Finding Patent and Trademark Information for Chemistry (part 1)


Published on

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Where is the Intellectual Property in this?
  • Of course to get a patent, the invention must be shown to work, not just theoretically!
  • Finding Patent and Trademark Information for Chemistry (part 1)

    1. 1. How to Find Intellectual Property Information in Chemistry John Meier Penn State’s Patent and Trademark Resource Center
    2. 2. Four types of intellectual property • Patents – Exclude others from making, using or selling their invention • Copyright – Author’s original creative work • Trademark – A logo or name for a product is protected in a particular industry and geographic region • Trade secret – idea or invention protected by secrecy
    3. 3. Multiple Types of Patents • Utility patents - functional or structural novelty Examples: Light bulb or the “comb-over” • Design patents - ornamental designs Example: An athletic shoe sole design • Plant patents - varieties of plants Example: Poinsettia plant named “Eckaddis”
    4. 4. Limited time • Copyright = Life of the author + 70 years • Utility patents = 20 years from filing date • Design patents = 14 years from issue date • Trademarks = Renewed as long as product in the market
    5. 5. Criteria for Copyright • Copyright – must be original – cannot consist solely of facts “write a paper or a book, develop a computer program, send an e-mail, or take a photograph, you automatically own copyright to that work” American Chemical Society
    6. 6. Criteria for Trademarks • Trademarks – can be a word, phrase, symbol or design – must already be used in interstate commerce (with some exceptions)
    7. 7. Criteria for patentability • Utility - must be useful, or have a use • Novelty - must be new (12-month grace period) • Non-obvious - the difference between existing art and the invention must be sufficiently great as to warrant a patent
    8. 8. Novelty and Priority 1. 0 month, Green invents 2. +1 month, Smith invents 3. +6 months, Smith publishes 4. +3 months, Green files patent application (10 months after invention) 5. Green`s application fails because Smith`s paper is prior art
    9. 9. Novelty and Priority Boucher, P. (2012) Recent developments in US patent law. Physics Today
    10. 10. How long for a patent to be approved? • Application filed to first response by USPTO 28 months (on average) • Total time to issue of a patent 34 months (on average) Times vary by area of technology, you can find out the average for your area on the USPTO website.
    11. 11. How much does it cost to get a patent? Large Entity Fees -Starting at around $2000 -Maintenance for 20 years $9000 Small Entity Fees -Starting at $1000 for a patent -Maintenance for 20 years $4500 Micro Entity (no more than 4 apps) -Starting as low as $500 for a patent Subject to change frequently, only includes fees due to the USPTO 13
    12. 12. How much does it cost to get a patent? • The cost to obtain a U. S. Patent averages out to $20,000 (highly variable) • Foreign patents can raise the expense to over $100,000 very easily • The patent holder is responsible for bringing legal suit against infringement. Cases are very slow and very expensive, costing millions of dollars – Courts may award lost profits, damages, and legal fees to the plaintiff (patent holder)
    13. 13. Benefits of getting a patent • They give the inventor the opportunity to produce and market the invention himself, or license others to do so, and to make a profit. • A license agreement allows the patent owner to grant rights to a commercial entity that wishes to practice the patent in return for payment. In order to compete with Apple in the mobile phone market in August 2011 Google purchased Motorola Mobility for $12.5 billion USD, getting over 17,000 patents.
    14. 14. “Prophetics” in Patents • Since there is no requirement that experimental evidence or working models of an invention be included in a patent application, prophetic patents are routinely granted for inventions that have yet to be tested • In chemistry a newly identified substance can be described even if it has not yet been produced
    15. 15. Parts of a Patent The “Front Page” • • • • • • Patent Number Filing Date and Issue Date Title of the Invention Inventor(s) Assignee(s) U.S. CL. and Field of Search are Classification • References Cited • Representative Drawing
    16. 16. Parts of a Patent The Disclosure • Background of the Invention • Brief Summary of the Invention • Detailed Description of the Invention • Claim(s) – Define the boundary of legal protection
    17. 17. Search Tools U.S. PTO Website – Free database of U.S. patents – limited searching Google Patents – Full text searching of all patents along with PDF files for downloading esp@cenet – European patent office website that provides a search engine of worldwide patents
    18. 18. Search Strategies • Patent Number Searching – Ex: 7294753 • Search by a known field: inventor or assignee – Ex: “Jobs, Steven” or “Apple Inc” • Classification Searching – Ex: CLASS 800 = multicellular living organisms – SUBCLASS 800/4 = method of using a transgenic nonhuman animal to manufacture a protein… • CPC Class “A01K 2217/05”
    19. 19. Chemistry Databases • Scifinder Scholar – Patents included in literature results – Next day patent data international patent offices – Selected US patents back to 1828 • Reaxys – Patents included in structure and literature results – US patents from 1976 and some back to 1920, and World and European patents from 1978 • SureChem – Free website with structure searching
    20. 20. Resources available at the PTRC • Patents on disc for large downloads • Publications of the USPTO – Handouts and help sheets – Fee information (up to date) • Books on patents, trademarks and inventing and how to search for IP information – Writing chemistry patents and intellectual property: a practical guide – Patent Pending in 24 Hours