil
examination for some
positions in the public
education system), beating
Paul Nizan and Jean
Hyppolite and barely
losing to Jean Paul-Sartre
who took first (it was his
•Although she was not an
official student, Beauvoir
attended lectures and sat
for the agrégation at the
At 21 years of age, Beauvoir was the youngest student ever to pass the agrégation in philosophy and thus became the youngest philosophy teacher
•At 21 years of age,
Beauvoir was the
ever to pass the
philosophy and thus
became the youngest
philosophy teacher in
LIFE•Simone de Beauvoir was a
child from the beginning.
•In addition to her own
zeal was also nourished
by her father who
provided her with
selections from the great
works of literature and
who encouraged her to
read and write from an
•Beauvoir always wanted
to be a writer and a
teacher, rather than a
mother and a wife and
•Beauvoir had been a deeply religious
child as a result of her education and
her mother‟s training; however, at the
age of 14, she had a crisis of faith and
decided definitively that there was no
God . She remained an atheist until her
death. Her rejection of religion as
followed by her decision to pursue and
teach philosophy. Only once had she
considered marriage to her cousin,
Jacques Champigneulle. She never again
entertained the possibility of marriage,
instead preferring to live the life of an
One of her greatest achievement
in life was her relationship with
the philosopher Jean -Paul Sartre
For the rest of their lives, they were
to remain “essential” lovers.
Although never marrying (despite
sartre‟s proposal in 1931), having
children together, or even living in
the same home, Sartre and Beauvoir
remained intellectual and romantic
partners until sartre‟s death in
The Second Sex, recognized as one of the hundred most
important works of the twentieth century and one of
her best-known books, it deals with the treatment of
women throughout history and is often regarded as a
•The main thesis of The Second Sex
revolves around the idea that woman has
been held in a relationship of long-
standing oppression to man through her
relegation to Being man‟s “other.”
•What Beauvoir discovers in her
multifaceted investigation into
woman‟s situation, is that woman is
consistently defined as the Other by
man who takes on the role of the Self.
•While it is natural for
humans to understand
themselves in opposition
to others, this process is
flawed when applied to
the genders. In defining
woman exclusively as
Other, man is effectively
denying her humanity.
•The book is divided into two major
•in Book i, entitled “facts and myths,”
she asks how “female humans” come to
occupy a subordinate position in society.
To answer this question and to better
understand her own identity de Beauvoir
first turns to biology, psychoanalysis,
and historical materialism.
De Beauvoir is careful to claim that
none of them is sufficient to explain
woman‟s definition as man‟s other or her
She then moves to history to trace the
emergence of male superiority in society,
from nomadic hunter-gatherers through
the French Revolution and contemporary
times. Here she states , two factors
The most philosophically rich
discussion of Book I comes in
Beauvoir‟s analysis of myths (third
There she tackles the way in which the preceding
analyses (biological, historical, psychoanalytic,
etc.) contribute to the formulation of the myth of
the “eternal feminine.” which incorporates
multiple myths of woman under it such as, the myth
of the mother, the virgin, the motherland, nature,
the married women , the prostitute and
demonstrates how these myths have imprinted
human consciousness, often to the disservice of
The second book , entitled “woman‟s life today
”Begins with Beauvoir‟s most famous assertion,
“one is not Born, But rather Becomes, a woman.”
The first section of Book II traces
the education of woman from her
childhood, through her
adolescence and finally to her
experiences of lesbianism and
sexual initiation (if she has any).Her goal is to prove that women
are not born “feminine” But
shaped by a thousand external
•woman‟s passivity and alienation are
explored in what Beauvoir entitles her
“situation and character” and her
“justifications.” Beauvoir studies the roles
of wife, mother, and prostitute to show
how women, instead of transcending
through work and creativity, are forced
into monotonous existences of having
children, tending house and being the
sexual receptacles of the male libido.
what she claims is that woman‟s
situation is not a result of her
character. Rather, her character is a
result of her situation.
For example her mediocrity, lack of
accomplishment, laziness, passivity-all
these qualities are the consequences of
her subordination, not the cause.
•at the last part called „‟toward
liBeration „‟ she emphasiZes the
fact that women need access to
the same kinds of activitie as men.
•She demands that women be
treated as equal to men and laws,
customs and education must be
altered to encourage this.
•She also supports a fundamental
existentialist belief which says
that, each individual, regardless
of sex, class or age, should be
encouraged to define him or
herself and to take on the
individual responsibility that
comes with freedom.
are is the result
of our choices, as
ourselves out of
society gives us.
we don ‟t only
create our own
values, we create
Beauvoir: That being a woman is not
a natural fact .it‟s the result of a
certain history .there is no
biological or psychological destiny
that defines a woman as such . She is
the product of a history of
civilization ,first of all, which has
resulted in her current status and
secondly for each individual woman
of her personal history ,in
particular ,that of her childhood.
This determines her as woman ,
creates in her something which is not
at all innate or an essence ,
something that has been called the
•De Beauvoir researched
and wrote the book in about
14 months when she was 38
years old .• Published in 1949 The
Second Sex remains to this
day one of the foundational
texts in philosophy,
feminism, and women‟s studies
Other works she is famous for:
1) Beauvoir was awarded the
Prix Goncourt prize in 1954
She Came to Stay (1943)
All Men are Mor
The Ethics of Ambiguity(1948)
The Coming of Age
Memoirs of a
The Prime of
A Very Easy Death, 1964
Letters to Sartr
Man is defined as a
human being and a
woman as a female -
whenever she behaves
as a human being she
is said to imitate the
Femininity is merely an acquired set of
characteristics that a woman learns necessarily
within the family and outside in society . It is
difficult to explain the extremity of this position
that denies the existence of other differences
between the sexes , except the purely physical -
biological . Feminism set purpose, and largely
succeeded , to rid the woman of the burden of social
prejudices about gender , which until then to make
subordinate to man physically and mentally and ,
therefore , dependent and subservient to him.
Today's women have almost dethrone the myth of
femininity and have finally believe they are the
same , equal with men empowering themselves .
AS A RESULT..
However while they enjoy the fruits of
emancipation they also struggle with all the
collateral damage : fatigue from trying to
assume many roles simultaneously , the
uncertainty and insecurity of the " male " world
, the "battle" with the other sex says no to an
end , the alienation of a part of themselves.
FIGURES THAT AFFECTED
THE NEWEST WESTERN
William Henry "Bill" Gates III (born October
28, 1955) is an American business
magnate, investor, programmer, nventor
Gates is the former chief executive and
current chairman of Microsoft, the world’s
software company, which he co-founded
with Paul Allen.
He is also known as the world’s richest
person for about the last 20 years being in
the Forbes list of the wealthiest people and
Bloomberg Billionaires list every year since
In the later stages of his career, Gates has
pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors,
donating large amounts of money to various
charitable organizations and scientific research
programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates
Foundation, established in 2000.
Gates stepped down as chief executive officer
of Microsoft in January 2000. He remained as
chairman and created the position of chief
software architect for himself.
In June 2006, Gates announced that he would
be transitioning from full-time work at
Microsoft to part-time work, and full-time work
at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation..
Today he remains at Microsoft as chairman.
2013 TOP 10 BILLIONAIRES
No. Name Net worth (USD) Age Citizenship Source(s) of wealth
1 Carlos Slim $73.0 billion 73 Mexico Telmex, América
Móvil, Grupo Carso
2 Bill Gates $67.0 billion 57 United States Microsoft
3 Amancio Ortega $57.0 billion 76 Spain Inditex Group
4 Warren Buffett $53.5 billion 82 United States Berkshire Hathaway
5 Larry Ellison $43.0 billion 68 United States Oracle Corporation
6 Charles Koch $34.0 billion 77 United States Koch Industries
7 David Koch $34.0 billion 72 United States Koch Industries
8 Li Ka-shing $31.0 billion 84 Hong
Cheung Kong Holdings
Bettencourt $30.0 billion 90 France L'Oréal
10 Bernard Arnault $29.0 billion 63 France
LVMH Moët Hennessy •
Gates comes from a family with a prominent
background as his father was a famous lawyer, his
mother served on the board of Directors For First
Intestate BancSystem and his maternal grandfather was
a national bank president.
At the age of 13 he enrolled in Lakeside School. an
exclusive preparatory school.
Finishing the Lakeside School in 1973, scoring 1590
out of 1600 on the SAT, he enrolled Harvard College.
However Gates dropped out of Harvard as his love
about computers could not let him focus on his studies.
HIS LOVE ABOUT COMPUTERS
Gates took his first interest in
programming when he was at he
Lakeside when he tried to program the
GE SYSTEM in BASIC and he was
excused from math classes to pursue his
At the of 13 created his first program
called tic-tac-toe a game which allows
players to play against the computer
At the age of 17 he formed a venture
with Allen called traf-o-Data with
which he earned 20.000$
After that program a number of others
followed especially at Harvard and in
this way the summer of 1974 Gates and
Allen decided to start their own
Microsoft was founded by Bill
Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975
to develop and
sell BASIC interpreters for Altair
It rose to dominate the personal
computer operating system market
with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s,
followed by the Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public
offering, and subsequent rise in its
share price, created an estimated three
billionaires and 12,000 millionaires
from Microsoft employees .
Since the 1990s, it has increasingly
diversified from the operating system
market and has made a number of
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (B&MGF or the Gates Foundation) is the
largest private foundation in the world, founded by Bill and Melinda Gates. It is
"driven by the interests and passions of the Gates family.“
The primary aims of the foundation are, globally, to enhance healthcare and
reduce extreme poverty, and in America, to expand educational opportunities
and access to information technology.
The foundation, based in Seattle, Washington, is controlled by its three
trustees: Bill Gates, Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett .
The Foundation has been organized, as of April 2006, into four divisions,
including core operations (public relations, finance and administration, human
resources, etc.),and three grant-making programs:
Global Health Program
(Fight aids, tuberculosis and malaria, HIV research ,children’s vaccine
Global Development Program
(financial services for the poor, agricultural development, etc)
United States Program
(libraries, education, schools, scholarships etc.)
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
In 2007, its founders were ranked as
the second most generous
philanthropists in America, and
Warren Buffett the first. As of May
16, 2013, Bill Gates had donated
US$28 billion to the foundation
The couple plans to eventually donate
95% of their wealth to charity.
on December 9, 2010, Gates,
investor Warren Buffett, and Mark
Zuckerberg (Facebook's CEO) signed
a promise they called the "Gates-
Buffet Giving Pledge", in which they
promised to donate to charity at least
half of their wealth over the course of
The Bill Gates, referring to the Foundation
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, he says
: Melinda and I , we talked about it, even before we married . In
my 40s , Microsoft was my primary activity .
The big change for me was when I decided to make my
Foundation primary purpose . It was a big change , although
there is more in common between the two than you can imagine .
To meet with scientists and to undertake difficult challenges
makes people skeptical about the outcome.
For the rest of my life , the Foundation will be one full-time
employment . We are still working part-time for Microsoft. I had
two careers and I'm lucky that both of them are quite spectacular
results . I loved the Microsoft. This prepared me for what I do now
In the same way that I saw the computer revolution and the
Internet, now I see child mortality rates to go down . I work long
hours and try to learn as much as I can about these issues ˙ but I
do this simply because I like it.
It is not related with any particular religion. It
has to do with human dignity and equality.
The golden rule is that all lives have equal
value and should treat people as we would
like to be treated.
Bill gates is admired by a number of people for his
career, his fortune and his luxury lifestyle
However he should be double admired for his
philanthropic work, his willing to offer to those who
are in need.
That is the real Bill Gates the human whose
example should followed by everyone.