Comparison of the Dry Forest of Guanica and the Caribbean National Forest “El Yunque” Group #1: Carla J. Figueroa Gustavo Martinez Crystal K. Colon John E. Munoz Zuleika Velazquez Luis F. Centeno
Introduction On the days of June 19 and 21, we had two separate field trips to two completely different areas of Puerto Rico. We traveled to el Bosque Seco de Guánica on June 19, then to el Bosque Nacional del Caribe, el Yunque, on June 21. After having travelled to both forests, we were able to compare these completely different, yet similar areas.
Climate and Location Located in the southwestern area of Puerto Rico, this forest expands all the way from Guánica to Ponce, covering roughly over 11,000 acres of land. The climate is hot and dry, due to a lack of precipitation because of the restrictions placed by the Cordillera Central de P.R., which does not allow the passage of rain-carrying winds. The forest receives approximately 30-40 in. of rain per year. Because of the harsh climate and extreme temperature, the organisms have adapted to thrive and survive in this forest.
Birds They have recorded 136 species of birds, 12 of them are endemic (3 of which are endangered and 8 in the list of endangered species). Compared with rain forests: 31 versus 20 species of birds per 1,000 individuals. More number of birds per linear mile (0.6 miles) in Guánica in a rainforest. The ecological role of frogs and lizards of the Anvil, in Guánica is carried out mainly by insectivorous birds. Furthermore, the forest contains a wide range of insects that provide food for many birds.
Aves San Pedrito Reinita MariposeraPajaro Bobo Mayor Jui de Puerto Rico Guabairo
Bird Adaptations High percentage of nocturnal animals. Many species with scales that prevent desiccation Obtain water from the dam to ingest and vegetation. Hibernation. Animals that are buried or used natural cavities. Low breathing. Bodies with light colors. They nest on the ground or in bushes.
Fauna There have been a very valuable herpetofauna which includes 21 species of reptiles and 6 species of amphibians. Among the reptiles there are 8 species of lizards endemic to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Among the amphibians there has been some notoriety crested toad. During dry weather remains a refugee, just leave the aestivation period as a result of precipitation.
Flora The flora of the Guanica Dry Forest is no longer than 49 ft. Because in that form they conserve water and don’t spend it in biomass. Most of the vegetation is semideciduous are lost their leaves in summer. In the Guanica Dry Forest, the flora modified their activities for the principal goal of all, conserve water. Some of the adaptations are: vertical orientation of the leave to avoid direct sunlight, stems that carry out the photosynthesis and plants with spines.
Flora Naked Indian -To keep water the stem perform photosyntesisPrincipal Canopy Demonstration Huevo de Gato of Jaboncillo Caoba
Flora Erisfalis Fruticosa -have a purple milk Piteselobiun - Endemic tree of Arbol Corcho the forest. - This tree represent how thevegetation placed their leaves in Caoba’s Plantation vertically form Warrior tree - Endemic of Puerto Rico
Clima y Localizacion Localizado a 49 Kms de San Juan en las Sierras de Luquillo, tiene una temperatura de 78 grados Fahrenheit en las partes bajas y alrededor de 65 grados Fahrenheit en areas sobre los 3,200 pies. Recibe alrededor de 250 pulgadas de precipitación al año significando que caen aguaceros ligeros pero intensos diariamente esto causa que el suelo del bosque sufra grandes perdidas por la erosión. Por la cantidad de precipitación que cae la isla de Puerto Rico depende de el para poder adquirir la cantidad de agua suficiente para los habitantes.
Fauna The fauna that lives in the forest is limited to small animals. Approximately 100 vertebrates including amphibians and birds live in the different forests of “El Yunque”. The mammalian are represented by 11 different species of bats. The most common invertebrates are snails and the Puerto Rican Boa. Puerto Rico’s most important native animal is the “Coqui”. It is an in danger specie and approximately twelve (12) different types of them live in the forest.
Fauna Different species of Puerto Rican snails Parrot CoquiPuerto Rican Boa
Flora Poses more vegetation diversity by area unit than any other forest in America. 225 especies de árboles, nativos del bosque. It has twenty-three (23) endemic species, fourty- seven (47) introduced species, eighty-eight (88) tree species that are considered rare or strange, fifty (50) different species of native orchids and one-hundred & fifty (150) fern species.
Types of Forests Pluvial Forest Palo Colorado Forest Palma de Sierra Forest Elfin Forest
Palma de Sierra Forest It is the most open forest of the four types. Monoculture of Palma de Sierra ( Prestoea montana)
Elfin Forest It’s location is limited to the piques of the mountains that compose the forest and because of this plus other reasons it’s vegetation does not grow more than 12 feet. The main tree of the forest is “Roble de Sierra” ( Tabebuia rígida).