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Classification of fungi

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Classification of fungi

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Classification of fungi

  1. 1. Classification of FungiJohn Patrick Carl R. Hermosura BSEd-lll Biology
  2. 2. Hierarchical Classification Kingdom Fungi Phylum Basidiomycota Class Basidiomycetes Order Agaricales Family Agaricaceae Genus Agaricus Species: Agaricus campestris L.
  3. 3. Zygomycota • Called the : Sporangium fungi • Commonly called : Molds • Hyphae doesn’t have septum (Aseptate) • Grow Rapidly • blights • Include Bread Molds/Rhizopus stolonifer
  4. 4. • They are mostly terrestial • decaying plant and animal material.
  5. 5. Pilobolus crytallinus • grows on herbivore feces and performs incredible feats of aerial acceleration. When these fungi mature, they grow bulbs that just keep building liquid pressure until they burst.
  6. 6. Blights The most common symptom is dark brown spots with dark concentric rings developing first on the oldest leaves. I guess this is why people refer it as "firing up" because the disease moves from the bottom up. Spotted leaves may die prematurely, resulting in substantial early defoliation and poor fruit color.
  7. 7. 2 types of reproduction • Asexual reproduction: structure called Sporangium atop sporangiosphores make spore • Rhizoids anchor the molds and release digestive enzymes to produce food • Stolon- also known as runner
  8. 8. Sexual Reproduction • Sexual spores are produce by conjugation when (+) Hyphae and (-) Hyphae fused. • Zygospores: A term use for sexual spores.a cell formed by fusion of two si milar gametes, as in certain algae and fu ngi. • Zygospores emit only if the fungi is in a harsh environment When there is no enough nutrition and moisture for them to reproduce and grow
  9. 9. Glomeromycota • Biotrophic-describing a parasite that needs its host to stay alive • Arbuscular mycorrhizae- a type of symbiotic relationship between a fungus and the roots of a plant where the plants supply a source of energy to the fungus while the fungus supplies essential minerals to the plant.
  10. 10. • Gigaspora • Asexual reproduction • Cannot survive without the presence of plant roots • Can be found in majority of plants
  11. 11. Basidiomycota • Called: Club Fungi • is one of two large phyla together with the Ascomycota • basidium literally means little pedestal, from the way in which the basidium supports the spores. However, some biologists suggest that the structure more closely resembles a club. • Sexual spores: Basidiospores
  12. 12. Basidiomycota Includes: • Mushroom • Toadstools • shelf fungi • Puffballs • Stinkhorns • Rusts and smuts
  13. 13. • Basidiomycota comprise three subphyla • 16 classes • 52 orders • 177 families • 1,589 genera • 31,515 species
  14. 14. Characteristics of Club Fungi • Asexually or sexually • The visible mushroom is a fruiting body • Basidiocarp (Fruiting body)is made of a stalk called the stipe and a flattened cap with gills is called basidia • Basidiospores are found in the basidia
  15. 15. Amanita muscaria Amanita Biporigera
  16. 16. Mycena interupta Stipticus panellum Bioluminiscent Fungi
  17. 17. Stipticus panellus
  18. 18. Puccinia podophylli Poccinio buxi
  19. 19. Rusts and Smuts
  20. 20. • The fruiting body of a puffball mushroom will develop within the period of a few weeks and soon begin to decompose and rot, at which point it is dangerous to eat. Unlike most mushrooms, all the spores of the giant puffball are created inside the fruiting body; large specimens can easily contain several trillion spores. Spores are yellowish, smooth, and 3 to 5 micrometres (0.00012 to 0.00020 in) in size.
  21. 21. Laetiporus is a genus of edible mushrooms found throughout much of the world. Some species, especially Laetiporus sulphureus, are commonly known as sulphur shelf, chicken of the woods, the chicken mushroom, or the chicken fungus because many think they taste like chicken
  22. 22. Ganoderma lucidum is definitely the scientific good reputation a types of Red Mushrooms and is also reported to be more efficient than Ginseng. Called the "Miraculous King of Herbs",
  23. 23. • They are known for their foul-smelling • The Phallaceae are a family of fungi, commonly known as stinkhorn mushrooms.
  24. 24. Ascomycota • The phylum is commonly called the "sac fungi" because during sexual reproduction, their sexual spores, the ascospores are borne in a sac-like cell called an ascus • They are the one of the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species
  25. 25. • Reproduce sexually or asexually • Ascus sac that make ascospores in sexual reproduction • Fruiting body known as ascocarp contain asci
  26. 26. • Ascus-a sac, typically cylindrical in shape, in which the spores of ascomycete fungi develop. • Ascospore -is a spore contained in an ascus or that was produced inside an ascus. This kind of spore is specific to fungi classified as ascomycetes (Ascomycota). Typically, a single ascus will contain eight ascospores.
  27. 27. • Called Sac fungi includes: • Cup fungi • Morels • Truffles • Yeast • mildew
  28. 28. Eyelash cup fungi Orange peel fungi
  29. 29. • Morchella, the true morels, is a genus of edible mushrooms closely related to anatomically simpler cup fungi. These distinctive mushrooms appear honeycomb-like in that the upper portion is composed of a network of ridges with pits between them. The ascocarps are prized by gourmet cooks,
  30. 30. • A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean Ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber. Some of the truffle species are highly prized as food. French gourmand Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin called truffles "the diamond of the kitchen".
  31. 31. • Yeasts are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may become multicellular through the formation of strings of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae, or false hyphae, as seen in most molds.
  32. 32. • Mildew is defined as a thin, superficial, usually whitish growth consisting of minute hyphae (fungal filaments) produced especially on living plants or organic matter such as wood, paper or leather.
  33. 33. • Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by a member of the sac fungi (Ascomycota) affecting elm trees, and is spread by the elm bark beetle. Although believed to be originally native to Asia, the disease has been accidentally introduced into America and Europe, where it has devastated native populations of elms that did not have resistance to the disease. • Elm bark Beetle-vector • Causal agent- Ophiostoma ulmi Ophiostoma himal-ulmi Ophiostoma novo-ulmi
  34. 34. Elm tree Ophiostoma ulmiElm bark Beetle
  35. 35. uses • Edible: Truffles and morels • Antibiotic:Penicillium mold • Flavoring: flavor to cheeses • Food: Saccharomyces cerevesiae (Yeast) to make bread and perment beer and wine
  36. 36. • Some members of the genus produce penicillin, a molecule that is used as an antibiotic, which kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria inside the body. Other species are used in cheesemaking.
  37. 37. Penicillium as blue cheese flavoring
  38. 38. Chytridiomycota • Called Chytrids • The name is derived from the Greek chytridion, meaning "little pot", describing the structure containing unreleased zoospores. • Mostly saprobes and parasites in aquatic habitats • Earliest fungal phlyum to diverge • Relatively simple; most unicellular • ONLY FUNGI with flagellated cells • Most have no sexual reproduction • Most decomposers; few cause disease
  39. 39. • Asexual reproduction by zoospores produced in zoosporangia • Zoospores have one posterior flagellum Zoospores are released from zoosporangia by Breakdown of sporangium wall
  40. 40. Chytridiomycosis • One species is parasitic on amphibians – mentioned in decline of frog populations - Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
  41. 41. Phyla Class Common name Spore Vessels Sexual spores Representative genera Ascomycota 1point 1point 1point 1point 2points Basidiomycota 1point 1point No spore vessel 1point 2points Chytridiomycota 1point 1point 2points 1point 2points Glomeromycota 1point Not indicated Not indicated 1point 2points zygomycota 1point 1point 2points 1point 2points
  42. 42. Phyla Class Common name Spore Vessels Sexual spores Representative genera Ascomycota Ascomycetes Sac fungi ascus ascuspores Penicillium Basidiomycota Basidiomycetes Club fungi none basidiospores Agaricus Amanita Chytridiomycota Chytridiomycetes Chytrids zoosporangium zoospores Batrachochytrium Glomeromycota Glomeromycetes - sporangium glomerospores gigaspora zygomycota Zygomycetes Zygote fungi sporangium zygospores Rhizopus
  43. 43. 1 2 20 4 3
  44. 44. OOMYCETES Called : water molds/egg fungi • Aquatic fungi • During sexual reproduction, they form a cluster of “egg like” bodies at the tip of hyphae • Nuclear fusion leads to the formation of sexual spores called “oospores”
  45. 45. Difference to the other fungi • Cell wall contain: Cellulose • Flagella: has to distinct flagella, Whiplash and tinsel. Tinsel is an special flagellum that can be found in heterokont species which are under protest • Reproduction: Diploid cells during most of their life cycle, whereas other fungal species have haploid cells
  46. 46. • Kingdom: Chromalveolata • Phylum:Heterokontophyta • Class:Oomycetes
  47. 47. deuteromycetes • Deuteromycetes (also known as Fungi Imperfecti because they lacked a sexual cycle) • Deuteromycota, are fungi which do not fit into the commonly established taxonomic classifications of fungi or morphological characteristics of sexual structures because their sexual form of reproduction has never been observed; hence the name "imperfect fungi." Only their asexual form of reproduction is known, meaning that this group of fungi produces their spores asexually, in the process called sporogenesis.

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