Outside in, inside out? Digital Media as Cultural Resources for Learning


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Cook, J., Pachler, N., Bachmair, B. and Adami, E. (2009). Symposium Outside in, inside out? Digital Media as Cultural Resources for Learning (Convenor: Cook), CAL 09, Brighton UK.

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  • Cook, J., Pachler, N., Bachmair, B. and Adami, E. (2009). Symposium Outside in, inside out? Digital Media as Cultural Resources for Learning (Convenor: Cook), CAL 09, Brighton UK.
  • Outside in, inside out? Digital Media as Cultural Resources for Learning

    1. 1. Outside in, inside out? Digital media as cultural resources for learning John Cook (Convener), Norbert Pachler (Discussant), Ben Bachmair & Elisabetta Adami CAL 09, Brighton UK Get slides from: http://www.slideshare.net/johnnigelcook
    2. 2. <ul><li>There has been a see-sawing between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vertical to horizontal structurings of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from hierarchical to participatory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is this about to change? E.G. iPlayer </li></ul>
    3. 3. Cultural practices involving new digital media can be brought into the educational institutions feed back into the digital world at large
    4. 4. Three Brief talks and a debate 1. Ben Bachmair - Curricular assimilation of expertise with mobile phone into the school: A case study of students' lifestyle habitus and mobile use in the context of media convergence 2. John Cook - Appropriation of mobile phones for learning 3. Norbert Pachler and Elisabetta Adami - Smartphones: A social semiotic view and implications for their use in formal education Possible discussion question: formal and informal learning inside and outside schools – is it still helpful to think in this way?
    5. 5. Ben Bachmair University of Kassel, Germany <ul><li>Curricular assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>of conflicting mobile expertises </li></ul><ul><li>into the school </li></ul><ul><li>A cases study on students’ </li></ul><ul><li>lifestyle habitus and </li></ul><ul><li>mobile use in media convergence </li></ul>
    6. 6. The socio-cultural complex of mobile devices *Brought mobile devices into everyday life within media convergence; *Reinforces individualization by mobility; *Transforms agency: mobile expertise; *Transforms mass communication: mobile, individualized and convergence contexts Children and young people as students with their agency and their resources within their cultural practices: *informal learning *mobile expertise *habitus of learning School’s option: Assimilation of *informal learning *mobile expertise *habitus of learning By means of *taking up conversational threads of the students; *docking to the students’ generated contexts as ‘zones of proximal development
    7. 7. The idea of assimilation: Bringing outside in <ul><li>What happens outside: Cyrill acts </li></ul><ul><li>(a) against the law and provokes the main stream society, </li></ul><ul><li>(b) partly on the basis of his socio-cultural lifestyle habitus, </li></ul><ul><li>(c) with mobile video + internet in media convergence, </li></ul><ul><li>(d) upon simple mobile and elaborate internet expertise </li></ul><ul><li>(e) upon a learning habitus, which results from his socio-cultural lifestyle habitus </li></ul>
    8. 8. Assimilation of the school by <ul><li>Conversational options (Laurillard 2007, p. 160) = knotting conversational threads </li></ul><ul><li>Context options = Docking at user generated contexts as proximal zones of development (Vygotsky 1930, 1934) </li></ul><ul><li>Quelle: http://www.sinus-sociovision.de/grafik/everyday-life-segmente.jpg, 4. September 2007 </li></ul>
    9. 9. What happened outside? A cultural practice in distance to the school and in opposition to the society’s main stream <ul><li>Cyrill, a German migrant of the 2 nd generation, 18 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>His confiscated video was part of his web performance among other on the media platform myspace.com </li></ul>
    10. 10. Cultural practice outside Cyrill is brought to trail because of a video which shows - among other - the harassment of homeless men and a video with Nazi symbols. <ul><li>Still Images from Cyrill’s mobile video which ‘depicts’ and ‘harasses’ homeless drunk </li></ul>
    11. 11. Cyrill’s Video
    12. 15. Assimilative conversational and contextual option <ul><li>Existing conversational threads </li></ul><ul><li>‘ regional cultural values’ = was taken by police, newspaper, law institutions, institutions of social care for homeless </li></ul><ul><li>‘ investigation’ of social situations at the edge of the main stream society = Leads to all investigative learning activities e.g geometrical forms and culture of everyday life </li></ul>
    13. 16. Similar to „Field Research“ in Indiranagar, Bangalore Center for Knowledge Societies, CKS (2005): Learning Lab: Inclusive Education using Mobile Devices. Paper presented on the International conference on inclusive design Royal College of Art, London, UK, 5-8 April 2005. Available from http://www.hhc.rca.ac.uk/archive/ hhrc/programmes/include/2005/ proceedings/pdf/soodadityadev.pdf Accessed: February 28th 2008. pp. 26 f., 29
    14. 17. Further conversational threads <ul><li>‘ professional ’ indicated by the logo in English “Cyril pictures” </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Empathy’ between the unsavoury old drunk and Cyrill </li></ul>
    15. 18. Context options Docking at user generated contexts as proximal zones of development (Vygotsky 1930, 1934) <ul><li>Context of the peer group of boys in late puberty, during the night, flaneurs looking for cool fun; </li></ul><ul><li>Occasional contact(s) to a young right wing German male adult; Nazi symbols. </li></ul>
    16. 19. Context /zone options of the socio-cultural milieu
    17. 20. Länderübergreifend: Sinus-Meta-Milieus ®                                                                                                                                    http://www.sinus-sociovision.de/grafik/everyday-life-segmente.jpg, 4. Sept. 2007
    18. 22. Cyril has a migrant background within the socio-cultural milieu of a hedonistic subculture (Sinus Sociovision): Self idealisation as an underdog, but better than the silly Germans. To investigate the real German underdogs and to have fun.
    19. 23. Basic milieu (= context) orientation in habitus and developmental terms of the ‘hedonistic-subcultural milieu’ (BC3, escapists) in the migration context (Sinus Sociovision 2007, p. 65) <ul><li>-“on the basis of the experienced social exclusion (self image of being a ‘Kanak’), </li></ul><ul><li>on the one hand the dream of a rich life in Germany with easy money making, luxury, prestige (‘Kohle scheffeln und Spaß haben’); </li></ul><ul><li>on the other hand resignation and a defiant (trotzig) ‘underdog’ mentality: being unemployed, without chances, discouraged; </li></ul>
    20. 24. <ul><li>(partly aggressive) distance to the mainstream of society together with not being adjusted – for example, in the outfit, in behaviour and language –, </li></ul><ul><li>conflicts with authority and authorities (parents, teachers, supervisor, police); </li></ul><ul><li>on one hand disapproval of demands for integration and achievement, </li></ul><ul><li>and on the other hand the desire for success, appreciation, a higher income and a better job; </li></ul>
    21. 25. <ul><li>- orientation towards the ‘here and now’, hardly any long term and future planning, uncontrolled spending of money, financial problems, often no perspective for the future (‘Null Bock’), insecurity, being passive.” </li></ul>
    22. 26. The context / zone options in terms of lifestyle and living room <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>„ Migranten-Milieus Qualitative Untersuchung der Lebenswelten von Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland. Eine Multi-Client-Studie von Sinus Sociovision. Basisbericht. Heidelberg, Oktober 2007“ </li></ul><ul><li>Sinus Sociovision GmbH </li></ul><ul><li>Ezanvillestraße 59 / D-69118 Heidelberg </li></ul><ul><li>Postfach 251265 / D-69080 Heidelberg </li></ul><ul><li>HRB 332922 Mannheim Geschäftsführer: Dorothea Nowak, Berthold Flaig </li></ul><ul><li>Telefon: +49 (0) 6221-8089-0 / Telefax: +49 (0) 6221-8089-25 </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail: sinus@sociovision.de </li></ul><ul><li>Web: http://www.sinus-sociovision.de </li></ul>
    23. 27. This slide was left blank on purpose
    24. 28. Conversational and developmental context/ zone options on myspace.com
    25. 29. Conversational thread and developmental zone of self images and identity
    26. 31. The developmental zone: military service (downloaded 21 Aug 08)
    27. 32. Conversational thread and context of peers on myspace
    28. 33. <ul><li>eMKa writes about where he grew up: in the neighbourhood of the same city in which also Cyrill lives. There he came in contact with “Hip Hop” by support of his uncle, who danced to “Rumors”. He refers to his favourite song with which he bothered his parents on a tour to the home country Turkey. Later on came his other favourites up: “Kriss Kross with Jump, Vanilla Ice with ice ice baby, Mc Hammer with Cant touch this and Public Enemy”. He also writes that since this time he loves the “Holy black music”, a hobby which gives him an alternative to the daily routines: “to switch off and to come to other thoughts”. To work in the shift operation with piecework payment and to be married are very time-consuming”. </li></ul>
    29. 34. Internet expertise
    30. 35. A boy asks Cyrill as an expert for websites: „CYRILL wie hasT du dich selber als hinTERgruND gemaCHt? Sag mal bitte peace.“ “ Cyrill how did you make yourself as background? Say it please peace. ”
    31. 36. Conversational thread: lifestyle
    32. 37. Context and thread: verbal provocation <ul><li>http://www.linktakas.net/video/95654/Augsburg_-_CYRILL_-_Die_Legende_kehrt_zur%FCck.html, 9_Jan_2008 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>„ Ünlü Videoları </li></ul><ul><li>Taglar : Augsburg - - - CYRILL - - - Die - Legende - kehrt - zurück – </li></ul><ul><li>A?iklamasi : Nachdem alle meine Videos aus YouTube gelöscht worden sind, hab ich einen neuen C.Y.R.I.L.L TRAILER erstellt peace xxx porn slut Jenny McCarthy Jim Carrey Playboy MTV uncensored Carmen Electra bunny Brad Pitt tits til death cock bikini msn webcam hack camera porn tape sex paris hilton in jail analita anal lover anal teen tryouts bangbros assparade blowjob for free eat nuts suck dick carmen electra jessica alba fantastic four uncensored tits nipple slip pussy vagina stick show tits ups upskirt </li></ul><ul><li>Izlenme : 161 Kere Izlendi“ </li></ul>
    33. 38. Assimilation by * prolonging conversational threads * docking user generated contexts as zone of proximal development into / at to the school practice <ul><li>In contrast to the abstract I am sure that the old “three dimensions of planning” have to be processed to a coherent model. </li></ul><ul><li>Old ( a) Media features, (b) teacher’s and students’ discourses in the light of the Conversational Model, (c) the leading educational and curricular discourses with their general models. </li></ul>
    34. 39. New model 4 parameters for analysis and planning (needs empirical evaluation) <ul><li>(A): Learning set </li></ul><ul><li>Practice of the school ---- practices of mobile media </li></ul><ul><li>(B): Relation to the object of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Mimetic reproduction ---- personal reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>(C): Basis of the institutional support for teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>School curriculum ---- personal expertise </li></ul><ul><li>(D): Media and Modes of representation </li></ul><ul><li>Discrete (linear; mono medial, mono modal) – convergent </li></ul>
    35. 40. Appropriation of mobile phones for learning John Cook Learning Technology Research Institute, London Metropolitan University
    36. 41. Health warnings! NOT talking about misappropriation
    37. 42. Can texting damage your health? As always there is more to it than meets the eye …
    38. 43. NOT about criminal appropriation, as in ‘you’re nicked’!
    39. 44. Appropriation (Cook and Pachler, 2009) <ul><li>“ Appropriation is the processes attendant to the development of personal practices with mobile devices and we consider these processes in the main to be interaction, assimilation and accommodation as well as change.” </li></ul>
    40. 45. <ul><li>Stages of appropriation are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accommodation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are based on the work of Piaget (1955) and Dourish (2004). </li></ul>
    41. 46. Pachler, Cook and Bachmair (under review).
    42. 47. Cyrill’s case (Bachmair, Pachler, and Cook, 2009) <ul><li>Cyrill acts within the structure of the ongoing transformation of mass communication </li></ul><ul><li>Evolving practice was engendered through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interaction on discussion lists with fellow ‘underdogs’ via the internet, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as well as with his environment, the police and so on. </li></ul></ul>
    43. 48. Off-site learning (Cook and Bradley, 2007)
    44. 49. Learner story “ Well we were walking around and observing the theatres of the event and trying to get the most images [that] we could get, and videos, and even sounds. We tried first to observe with our own eyes a little, to pick up what we thought was important for our presentation, and for our observation of the event.” [Play quote 2 clip]
    45. 50. [play Elli clip] (Cook, Pachler and Bradley, 2008)
    46. 51. CONTSENS Going for a local walkabout (Smith, Cook and Bradley, 2009)
    47. 54. “ The information given was underlined by the 'experience' of the area and therefore given context in both past and present. ”
    48. 55. “ “ it was triggering my own thoughts and I was getting to think for myself about the area and the buildings. ”
    49. 56. References <ul><li>Cook, J. and Bradley, C. (2007). ‘If I had a phone like that yes! I would use it, obviously, for my assignments’: A Grounded Study of Mobile Device Appropriation for Learning. Paper presented at Mobile Learning, 5-7 July 2007, Lisbon, Portugal. </li></ul><ul><li>Cook, J. and Pachler, N. (2009). Appropriation of Mobile Phones in and Across Formal and Informal Learning. In R. Land and S. Bayne (Eds.), Digital Difference. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Cook, J., Pachler, N. and Bradley, C. (2008). Bridging the Gap? Mobile Phones at the Interface between Informal and Formal Learning. Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology, Spring. Available from: http:// www.rcetj.org /?type= ci&id </li></ul><ul><li>Bachmair, B., Pachler, N. and Cook, J. (2009). Mobile Phones as Cultural Resources of Learning, an Education Analysis of Structures, Mobile Expertise and Cultural Practices, MedienPädagogik Available from: http://www.medienpaed.com/2009/bachmair0903.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Dourish, P. (2004). What We Talk About When We Talk About Context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 8(1), 19-30 Available at: http://www.ics.uci.edu/~jpd/publications/2004/PUC2004-context.pdf , accessed 10 June 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget, J. (1955). The Construction of Reality in the Child. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. </li></ul><ul><li>Pachler, N., Cook, J. and Bachmair, B. (under review). Appropriation of Mobile Phones and Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharples, M., Taylor, J. and Vavoula, G.N. (2005). A Theory of Learning for the Mobile Age. In R. Andrews & C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of E-Learning Research (pp. 221-247). London: Sage. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, C., Cook, J. and Bradley, C. (2009). Context Sensitive Mobile Learning: Adding Relevant Information on the Move to Objects and Activities to Augment Understanding. CAL 09, Brighton, UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Wood, D., Bruner, J. S. and Ross, G. (1976). The Role of Tutoring in Problem Solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17(2), 89-100. </li></ul>
    50. 57. A social semiotic analysis of Smartphones : Implications for formal education CAL09, Brighton 23 September 2008 Norbert Pachler & Elisabetta Adami Institute of Education University of Verona
    51. 58. Presentation Structure <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Social semiotic analysis of Smartphones functionalities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browsing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LifeBlog </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fostered skills and Implications </li></ul>
    52. 59. New habitus of learning <ul><li>young people constantly see their life-worlds framed both as a challenge and as an environment and a potential resource for learning </li></ul><ul><li>their expertise is individually appropriated in relation to personal definitions of relevance </li></ul><ul><li>the world has become the curriculum populated by mobile device users in a constant state of expectancy and contingency </li></ul>
    53. 60. ‘ Embodied interaction’ (Dourish) <ul><li>c ontext is seen as an interactional problem </li></ul><ul><li>the context of mobile phone use for learning is emergent and not predetermined by events </li></ul><ul><li>centrality is placed on practice, viewed as a learner’s engagement with particular settings </li></ul><ul><li>“ context isn’t something that describes a setting; it’s something that people do. It is an achievement, rather than an observation; an outcome, rather than a premise” </li></ul>
    54. 61. <ul><li>“ Context cannot be a stable, external description of the setting in which activity arises. Instead, it arises from and is sustained by the activity itself.” </li></ul>
    55. 62. <ul><li>Learning = the process of meaning making of ourselves and the world (Kress & Pachler, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Medium Affordances = representational constraints and possibilities, in terms of what media materially and socially foster (enable/permit) or hinder (prevent/prohibit) to do with them (Kress & van Leeuwen, 1996/2006). </li></ul>Technologies & Learning
    56. 63. Functionalities: Imaging <ul><li>Low costs: immediacy, real-time, quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Representing (everyday) reality by capturing and selecting it: ‘naturalized’ activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>every fact achieves further significance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the environment is lived so as to capture/represent it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>life-world = artefact </li></ul></ul>
    57. 64. Functionalities: Web browsing <ul><li>Mobility: interpersonal connectivity + information access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less strategic planning vs. More tactical thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intolerance to fixation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment is provided with online info: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blurring of online/offline worlds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Experiencing: informed activity (no risk-taking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning = grabbing reliable info about your environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery = information-driven experiencing </li></ul></ul>
    58. 65. Functionalities: Lifeblog (just visited) <ul><li>a multimodal chronological representation of the whole activity with the device </li></ul><ul><li>a multimodal diary automatically recorded and assembled while using the device. </li></ul><ul><li>whole life turns into a visual artefact, which is (re)usable </li></ul>
    59. 66. Multi -functionalities <ul><li>the more the functionalities, the more complex their use at an advanced level, the more likely their use in their default settings (‘templates’) </li></ul>
    60. 67. Skills + social habitus <ul><li>Representation as selection </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation and flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>‘ how-to’ over ‘what’ </li></ul><ul><li>(local and operational) tactics over (global) strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Life-world = representation and artefact to be (re)used </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time multi-tasking and synergy over fine-grained focus and accuracy </li></ul>
    61. 68. Implications <ul><li>Production = transformation + (newly shaped) consumption (re-use) </li></ul><ul><li>usability , selection , bricolage , mobility = ‘freedom’ and ‘creation’ </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated representational competence (‘literacy’) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning: how-to access, select, capture, use in real-time global/collective info/events for local/individual aims/activities </li></ul>
    62. 69. Pedagogical issues <ul><li>socio-cultural developments will soon lead to there no longer being a meaningful differentiation between media for learning inside and outside formal educational settings </li></ul><ul><li>the ability of technology to transcend the unaided, individual human mind, i.e. to augment intelligence, is becoming increasingly ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>the augmentation of intelligence through technology can best be understood as the most recent stage of externalisation and objectification of experiences and insights as well as an enhancement of our capacities for developing conceptual worlds (Säljö, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>ubiquitous, and context-aware technologies result in a shift ‘from smart planning to smart situated actions’ (Fischer and Konomi, 2007) </li></ul>