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Scientific skepticism complete


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A presentation on scientific skepticism for Lai 531

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Scientific skepticism complete

  1. 1. Scientific Skepticism<br />Bridging the gap between fact and fiction<br />LAI 531 John Brodnick<br />
  2. 2. Areas for Skepticism<br />UFO’s <br />Ghost<br />Psychics<br />Witchcraft<br />Astrology<br />Crop Circles<br />Bigfoot<br /><ul><li>Diets
  3. 3. Stem Cell
  4. 4. Chiropractic
  5. 5. AIDS
  6. 6. Homeopathy
  7. 7. Creationism and ID
  8. 8. Climate Change
  9. 9. Vaccinations</li></li></ul><li>First a few definitions<br />The term Scientific Skepticism can be broken down a bit in order to Find its proper context for our usage<br />
  10. 10. First a few definitions<br />SCIENCE <br />1. the state of knowing : knowledge as distinguished from ignorance or misunderstanding<br />2 a  : a department of systematized knowledge as an object of study <the science of theology> b : something (as a sport or technique) that may be studied or learned like systematized knowledge <have it down to a science><br />3 a : knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method b : such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena <br /><br />
  11. 11. Scientific Method<br />
  12. 12. First a few definitions<br />EMPERICAL <br />1 : originating in or based on observation or experience <empirical data<br />2 : relying on experience or observation alone often without due regard for system and theory <an empirical basis for the theory<br />3 : capable of being verified or disproved by observation or experiment <empirical laws>with the physical world and its phenomena <br /><br />
  13. 13. First a few definitions<br />Skepticism <br /> <br /> : an attitude of doubt or a disposition to incredulity either in general or toward a particular object2 a : the doctrine that true knowledge or knowledge in a particular area is uncertain b : the method of suspended judgment, systematic doubt, or criticism characteristic of skeptics3 : doubt concerning basic religious principles (as immortality, providence, and revelation)<br /><br />
  14. 14. New Skepticism<br />Encompasses inquiry rather than doubt<br />Positive and constructive<br />The transformation of negative critical analysis of claims to knowledge into a positive contribution<br />
  15. 15. Skeptical Inquiry<br />The key principle of skeptical inquiry is to seek, when feasible, adequate evidence and reasonable grounds for any claim to truth in any context<br />
  16. 16. Scientific Skepticism:-is a method of inquiry used to evaluate claims and determine their probable validity -Relies on Scientific empiricism-May be used to evaluate both mainstream science and those claims that are considered on the outside realms of science-Used in everyday life to evaluate claims<br />
  17. 17. The Beginnings of Skeptic movement<br />Benjamin Franklin<br />Was know for his role in experimenting with electricity and role in independence movement in the 1700’s<br />-Debunked claims in Paris of “Mesmerism "and “Animal Magnetism”<br />
  18. 18. The Beginnings of Skeptic movement<br />Harry Houdini<br />Magician Best at detecting fraudulent claims by spiritualist as they use the same “tricks” as magicians<br />
  19. 19. The Beginnings of Skeptic movement<br />Martin Gardner’s 1952 classic,<br /> Fads and Fallacies In the Name of Science. <br />
  20. 20. The Beginnings of Skeptic movement<br />James “the Amazing” Randi<br />
  21. 21. The Beginnings of Skeptic movement<br />Paul Kurtz<br />
  22. 22. Some More popular Skeptics <br />Carl Sagan<br />
  23. 23. Some More popular Skeptics <br />Neil deGrasse Tyson<br />
  24. 24. Some More popular Skeptics <br />Richard Dawkins<br />
  25. 25. Some More Popular Skeptics <br />Michael Shermer<br />
  26. 26. Basic Steps to Skepticism<br />Occam's razor:<br />when you have two competing theories that make exactly the same predictions, the simpler one is the better.<br />
  27. 27. Basic Steps to Skepticism<br />Carl Sagan’s Baloney Detection Kit<br />Wherever possible there must be independent confirmation of the facts<br />Encourage substantive debate on the evidence <br />Arguments from authority carry little weight <br />Spin more than one hypothesis <br />Try not to get overly attached to a hypothesis<br />If there are two hypothesis that explain the data equally choose the simpler.<br />Ask whether the hypothesis can be falsified<br />
  28. 28. Why be skeptical ?<br />Pseudoscientific claims and the Para normal<br />Consumers<br />Media<br />Politicians<br />Children and education<br />
  29. 29. Pseudo science <br /><ul><li>Homeopathy
  30. 30. Creationism and Intelligent Design
  31. 31. Astrology
  32. 32. Crystal healing, Pyramid power, Magnet therapy
  33. 33. Psychic Abilities
  34. 34. Crypto Zoology: Bigfoot, Loch Ness Monster and Yetti
  35. 35. Crop Circles
  36. 36. Ancient Astronaut Theory
  37. 37. Flood Geology</li></li></ul><li>MEDIA<br />News papers<br />Radio<br />Magazines<br />TV <br />Websites<br />It is important to remember that many media outlets will use sensationalism and extravagant promotions in order to catch viewers attention<br />
  38. 38. News Papers<br />
  39. 39. Magazines<br />
  40. 40. Radio <br />
  41. 41. Television<br />
  42. 42. Television<br />
  43. 43. Politics<br />G W. Bush<br /> Vetoes stem cell research<br /> Has Staff “Scientists”“edit climate reports<br /> Many Federal agencies required to submit information through censors<br />Liberal Democrat<br />Conservative republicans<br />
  44. 44. Education<br />Creationism and Intelligent Design<br />In Kentucky, a bill recently introduced in the Legislature would encourage teachers to discuss “the advantages and disadvantages of scientific theories,” including “evolution, the origins of life, global warming and human cloning.”<br />
  45. 45. Scientific Skepticism <br />Many additional Topics<br />Anti science<br />Food safety<br />Food labeling<br />Health claims on food and supplements<br />Religions influence on science<br />The Mayan calendar and 2012<br />
  46. 46. Scientific Skepticism<br />
  47. 47. Further Study<br />Magazines<br /><br />
  48. 48. Further Study<br />Magazines<br /><br />
  49. 49. Further Study<br />WEBSITES<br /> <br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /> <br />
  50. 50. Further Study<br />Podcasts:<br />Point of Inquiry<br /><br />Complete List of Scientific Skepticism podcasts<br /><br />
  51. 51. References<br />Kendrick Frazier, (2009). Science under siege : defending science, exposing pseudoscience<br /> Amherst, N.Y. : Prometheus Books<br />Kurtz Paul, (2010) Exuberant skepticism<br />Amherst, N.Y. : Prometheus Books<br />Shermer Michael (2001). The borderlands of Science <br />New York, NY Oxford press<br />Kurtz, Paul, The new skepticism :   inquiry and reliable knowledge <br />Buffalo, N.Y. : Prometheus Books, 1992.<br /><ul><li>Hall, H. (2009). Homeopathy: Still Crazy After All These Years. Skeptic, 15(1), 8-9. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Retrieved 04/10/2010</li></ul>Nardi, P. (2010). Magic, Skepticism, and Belief. Skeptic, 15(3), 58-64. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Retrieved 03/28/2010<br />Grothe, D. (2009). Skepticism 2.0. Skeptical Inquirer, 33(6), 51. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database. Retrieved 03/22/2010<br />Stollznow, K. (2009). Skepticism and Blogging. Skeptical Inquirer, 33(6), 41. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database Retrieved 03/28/2010<br />Galef, J. (2010). Uncertainty in Science. Humanist, 70(1), 10. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database. Retrieved 04/10/2010<br />Gooding, J., & Metz, B. (2010). Connecting the Dots between Consumer Protection, Skepticism, and Science. Science Activities, 47(2), 41. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database Retrieved 03/28/2010<br />(2009). Skepticism. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database. Retrieved 03/28/2010<br />
  52. 52. References<br /> 04/19/2010<br /> 04/19/2010<br /> 04/12/2010<br /> 04/19/2010<br /> Retrieved 04/19/2010<br /> 04/19/2010 <br /> 04/19/2010<br />