Weimar Republic• In 1918, A Republican Party was established in Germany, soon after the Emperor abdicted.• The new constitution of the state was adopted at Weimar. Hence, the name Weimar Constitution.• The state running according to Weimar Constitution came to be known as Weimar Republic.
Discontent among the Germans• The Weimar Republic accepted the TREATY OF VERSAILLES, therefore the army hated the Govt.• The Govt. failed to improve the Economic crisis; Taxation increased; industry,business & trade came to halt; Banks collapsed; Inflation increased and life of People became miserable.
NAZISM• National Socialist Party (NAZI) was founded in 1922 by ADOLF HITLER• “Mein Kampf (My struggle)” is the autobiography of Hitler which shows the principles of Nazism.• He hated the Republic Govt and openly called them traitor for accepting the Treaty.
Ideology/ Principles• Extreme Patriotism:• Racial Superiority: Nordic(Aryan) Race- Rule over world- German speaking territories together.• Anti Semitism : He hated Jews- Jews had no love for Germany and Germany was defeated in WW1- Elimination of Jews• Opposition to Democracy• Militarism:
• He raised a quasi military group of youth called STORM TROOPERS. (Khaki clads)• They began terrorise their opponents• Swastik
Hitler- The Chancellor• He entered Politics with Elections.• 1928-32: Reichstag(House of Commons) had 12 members from Nazi• 1932- Number increased to 230.• Hitler got support from minority parties.• 1933- Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany.
Hitler- The Dictator• 1934- Hitler assumed President ship, abolished Fedaral System and established Centralized Govt.• Hitler became the Dictator of Germany.
Policies as Dictator- Germany• Conversion to Nazism.• Education Syllabus• Extremination of Jews• Gestapo- Undergound org. to eliminate opposition.• Economic Reforms• Forced work of Scientists- Agriculture & Industries
Policies as Dictator- World• Treaty of Versailles- A mere scrap & hence no restrictions.• Compulsory Military Education.• Expansion of Navy & Military• 1935- left league• Control over SAAR through terrorism.• Rhine Valley• Anti- Communism• 1937-Pact with Italy & Japan (Berlin-Rome-Tokio Axis)
Rise of Franco• Monarchy rule- Corruption, inefficiency, undeveloped economy, poverty.• 1931- Monarchy was overthrown & became Republic by Moderates but it was too incapable• Franco rose in rebellion.• Civil War- Facist & Nazis supported him.• League ignored Russia’s request for action.• Hitler-Mussoloni- Franco alliance• Civil war- Dress rehersal of World War II
Kemal Pasha- Turkey• Pasha- Benevolent Dictator.• Kemal Pasha rejected Treaty of Severs imposed by Allies, abolised the Sultanate, Turkey- Republic.• He secured support from army & Nationalist.• Reversion of Treaty- Military Power.• Democracy, Nationalism & Secularism.• Curbed Social Evils, Improved Financial conditions• Ataturk (Father of Turks)
Antonio de Oliveira Salazar- Portugal• 1926- Overthrew Republic(1910) by army.• Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, Economics Professor became dictator.• 1932-1968 Prime Minister.• New Constitution, Authoritarian new state, curtailed Political Freedom, Economic Recovery.• Strong Control on Colonies• Neutral in WW2.
Causes of WW2• Economic Problems• Military Dictatorship• Peace treaties• Failure of League• England’s Policy of Appeasement (Germany against Soviet Russia)
Course of War• Germany attacked Poland.• 3 Sept,39- England & France attacked Germany• 7 Dec,41- Japan launched air attack on Pearl Harbour, Pacific Naval base in America.• US declared war on Japan on next day• 6 year long war• 3 Continents• Land, Air & Water