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Algae management for golf course putting greens.

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Algae management can be difficult on golf course putting greens. This presentation highlights various aspects of algae including: biology, problems associated with it, research findings, and management strategies.

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  • I have a question regarding the accumulation of water in the sub grade under the greens complex. Using the standard specifications of 1 inch or more of gravel under the drainage pipe in the trenches in the sub grade allows for water to be left in the sub grade. Many times when the greens are constructed there is no allowances made in the front of the green where the drainage pipe leaves the greens mix and gravel and is completely encased in the native soil. The sub grade smiley drain area can be host to constant moisture because the native soil acts as a barrier to water that is under the drainage pipe in the gravel. What is the danger of pooling water in the sub grade. I am also curious why the USGA greens construction directions do not address this area of the green. In my opinion a smiley drain should be slightly under the sub grade so that the drain is the lowest point in the sub grade. Water that is allowed to remain in the gravel and keep the sub grade wet for extended periods of time seems like a liability. We have recently renovated our greens and we used USGA specifications completely. Unfortunately we are experiencing a major difficulty in the front of several greens. I had asked the architect and construction team to pay attention to the area where the drainage pipe meets the native soil and it was ignored. Do you have any photos of the drainage pipe and how it should be constructed for a total evacuation of all of the water from the green. Water wants to go to the lowest point. It seems that there should be something at the lowest point like a catch basin or vault that gives complete evacuation of all of the water in the sub grade. Any information you can provide would be very helpful. We are getting ready to dig up the front of our greens and try and add some drainage to try and remedy our failing front part of our greens.
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Algae management for golf course putting greens.

  1. 1. Algae Management For Golf Course Putting Greens<br />John Kaminski1 and John inguagiato2<br />1Penn State University<br />2University of Connecticut<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4. prokaryotic cyanobacteria<br />blue-green algae<br />
  5. 5. chlorophyll <br />release oxygen and photosynthesize<br />
  6. 6. phormidium & oscillatoria<br />Tredway et al., 2006<br />
  7. 7. likely many species involved<br />visual & molecular identification is difficult<br />
  8. 8. The Problem With Algae…<br />
  9. 9. subsurface slim mats<br />develops in or below canopy<br />
  10. 10. mucilage production<br />protection and h2o conservation<br />
  11. 11. algal crusts form in thinned turf<br />impermeable to h2o<br />
  12. 12. scarification required<br />promote infiltration and seedling germination<br />
  13. 13. © LP Tredway<br />black layer<br />anaerobic bacteria & hydrogen sulfide gas<br />
  14. 14. yellow spot<br />associated with algae growth (Tredway et al., 2006)<br />
  15. 15. yellow spot & algae<br />many questions remain unanswered <br />
  16. 16. Conditions promoting algae…<br />
  17. 17. water, water, water…<br />excessive and/or at inopportune time<br />
  18. 18. shade or overcast skies<br />almost guaranteed to develop algae<br />
  19. 19. poor soils<br />from construction or self imposed<br />
  20. 20. poor drainage<br />creating standing water, excessive moisture<br />
  21. 21. weak or thinned turf<br />mechanical stress, diseases, chemicals, etc.<br />
  22. 22. all conditions together<br />may or may not see algae<br />
  23. 23. Managing algae populations<br />Fertility | Wetting Agents | Fungicides <br />
  24. 24. nitrogen sources<br />applications of ammonium sulfate, urea, nitrates, others<br />
  25. 25. algae development on a putting green following repeated fertilizer applications, UMD 2003<br />a<br />a<br />a<br />b<br />b<br />b<br />Fertilizers were applied (5-24 kg N/HA) every two weeks from June 2002 to November 2003<br />b<br />b<br />
  26. 26. 20-20-20<br />
  27. 27. Ammonium<br />Sulfate<br />
  28. 28. Ammonium<br />Sulfate<br /> a<br />20-20-20<br />a<br />
  29. 29. algae development on a putting green following repeated fertilizer applications, UMD 2003<br />a<br />a<br />a<br />b<br />b<br />b<br />Fertilizers were applied (5-24 kg N/HA) every two weeks from June 2002 to November 2003<br />b<br />b<br />
  30. 30. impact of fertilizers on algae development on a golf course putting green, UConn 17 August 2010<br />a<br />a<br />a<br />b<br />
  31. 31. Impact of Fertility Summary<br />Nitrogen Sources<br />Ammonium Sulfate = Near Complete Suppression<br />Others = Moderate Suppression<br />20-20-20 = No Reduction<br />Impact of Phosphorous<br />No Impact in 2009-2010 Study<br />
  32. 32. chemical suppression<br />fungicides, “fertilizers”, and wetting agents<br />
  33. 33. Serendipitous Algae Findings<br />Observed Algae Reduction in Plots Treated With:<br />Phosphites<br />Wetting Agents<br />
  34. 34. Phosphate vs Phosphite<br />Phosphate = Fertilizer<br />Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)<br />Ex. K3PO4<br />Phosphite ≠ Fertilizer<br />Phosphorous Acid (H3PO3)<br />Ex. K2HPO3<br />
  35. 35. Preventive suppression of algae on a golf course putting green, UConn 17 August 2010<br />a<br />a<br />b<br />b<br />bc<br />bc<br />bc<br />bc<br />H3PO4 = Phosphate<br />H3PO3 = Phosphite<br />Phos = Phosphite-Based<br />FT = “Fertilizer”<br />FG = “Fungicide”<br />bc<br />c<br />c<br />c<br />
  36. 36. Preventive suppression of algae on a golf course putting green, UConn 17 August 2010<br />Untreated<br />Daconil<br />3.4 fl oz<br />14-day<br />
  37. 37. Preventive suppression of algae on a golf course putting green, UConn 17 August 2010<br />Untreated<br />Alude<br />7.4 fl oz<br />14-day<br />
  38. 38. Curative suppression of algae on a golf course putting green, UConn 17 August 2010<br />a<br />a<br />b<br />cd<br />bcd<br />H3PO4 = Phosphate<br />H3PO3 = Phosphite<br />Phos = Phosphite-Based<br />FT = “Fertilizer”<br />FG = “Fungicide”<br />bc<br />cd<br />cd<br />bc<br />a<br />d<br />cd<br />
  39. 39. Summary of Phosphite Trials<br />Traditional Fungicides Hard to Beat<br />DaconilUltrex (Chlorothalonil)<br />Protect (Mancozeb)<br />Phosphites Suppress Algae<br />Regardless of Intended Use (FT or FG)<br />Preventive Better Than Curative<br />Impact of Phosphite Rates?<br />
  40. 40. main effect of phosphate/phosphite rates on algae suppression on a bentgrass green, uconn 2010 <br />Treatments were applied every 14 days from 20 May to 26 August 2010. <br />
  41. 41. main effect of phosphate/phosphite types on algae severity on a bentgrass green, uconn 2010 <br />Treatments were applied every 14 days from 20 May to 26 August 2010. Data represent average of all titrations evaluated<br />
  42. 42. Summary of Titration Study<br />All Phosphites Suppressed Algae<br />Suppression Increased with Increased Phosphite Rates<br />“Limited” Suppression with Phosphate<br />High Rates Caused Minor Phytotoxicity with Repeated Applications (>10.9 kg a.i./HA)<br />
  43. 43. wetting agents<br />preliminary field trial and greenhouse study<br />
  44. 44. Development of blue/green algae on a shaded putting green, 21 August 2006<br />
  45. 45. Development of blue/green algae on a shaded putting green, 21 August 2006<br />
  46. 46. Development of blue/green algae on a shaded putting green, 21 August 2006<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50. influence of wetting agents and fungicides on algae development in turf, uconn greenhouse 2010<br />
  51. 51. Summary of Wetting Agents<br />Highly Variable/Conflicting Results<br />Field vs. Greenhouse<br />Among Wetting Agents<br />In Combination With Fungicides<br />Surfactants Creating “Dryer” Canopy Should Reduce Moisture and Possibly Algae<br />More Work Needed<br />
  52. 52. Conclusion of Research Info<br />Preventive Suppression Possible With Phosphites (≤10.9 kg H3PO3/HA)<br />Moderate Curative Suppression<br />Excellent Control with Chlorothalonil/Mancozeb<br />Improve Turf Density With Adequate N-Fertility<br />Impact of Phosphorous Conflicting<br />Acidifying Fertilizers May Directly Reduce Algae<br />Wetting Agent Importance Unclear<br />
  53. 53. Just Tell me what to do…<br />
  54. 54. improve light penetration<br />selective or clear cut tree removal<br />
  55. 55. oxygenate the soil<br />manage water infiltration, organic matter, etc.<br />
  56. 56. increase drainage<br />easier to add water than to remove it<br />
  57. 57. increase drainage<br />easier to add water than to remove it<br />
  58. 58. retrofitting existing greens<br />installed after the fact with little disruption to play<br />Courtesy XGD Systems<br />
  59. 59. manage moisture<br />more fine-tuned information<br />
  60. 60. manage water applications<br />more precision to maintain “enough” water<br />
  61. 61. nitrogen and n-sources<br />ammonium sulfate, improve health, ↓ phosphorous?<br />
  62. 62. utilize available pesticides<br />chlorothalonil & mancozeb as well as phosphites<br />
  63. 63. how much precision?<br />every golf course is different. it’s up to you.<br />
  64. 64. www.turfdiseases.org<br />
  65. 65. Additional Questions?<br />@johnkaminski<br />

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