A powerpoint presentation about human learning and second language acquisition. The information, facts and details in the powerpoint are not from me but from various authors of books as well as internet articles/resources.
Nature of Learning; Language Teaching & Learning; Theories of Learning
Learning:acquiring of knowledge of a subject or skill by study, experience, or instructiona relatively permanent change in a behavioral tendencythe result of reinforced practice
Summary of How People Learn:(Rita Smilkstein)Stage1: MOTIVATION/Responding to stimulus in theenvironment: watching,observing, having a need or aninterest in learning a particularskill or concept, being curious
Stage 2: BEGINNINGPRACTICE/Doing it: practicing;trying & making mistakes;learning from mistakes; askingquestions; consulting others;understanding the basics; takinglessons; achieving somesuccess
Stage 3: ADVANCEDPRACTICE/Increasing in skilland confidence: gaining somecontrol; reading; becomingencouraged; experimenting;trying new ways; achieving moresuccess; beginning to share skillwith others
Stage4: SKILLFULNESS/Becoming creative: morepracticing, doing it ones ownway, feeling good about oneself,receiving positivereinforcement, sharingknowledge with other, achievingmore success, increasing in self-confidence
Stage 6: MASTERY/Applyingskills in broader ways: taking ongreater challenges, teaching,continuing to improve or elsedropping the skill, going tohigher levels that feed otherinterests, getting better andbetter
Simple Forms:1. Habituation - the tendency to become familiar with a stimulus after repeated exposure to it
2. Sensitization - the increase that occurs in an organism’s responsiveness to stimuli following an especially intense or irritating stimulus
Influential Factors:1. Age Age-related illnesses that involve a deterioration of mental functioning can severely reduce a person’s ability to learn.
2. Motivation Learning is usually most efficient and rapid when the learner is motivated and attentive.
3. Prior Experience How well a person learns a new task may depend heavily on the person’s previous experience with similar tasks.
4. Intelligence People differ individually in their level of intelligence, and thus in their ability to learn and understand.
5. Learning Disorders A variety of disorders can interfere with a person’s ability to learn new skills and behaviors.
Nature of Language Learning: Learners are not ‘empty vessels’ ready to be filled with the teacher’s knowledge.
Learning is more effectivewhen the learners areinvolved in the process.
Nature of Language Teaching: The teacher’s job is to help learners to learn effectively, or to facilitate learning.
The best teachers have arange of techniquesavailable to them.
Teachers make decisions onwhat techniques to usebased from the followingquestions: Who are the learners? What are their needs? What are their expectations? What material and resources are available?
Approaches to LanguageLearning & Teaching:1. Grammar-translation Method It relies on the teacher having a fairly expert command of both the mother tongue of the students and of the target language.
2. Audio-lingual Approach The benefits of repetition are still intuitively recognised by many teachers today, and this element of the approach continues in many classrooms.
3. Functional Approach It refers to the defining of the communicative functions that learners are likely to want to engage in (making requests, agreeing, disagreeing, ordering a coffee and so on).
4. Natural Approach Associated to Stephen Krashen, it attempts to recreate as closely as possible the context in which infants learn their first language.
Classical Conditioning: developed by a Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) association is the key element
Schedule of Reinforcement:1. Fixed-ratio Schedule – a behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses have occurred
2. Variable-ratio Schedule Fixed – the number of responses needed to gain the reinforcement is not constant
3. Fixed-interval Schedule – a behavior will be reinforced after a certain period of time. No matter how often it occurs, the behavior will not be reinforced until the time is up
4. Variable-internal Schedule – also based on time passing but the time period keeps changing
Dangers of Punishment: Punishment can be abusive. Punishment may create a new problem, which is aggression.
Meaningful Learning: advanced by David Ausubel learned knowledge is fully under-stood by an individual and that the individual knows how that specific fact relates to other stored facts
Ideas about MeaningfulLearning Experience: occurs when learners actively interpret their experience using internal, cognitive operations requires that teachers change their role from sage to guide
the teacher’s role becomes one of stimulating and supporting activities that engage learners in thinkingteachers must also be comfortable that this thinking may transcend their own insights
requires knowledge to be constructed by the learner, not transmitted from the teacher to the student (Jonassen, et al., 1999)