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Ceasar lombroso-john

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Ceasar lombroso-john

  1. 1. CEASAR LOMBROSO GROUP 5 presentation
  2. 2. LIFE OF CEASAR LOMBROSO
  3. 3.  Cesare Lombroso, (born Nov. 6, 1835, Verona, Austrian Empire [now in Italy]—died Oct. 19, 1909, Turin, Italy), Italian criminologist whose views, though now largely discredited, brought about a shift in criminology from a legalistic preoccupation with crime to a scientific study of criminals.  Lombroso studied at the universities of Padua, Vienna, and Paris, and from 1862 to 1876 he was professor of psychiatry at the University of Pavia. In 1871 he became director of the mental asylum atPesaro, and in 1876 he became professor of forensic medicine and hygiene at the University of Turin, where he subsequently held appointments as professor of psychiatry (1896) and then of criminal anthropology (1906).
  4. 4. Epilepsy and Crime: A Fictitious Association  Unfortunately, Lombroso’s theory of a strict connection between epilepsy and the criminal personality (Lombroso, 1885; Jones, 1986;Frigessi et al., 1995) exerted a negative influence on both medical and public opinion (Duffy, 1998; Kraus et al., 2000), which continues up to now, and strongly contributed to the stigmatization of patients with epilepsy (see, as an example for all, the photographs in Fig. 3). No doubt that the 20th century has gone by with all its incredible progress in science, but epilepsy still remains characterized by a significant social burden and stigma (Morrell & Pedley, 2000; de Boer et al., 2008) that are partially due to this long- lasting negative Lombrosian heritage. Eventually, even the heated controversy on the existence of a temporal lobe epilepsy syndrome arises from the ashes of the Lombrosian theories (Blumer, 1999; Devinsky & Najjar, 1999).  Figure 3. Portraits of people with epilepsy. From Roncoroni (1894). Trattato clinico dell’epilessia con speciale riguardo alle psicosi epilettiche. Milan: Vallardi.  As epileptologists, we cannot ignore this “grey area” of the positivistic science of the 19th century. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to present the complete and unabridged series of passages of Cesare Lombroso’s works, published only in Italian language, discussing the issue of epilepsy and crime (Table 1 lists all original Italian quotations and we have provided an English translation). We deliberately avoided any comment, allowing the readers to form their own opinions on the subject.
  5. 5.  Lombroso's general theory suggested that criminals are distinguished from noncriminals by multiple physical anomalies. He postulated that criminals represented a reversion to a primitive or subhuman type of man characterized by physical features reminiscent of apes, lower primates, and early man and to some extent preserved, he said, in modern "savages". The behavior of these biological "throwbacks" will inevitably be contrary to the rules and expectations of modern civilized society.  Through years of postmortem examinations and anthropometric studies of criminals, the insane, and normal individuals, Lombroso became convinced that the "born criminal" (reo nato, a term given by Ferri) could be anatomically identified by such items as a sloping forehead, ears of unusual size, asymmetry of the face, prognathism , excessive length of arms, asymmetry of the cranium, and other "physical stigmata". Specific criminals, such as thieves, rapists, and murderers, could be distinguished by specific characteristics, he believed. Lombroso also maintained that criminals had less sensibility to pain and touch; more acute sight; a lack of moral sense, including an absence of remorse; more vanity, impulsiveness, vindictiveness, and cruelty; and other manifestations, such as a special criminal argot and the excessive use of tattooing.  Besides the "born criminal", Lombroso also described "criminaloids", or occasional criminals, criminals by passion, moral imbeciles, and criminal epileptics. He recognized the diminished role of organic factors in many habitual offenders and referred to the delicate balance between predisposing factors (organic, genetic) and precipitating factors such as one's environment, opportunity, or poverty.  Lombroso's research methods were clinical and descriptive, with precise details of skull dimension and other measurements. He did not engage in rigorous statistical comparisons of criminals and noncriminals. Although he gave some recognition in his later years to psychological and sociological factors in the etiology of crime, he remained convinced of, and identified with, criminal anthropometry.  Lombroso's theories were disapproved throughout Europe, especially in schools of medicine, but not in the United States, where sociological studies of crime and the criminal predominated. His notions of physical differentiation between criminals and noncriminals were seriously challenged by Charles Goring (The English Convict, 1913), who made elaborate comparisons and found insignificant statistical differences.
  6. 6. Psychiatric art of CEASAR LOMBROSO  Lombroso published The Man of Genius in 1889, a book which argued that artistic genius was a form of hereditary insanity. In order to support this assertion, he began assembling a large collection of "psychiatric art". He published an article on the subject in 1880 in which he isolated thirteen typical features of the "art of the insane." Although his criteria are generally regarded as outdated today, his work inspired later writers on the subject, particularly Hans Prinzhorn. 
  7. 7. Spiritualism Cultural references  Later in his life Lombroso began investigating psychic phenomena and spiritualism. Although originally sceptical, he later became a believer in spiritualism. As an atheist, Lombroso discusses his views on spiritualism and the paranormal in his book After Death – What? (1909) in the book he admitted that he was a materialist for most of his life until he had studied the mediumship of Eusapia Palladino which he believed was genuine, he later became convinced of the existence of spirits and wrote "I am ashamed and grieved at having opposed with so much tenacity the possibility of the so called spiritistic facts". Lombroso also believed spiritualism to be "a real, scientifically provable phenomenon".  Lombroso was used for the name of the institute in Philip Kerr's techno-thriller A Philosophical Investigation.
  8. 8. LEADER : BONG BONG MOJICA MEMBERS : ARGI DELA CRUZ ASNULFO BERMUDEZ CARL MELVIN ANDAYA ANNEL ESNANE JOHN FRANCIS VENANCIO JUMAWAN JOEART

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