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TIØ 4261 - Grønn verdiskaping og etiske perspektiver
Green economy
and ethical challenges
Tekna’s Ethical Advisory Board
2...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Ethics and efficient decision-making
Leif Runar Forsth
Dr. ing. and management...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Some general ethical principles
Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 3
William Br...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Easy to do ethical test: The Tekna version
As a memeber of Tekna you must be a...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
My agenda further on for today
• Ethics as a matter of perspective
• Case on p...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Perspectives on ethics
(Ethics of the practical life)
6
• Student ethics
• Res...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Ethics of engineering
Focus on
RISK
Be
COMPETENT
Be
HONEST
Teknas Etiske råd j...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Ethics of War
Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 8
This is about:
• Weapon prod...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Ethics as a matter of perspective
• We have seen that ethics is a matter of pr...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig foreningTeknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 10
Margrethe Lunder is 28 years old
and holds...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
The Systems
Architect
- One important question for many
professionals such as ...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
On March 27,1980, the oil platform
Alexander Kielland capsized during a
storm ...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
ISO 26000 Social Responsibility
• An international standard …
• States what sh...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Human rights in short I
• The human rights were adopted by The General Assembl...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Human rights in short II - A choice of rights
• Equality:
All human beings are...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig foreningTeknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 16
Introduction to the first case
LIVING COND...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Some general ethical principles
Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 17
William B...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
For reflection and debate
• Find and list arguments that ”our”
understanding o...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
My pre-prepared sum up
• Are human rights universal?
• … or are they to be und...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Green Economy is part of the path …
Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 20
Green...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Green cities - The Albert Speer & Partner Way
Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jm...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Ideas from classical economy still living
Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 22...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
There are challenges …
• A dispute among economists
and politicians as to how ...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Comments on ISO
26000:
Still a way to go!
Ref: ”Milton Friedman goes on tour” ...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Michael Porter on Creating Shared Value (CSV)
Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jm...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig foreningTeknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 26
Dagbladet på nett onsdag 14.05.2008
This n...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
• Acording to Transparency International,
Angola is rated as one of the world’...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Multinational wealth-
drain and ”-creation”
• Kofi Annan commented on The Afri...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Ethics of New Technology
Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 29
New technology g...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
New technology: The format war of live picture
storage
Teknas Etiske råd janua...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Inequality – The greatest challenge
• The outcome of labor exploitation is
ine...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
Introduction to the second case
Teknas etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 32
PRODUCTS
...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
General ethical principles to have in mind
Teknas etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 3...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
For reflection and debate:
• Find and list arguments that supports that
in 50 ...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
My pre-prepared sum up
• Are human rights universal?
• … or are they to be und...
Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening
TO SUM IT ALL UP
36
• Ethics is a personal responsibility and a
collective one...
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Green economy and ethical challenges

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A lecture about Green economy and ethical Challenges. Adresses that economic theory and priciples often ends up in conflict with Human Rights and Environmental objectives.

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Green economy and ethical challenges

  1. 1. TIØ 4261 - Grønn verdiskaping og etiske perspektiver Green economy and ethical challenges Tekna’s Ethical Advisory Board 2015 Svein Nordenson
  2. 2. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Ethics and efficient decision-making Leif Runar Forsth Dr. ing. and management philosopher to Magasinet Tekna no. 2 in 2012 “If you have a well-founded set of values it is easier to know what will be right for you when you come to make difficult decisions that affect others. You will be able to make better decisions, more quickly, allowing you to be more efficient as a manager.” See also: www.ipo.no 2Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr
  3. 3. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Some general ethical principles Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 3 William Brett, Lord Esher (1817-1899) duty of care, The Precautionary Principle There is a social responsibility to protect the public from exposure to harm, when scientific investigation has found a plausible risk even if it is not full scientific consensus about that risk. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) The categorical imperative John Locke (1632-1704) The responsibility for future generations We ought to leave the earth in a condition so that future generations will have at least the same freedom of choice as we have. Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law.
  4. 4. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Easy to do ethical test: The Tekna version As a memeber of Tekna you must be able to stand by your decisions. They must stand up to ethical scrutiny, to enable you to determine, in advance, whether your decisions: • are lawful, • are fair in the way they effect the people concerned, • have negative consequences for individuals, the environment or Society, • will withstand public scrutiny. Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 4
  5. 5. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening My agenda further on for today • Ethics as a matter of perspective • Case on perspectives on human rights • Business and economy as an ethical challenge • Case on inequality as a challenge • Sum up … 5Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr
  6. 6. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Perspectives on ethics (Ethics of the practical life) 6 • Student ethics • Research ethics • Ethics of Management • Ethics of Professionals (Engineers, Economists, Lawyers etc) • Ethics of the Working Environment • Ethics of Competition • Ethics of Anti-Corruption • Etichs of surveillance • Ethics of New Technology • Bioethics • Environmental Ethics • Ethics of war (Just War) • Whistleblowing • Business ethics and Social Responsibility Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr
  7. 7. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Ethics of engineering Focus on RISK Be COMPETENT Be HONEST Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 7
  8. 8. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Ethics of War Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 8 This is about: • Weapon production and sales • Just war. Is there one? • The idea of preventive attack • Terrorism: War or crime? • The Rules of War • Soldiers status and responsibility • The right to kill
  9. 9. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Ethics as a matter of perspective • We have seen that ethics is a matter of profession, engineer or soldier, or many other fields of human activity • Ethics could also be a personal matter, shaped by personal professional choices, as I will illustrate in my next examples • I will introduce Margrethe ... and Jomar Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 9
  10. 10. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig foreningTeknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 10 Margrethe Lunder is 28 years old and holds a master’s degree in meteorology, on chemistry of the atmosphere. She works as advicer in climate and air quality and is engaged in Tekna’s member group working for reduced CO2 to the atmosphere and global temperature control. The meteorologist - It is a dilemma that we ought to reduce the amount of CO2 going in to the atmosphere. We know what we can do about it, but the need for more research on the overall effect keeps us from doing it. One should act and do research at the same time instead of waiting untill complete knowledge is at hand.
  11. 11. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening The Systems Architect - One important question for many professionals such as myself is if we should work in oil and gas or in renewable resources. Since I made my choice awhile ago, my challenge is to make good future- oriented solutions that minimize environmental hazards. We must aim at achieving optimal quality and safety. We must have solutions that have been tested and well documented so that we know they’ll be permanent. Jomar Jentoft, age 34, Master’s degree in Engineering on Energy and Environment, NTNU, works with systems architecture for electric power distribution for subsea installations. He works with Siemens in Trondheim and is engaged in Tekna’s member group oil and gas. Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 11
  12. 12. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening On March 27,1980, the oil platform Alexander Kielland capsized during a storm in the North Sea with 212 people onboard. The platform ended up tipping over and lying upside down in the ocean. It had been floating on a suspension system consisting of five columns; however, a bracing had broken, causing breaks in other bracings so that the column ended up splitting apart and breaking loose from the platform. The bracing had been weakened by welders when mounting platform equipment. There were only 89 survivors. After the accident a series of new safety measures were implemented. Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 12
  13. 13. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening ISO 26000 Social Responsibility • An international standard … • States what should be the preferable responsibility of businesses and organisations in the societies where they do their business. Teknas etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 13 • Ratified by more than 100 nations • But not ratified by national authorities • The ISO 26000 applies a very wide definition of social responsibility , including a responsibility to adopt human rights.
  14. 14. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Human rights in short I • The human rights were adopted by The General Assembly of the UN in 1948. They covers ethnic discrimination, discrimination of women, actions against torture, childrens rights, protection of guest-workers, protection against kidnapping and the rights of disabled persons. • The human rights are: • Inborn • Yours to be, can not be taken from you, even if you agree. No-one can steal them from you • Universal • Indivisible, can not be partly chosen away • Mutually dependent and contribute mutually to fullfilment of all the rights Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 14
  15. 15. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Human rights in short II - A choice of rights • Equality: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. • Also addresses rights relating to three other critical areas: • Life and security • Personal freedom • Economic, social and cultural freedoms Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 15 equality life and security personal freedom economic, social and cultural freedoms equality By permission: Ingebjørg Gravlien, DNV
  16. 16. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig foreningTeknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 16 Introduction to the first case LIVING CONDITIONS RELIGION IDEOLOGY CULTURE ISO 26000 Human rights
  17. 17. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Some general ethical principles Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 17 William Brett, Lord Esher (1817-1899) duty of care, The Precautionary Principle There is a social responsibility to protect the public from exposure to harm, when scientific investigation has found a plausible risk even if it is not full scientific consensus about that risk. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) The categorical imperative John Locke (1632-1704) The responsibility for future generations We ought to leave the earth in a condition so that future generations will have at least the same freedom of choice as we have. Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law.
  18. 18. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening For reflection and debate • Find and list arguments that ”our” understanding of the standards set by the declaration of human rights should be what counts in all of the countries in the world (Right side groups). Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 18 On the other hand: • Find and list arguments that human rights, as defined in the declaration of human rights, must be understood and practiced according to local standards of living, culture, traditions, ideology and religion (Left side groups).
  19. 19. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening My pre-prepared sum up • Are human rights universal? • … or are they to be understood and practiced according to local standards of living etc.? Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 19 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) The categorical imperative Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law.
  20. 20. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Green Economy is part of the path … Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 20 Green Cities is the aim
  21. 21. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Green cities - The Albert Speer & Partner Way Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 21 From: Manifesto for sustainable cities by the architects in Albert Speer & Partner
  22. 22. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Ideas from classical economy still living Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 22 Vilfredo Pareto (1848 – 1923) The theory of optimum use of resources We will say that the members of a society have achieved optimum use of the resources when in a position where it is not possible to move away from this position in a way that will give one individual a greater benefit witout the benefit of someone else being reduced. Adam Smith (1723-1790) Unintended consequences of intended action will be to the benefit of society at large. . The invisible hand David Ricardo (1772-1823) The theory of comparative advantages Ricardo showed in a study i 1817 that Portugal and England both would benefit from Portugal producing more wine and trading its cloths from England even though Portugal on its own could produce cloths cheaper than England.
  23. 23. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening There are challenges … • A dispute among economists and politicians as to how far businesses social responsibility reaches 23 • A wide range of world business practises conserning labor rights, corruption, taxation etc • Innovation is a regarded as a way to a better future, but in it self it challenges the future • Resulting inequality as probably the greatest challenge of them all Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr
  24. 24. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Comments on ISO 26000: Still a way to go! Ref: ”Milton Friedman goes on tour” The Economist 29th January 2011. ”The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits, agree?” Milton Friedman 1912 – 2006 Nobels memorial prize in 1976 Inspirer of ”The Chicago Boys” UAE is United Arab Emirates Many still agree with Mr Friedman even in Sweden! Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 24
  25. 25. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Michael Porter on Creating Shared Value (CSV) Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 25 Michael Porter (1947 - ) professor at MIT and one of the world’s most famous living managing gurus Creating Shared Value (CSV), differs, says Porter, from CSR in different important ways: 1) CSV is integrated in a business model for competitiveness and profit- maximization, not a response to outside pressure as CSR is as Porter sees it. 2) CSV is integrated in the budget of the business and not part of an isolated CSR- budget. 3) CSV measures economical and social benefits against cost and not against the diffuse goal of CSR that seems to be ”doing good”. See also: http://ledelse.tekna.no/csr-sr-csv-eller-baerekraft/
  26. 26. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig foreningTeknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 26 Dagbladet på nett onsdag 14.05.2008 This newscase is about: A subcontractor of the subsidiary of the Norwegian telecom company Telenor in Bangladesh. Working conditions for the employees employed by this subcontractor were bad and included also child workers. The news headlines in Norway included the word: “SCANDAL”. How far does the responsibility of an employer reach?
  27. 27. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening • Acording to Transparency International, Angola is rated as one of the world’s most corrupt countries. One of the president’s sons manages the country’s oil fund. The presidents oldest daughter was recently named Africa’s first female billionaire. • In order to strengthen local industry, Angola requires foreign oil companies to enter into partnership with local companies. Somoil is one such company. Owners here include governmental ministers in Angola, directors in its national oil company Sonangol and others. Kilde: DN 22.2.2014 Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 27
  28. 28. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Multinational wealth- drain and ”-creation” • Kofi Annan commented on The Africa Progress Report that the work to give the poor better living conditions advances to slowly. The reason is tax-crimes and secrecy in international merchandise export. Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 28 • Transfer pricing is widely used to transport profit to countries with low-tax-regimes. • African countries lose at least 34 billion dollar in income-taxes because of transfer pricing. That is more than the same countries get in aid from developed countries. • Investigations show that EU has more import from countries in Africa than what is reported as export from the same countries. Country B Tax haven Country A in Africa Production Country C in Europe Company VCC -A Company VCC -B Company VCC -C Cheap product Expensive product Expensive product Market
  29. 29. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Ethics of New Technology Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 29 New technology gives opportunities, challenges and uncertainty. Industrial revolutions through the ages Textiles CarTrain IT Nano
  30. 30. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening New technology: The format war of live picture storage Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 30 VHS (Video Home System): 1976-2000 Betamax: Sony 1975-85 VHS – Betamax war: 1976-85 LaserDisc – 1978-1995 no distribution other than regionally in Asia CD – 1982 and VCD fra 1993 DVD – Digital Video Disc – 1995 HD DVD from 2002 – to 2008 Blu-ray-Disc: Blue violet laser – 2003 – 2015? HD DVD/Blu-ray war: 2003 - 2008 … and the resulting mountain of garbage.
  31. 31. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Inequality – The greatest challenge • The outcome of labor exploitation is inequality • The outcome of corruption is inequality • The outcome of creative tax- planning is inequality • Inequality stands in the way of effective measures against global warming 31Teknas Etiske råd januar 2015/jmr
  32. 32. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening Introduction to the second case Teknas etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 32 PRODUCTS PRODUCTION USED AND GARBAGE CO2CO2
  33. 33. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening General ethical principles to have in mind Teknas etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 33 Vilfredo Pareto (1848 – 1923) The theory of optimum use of resources We will say that the members of a society have achieved optimum use of the resources when in a position where it is not possible to move away from this position in a way that will give one individual a greater benefit witout the benefit of someone else being reduced. William Brett, Lord Esher (1817-1899) duty of care, The Precautionary Principle There is a social responsibility to protect the public from exposure to harm, when scientific investigation has found a plausible risk even if it is not full scientific consensus about that risk. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) The categorical imperative John Locke (1632-1704) The responsibility for future generations We ought to leave the earth in a condition so that future generations will have at least the same freedom of choice as we have. Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law.
  34. 34. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening For reflection and debate: • Find and list arguments that supports that in 50 years time we still have to accept that some countries have significant better living conditions for its inhabitants than others if we should avoyd critical global warming. Teknas etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 34 On the other hand: • Find and list arguments that supports that rich countries to day have to accept redused living standard for its inhabitants if we should avoid critical global warming.
  35. 35. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening My pre-prepared sum up • Are human rights universal? • … or are they to be understood and practiced according to local standards of living? Teknas etiske råd januar 2015/jmr 35 Adam Smith (1723-1790) The invisible hand ”The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits, agree?” Unintended consequences of intended action will be to the benefit of society at large. .
  36. 36. Tekna – Teknisk-naturvitenskapelig forening TO SUM IT ALL UP 36 • Ethics is a personal responsibility and a collective one … We have also talked about: • Ethics as a matter of perspective … • … and a case on perspectives on human rights • Business and economy as an ethical challenge • … and a case on inequality as a special challenge Teknas etiske råd januar 2015/jmr Thank you for your attention! A text-version available at: https://www.tekna.no/globalassets/filer/etikk/temahefter/temahefte-6-2015-green-economy-and-etchical-challenges.pdf

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