Virtual WINs - Teaming with Power - 2013


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Introducing the Virtual WINs platform and lessons learned facilitating virtual teams.

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Virtual WINs - Teaming with Power - 2013

  1. 1. Virtual WINsTeaming with Power & LessonsLearned Facilitating Virtual TeamsJohn Carroll, CEO, Virtual WINs, LLCFacilitator, Canyon Leaping Guide, & Community January 2012
  2. 2. Virtual WINs Teaming with Power Table of Contents Magic of Facilitation – Becomes Everyday 2 The New World – Why Virtual WINs 2 Imagine – Every Team WINs 3 Key Benefits 3 Virtual WINs Add Process and Discipline 3 The Virtual WINs Platform 4 Leap from “Me Tools” to “We Tools” 4 Top 10 Accelerators for Rapidly Performing Teams 5 25 Year Technology Evolution 6 Virtual WINs Architecture 9 Top 10 Virtual WINs Process Team Maps 12 Lessons For Launching Virtual WINs Communities 15 Lessons For Coaches, Facilitators, & Moderators 17 Lessons For Participating In Online Sessions 22 Ending Poor Behavior In Virtual Meetings 26 About the Author 27This paper is for facilitators, project managers, coaches and process consultants ready tofacilitate WINs with the teams, businesses, agencies, non-profits, and other entities they serve.Facilitating a great session using Virtual WINs doesn’t requiring reading this paper, nor theVirtual WINs Facilitators Guide. If you are setup as a workplace moderator, you can already clip a team map, add people to the roster, send outinvites, and facilitate great sessions. This paper is for when you want to do more.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 1
  3. 3. Magic of Facilitation – Becomes EverydayVirtual WINs, or “Workplace Innovation Networks,” provide the means for professional firmsand those with in-house professionals to facilitate great sessions, manage projects, build teams,and coach online communities.In a WIN, the magic of top facilitators and proven group processes can easily be wielded toimpact the millions of meetings, projects, and other group processes occurring every day. Ourgoal is to make facilitated collaboration the everyday way teams get work done.The Virtual WINs platform is designed to effectively engage teams working virtually. Anyonewho can facilitate a team to brainstorm ideas, evaluate them, and assign actions can do so better,faster, and with a heck of a lot more fun in a WIN. Traditional Online Meetings Virtual WINs Online Meetings  One topic at a time (hopefully)  Many topics and people at a time  One person at a time (hopefully)  Amazing if done at the same time  Decisions by last person talking/typing  More powerful if done any time  Shallow buy-in and documentation  Decisions made per a process  Tedious and NOT the best we can do  Deep buy-in, everything documentedBy using the private team social networking, the same professionals can coach people to get up-to-speed with each other and the purposes they share. Build great teams in the same place youfacilitate great team efforts.The New World – Why Virtual WINsPick your reason – flattened management teams, global supply chains, travel costs, securityfears, inability to truly engage people with existing technologies, competitive drive to acceleratedecisions, multi-generation workforce, pace of change – in our new world, learning to workmore effectively in virtual teams is a necessity.What’s needed is a new level of collaboration, beyond people sharing and networking to peoplethinking, creating, deciding and doing. “Virtual WINs isn’t for socializing. It is for when you have something to accomplish” Peggy Joyner, Past Chair, PMI-Atlanta, CDC IT Strategic PlanningOur focus is on enabling professionals to facilitate great team efforts, whether these efforts havethe luxury of participants meeting face-to-face, blended with a core group meeting face-to-face,or with everyone participating virtually. Whether meeting at the same time, or with peopleparticipating when they can, and whether for a one-time event, or for complex projects.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 2
  4. 4. Recent efforts with the CDC to update their IT strategic plan, RANA engaging teams in federalagencies and the private sector, the Jholdas Group working with the Florida Conference of theUnited Methodist Church, Stratagem working with the Board of the World Trade Center ofAtlanta, and other partners working with financial institutions, schools, health systems,professional associations, and more confirms that, yes, teams CAN eliminate much or all travel,while BETTER engaging MORE people than otherwise possible.Most importantly, in all of these efforts, our partners didn’t need us to facilitate, nor in manycases to even design and map the process sessions. We coached from the sidelines as theprofessionals facilitated their own WINs!Imagine - Every Team WINsThe Virtual WINs breakthrough is to enable every team to benefit from the power of facilitatedcollaboration and decision making. Imagine everyone who should be involved before decisionsare made able to fully interact with each other, get on the same page, identify opportunities andrisks, freely consider potential solutions, and act rapidly, decisively, confidently, andsuccessfully – all of the time.Just imagine 10, 20, 100, or more people using robust facilitation tools to exchange ideas,comments, and questions simultaneously and even anonymously. Imagine people raising issuesthat otherwise would be difficult to discuss. Imagine people making decisions, assigning tasksand timeframes, with everything documented and tasks posting to people’s profiles.Now, imagine all of this done virtually, with teams using short duration, same time sessionscombined with asynchronous activities where people work on their own schedule, alerted whenthere are updates or new activities. Individuals using team networking to get up-to-speed witheach other and about their shared purposes, with thought leaders and subject matter experts(SMEs) assigned to blog privately and share media.The result - vastly improved outcomes with far more people involved, more factors considered,greater buy-in achieved, and reduced time and cost for implementation.Now that it is easier, faster, less expensive, and less risky to do the right things right, no moreexcuses.Key BenefitsThe benefits to the team, project, business, or other enterprise are immediate and enormous.  Cut online meeting time by 50%  Reduce project time by 50%-90%  Cut face-to-face meetings, and travel, by 50%-100%  Vastly expand participation and satisfaction, especially if using optional anonymity  People able to get to know each other better than many who can meet face-to-face  Generate confidence people’s time will be well spentVirtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 3
  5. 5. For the professional firms who embrace what is now possible in a WIN and migrate to deliveringservices virtually, the competitive advantages are enormous, too.And, before you ask, NO, this is NOT what teams are doing with WebEx, Live Meeting,GoToMeeting, AnyMeeting, nor with SharePoint, Drupal, Basecamp, nor with PBWorks, Jive,Mindjet, Twitter, nor LinkedIn, Facebook, Ning, Skype….useful as many of these are for theirprimary purposes.WINs are for those ready for what comes next in online collaboration – facilitating teams withproven group processes and decision making discipline. Top talent teams going beyond sharingand networking to thinking, creating, deciding, and getting work done.Virtual WINs - Add Process & DisciplineIn this time of greater uncertainty and less structure, purpose-driven people crave process anddecision-making discipline. The Virtual WINs platform gives people confidence they cansucceed, and access to the processes, tools, and top talent they need to realize success.WINs provide secure online workplaces to enable teams to get to decisions faster with betterresults while using less effort. WINs utilize the power of facilitation tools and proven groupprocess “team maps” to allow every session to follow a proper process to achieve optimal results.Leaders no longer have the luxury of “winging it.” Creativity based on intuition is highlyvalued, though in today’s new world, that intuition had better be founded on a full grasp of everyaspect of a decision. Minimizing business risk, ensuring you wring every last electron ofknowledge, judgment, and creativity out of your leadership community, project team, or board,while also accelerating decision making - that’s what facilitators enable teams do in a WIN.In a WIN, when need or opportunity arise, people can immediately come together and workthrough proven group processes, illuminate uncertainty, share their thinking, magnify collectivebrilliance, make decisions, assign actions, and get work done.The result is significantly improved and accelerated decision-making and better implementationas everyone is up-to-speed and part of the solution. Continuously…All the time…Right now.Leap from “Me Tools” to “We Tools”Me Tools - what we have seen so far with Web 2.0 and “collaboration” technologies has been toextend the ability of individuals to be productive working virtually – “Me Tools”. From iPhonesto Facebook, Twitter, and Linkedin, a Me Tool further extends the ability of individuals toperform in a world that is increasingly comprised of people working virtual. Great! Use them asmuch as you can for individual purposes.We Tools - The focus of WINs is on the performance of the team, community, network,business, or enterprise. For example, in a WIN social networking becomes team networking andis a “We Tool” designed to transfer many of the tasks of team formation and team building topeople to do themselves.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 4
  6. 6. In Virtual WINs, if you share a file, or post a blog, it is to serve the purpose of the business,project, community, team, process, or other shared purpose. Use Linkedin, Twitter, Facebook,and other great tools for your individual purposes. WINs are for Teams!Top 10 Accelerators for Rapidly Performing Teams1. 100/80/100 - strive for 100% participation, tapping the 80% of any groups knowledge that is in peoples heads, and the 100% of assumptions upon which decisions are actually based that reside there as well.2. Have a process - people invest themselves in efforts they have confidence will succeed, evidenced by a known process with understood purpose, roles, and deliverables. If cross functions, disciplines, generations, cultures, etc., have a glossary.3. Make decisions about making decisions before making decisions, otherwise people make it up each time or settle for last person talking/typing, as in most web conferences, team spaces, and use of wikis.4. Anonymity within known groups - improve solutions by elevating discourse above personalities, politics, power struggles, fear of participation or fear of offending.5. Asynchronous participation - vastly increase quantity and intensity of participation by mixing same time interaction with any time, as-you-can participation.6. Simultaneous participation - many-to-many participation on many topics enables top people to participate where they can have the greatest impact, bypassing the tedium of sequential processes.7. Vote early and often - the first vote often surfaces uncertainties and misunderstandings, catalyzing better discussions, and frequently additional votes resulting in greater clarity, certainty, and confidence in decisions.8. Tag and bound SMEs - identify subject matter experts upfront, bounded by subject, recognizing the limitations of SMEs by definition if tasked with creating a new order of things. Tip – if pursuing a truly new order of things, there aren’t any SMEs.9. Bias for decision-making - not having to look back is essential for going fast. Neither head-nodding nor silence equate to making decisions.10. Expect rapid performance - design processes so people to get themselves and each other up-to-speed using the Virtual WINs team networking tools as everyone expects the other participants to perform immediately. “We just did in 10 minutes what normally takes hours!” Dave Jones, Altus AllianceVirtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 5
  7. 7. Twenty-Five Year Technology EvolutionFor the past 25+ years I’ve worked to harness technologies for engaging far-flung leadershipcommunities and project teams, beginning with efforts to plan innovations for serving our thennewly emerging senior markets. I then pioneered the application of facilitation tools, startingwith IBM’s Team Focus, and moving on to GroupSystems, WebIQ, and now coaching others todo the same using Virtual WINs.The following strategy formulation efforts provide an overview of the evolution of technologiesand approaches. A key criterion when assessing the effectiveness of an approach, and one tobear in mind when contrasting with social networks, is the percentage of penetration of aleadership community. Where social networks are focused on quantity of participants to“emerge”, facilitators using Virtual Wins are seeking to achieve high levels of participation ofthe right people, right away! No time for emergence.25 Years AgoTo plan a new association, the first to focus on all entities serving seniors, we designed andimplemented an innovative approach using a multi-iteration survey, a Delphi study, with 50+leaders from all sectors serving seniors – from developers breaking ground to academicians inthe midst of 10-year studies.We used diskettes, overnight mail, WordStar with mail-merge to assimilate responses, and evenincluded a psychological profile instrument to determine the optimal groupings of participants tomaximize creativity in the face-to-face summit we facilitated using flipcharts, markers, andvoting matrices. Technologies Used – multi-iteration surveys, WordStar, diskettes, overnight mail, Fax, flipcharts, and tape. Penetration – every one of the 50+ participated in the preliminary activities, and ~40 in the face-to-face, with some declaring it the most creative experience of their career. This graphic, from seminars I gave between ’86 and ’91 on the “Business Opportunities in an Aging Society” to the American Society of Aging, NASLI, AHCA, ABA, NIC, and the launch of the Center for Creative Retirement at UNC Asheville, illustrates the reality that we are the first society ever to be middle-age oriented.Virtual WINs will enable us to tap the creative potential of our diverse youth, leverage theproductivity dividend of our middle-aged workforce, and mine the latent wealth of wisdom,experience, and foresight of our elders through intergenerational collaboration.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 6
  8. 8. 12 Years AgoAfter the acquisition of an assemblage of 18 businesses in the same industry, we were chargedwith planning the operational merger. The approach we designed entailed facilitating fifteenteams of 15 participants through a 90 day process – 225 executives and managers fromcompanies who all considered each other competitors, and that their own company was the onlyone doing things right.We used our Canyon Leaping approach for strategy formulation to guide each team as theypainted a vivid, shared vision of success, and then planned how they got there.We used face-to-face kick-off sessions at Atlanta’s Hartsfield-Jackson Airport conferencefacility for fly-in/fly-out one day kick-off sessions for four teams a day where people were issuedlaptops, and, using GroupSystems and four portable networks, were guided through the initialplanning activities.Each person was set-up with AOL accounts, the only means at the time to have cross-enterpriseinteraction, and was guided through activities using email, chat rooms, and instant messaging.Many recall 2 AM IMs, and I recall facilitating one critical meeting while on a pontoon boat inMichigan where, supposedly on vacation, I was simultaneously fishing with my son and niece,and using my laptop and a cell-phone modem. Pretty amazing considering this was last century!We completed the effort 20 days early, with only 2 face-to-face meetings for each team required,rather than the original estimate of 5 per team (that’s a reduction of 3 trips per person for 2/3rdsof 15 teams of 15 people, as most people needed to travel – or approximately 450 less trips!)greatly reducing the overall cost of the effort. Technologies Used – Flyin/flyout meetings, GroupSystems, portable laptop networks, teleconferences, video conferences, NetMeeting, AOL Chat Rooms, and AOL IM. Penetration – nearly 100% - some were owners of the acquired firms and took a pass, the rest became successful Canyon Leapers.8 years agoOK, this one was face-to-face, yet it shows the power of facilitation tools and what is nowpossible virtually as a comparison. A global supply chain needed to design a new businessmodel.Eighteen highly competent subject matter experts were convened. Using our Canyon Leapingprocess for strategy formulation from the Vision Side, they first decided that if fourteen agreed,all eighteen would support a decision. Then, after identifying the key stakeholders, they werechallenged to “Leap the Canyon” and paint their vision of success for each stakeholder.With significant debate and discussion, and by continuously applying their decision criteria, theyutilized anonymity and simultaneous exchange to rapidly build consensus. They then wieldedthis vivid, Shared Vision to identify the “BIG IDEAS” that got them over their Canyon, the“Baggage” left behind, high level maps of both the “As Is” and “To Be” processes and a detailedAction Plan with assignments, dependencies, and timeframes.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 7
  9. 9. Now, realistically, how long would such an effort take with traditional means? This effort tooknot 6 ½ months as many estimate, or 6 ½ weeks, not even 6 ½ days. It took 6 ½ hours! Andnow, eight years later, this whole process can be done virtually, though we certainly wouldn’tneed to do everything in a single, same time 6 ½ hour session. And, we could involve dozens,even hundreds more experts, top thinkers, and leaders to improve outcomes, and speed theimplementation by reducing risks and misunderstandings.Even more important to scaling, they wouldn’t need me as any professional facilitator or projectmanager could facilitate such a WIN using the Canyon Leaping Team Map. Technologies Used – portable laptop network with GroupSystems. Penetration – 100% participation.5 Years AgoTwenty-six participants from 15 locations of a global healthcare organization needed to providerequirements for a major, complex project, and this needed to be done in a timely manner – theday after we were asked to facilitate the session.With the project’s consultant, we set-up Ids and passwords for each participant, designed thesession, imported draft requirements and loaded background documents for download, review,and commenting before the session.During the session, we utilized both full team participation on single activities, and sub-teams toprocess through a series of topics, rotating teams for review and follow-up so that everyone hadthe chance to have their say – and know they were heard – on every topic.The only difficulty was that more people than expected were able to participate – because wordspread about what we were doing, overloading the conference call bridge – though everyone wasable to participate online while the conference call bridge was expanded, and the 90-minutesession wrapped up 10 minutes early! Technologies Used – WebIQ and teleconference Penetration – 100%+ - more people than originally invited asked to participate!TodayJim Seligman, the CIO of the CDC, had some aggressive targets for the CDC’s first use ofVirtual WINs. The project, the update of the CDC’s IT Strategic Plan (CITSP): 1. Eliminate face-to-face meetings 2. Engage more people 3. Provide a safe environment for people working across disciplines and hierarchy 4. Enable people to participate asynchronously 5. CDC professionals able to facilitate with minimum of coaching “Everyone was raving about the experience in using the tool…. It was a great enabler of the process.” Jim Seligman, CIO, CDCVirtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 8
  10. 10. Virtual WINs ArchitectureWIN Front PageSimilar to the SaaS website,, the front page of a WIN can be designedwith multiple pages. Alternatively, links to specific WIN Community Pages, or even to specificWorkplaces, Sessions, or Activities can be placed on existing websites enabling participants tologin, bypassing the front page.WIN Community PageEach WIN Community has a Community Page to provide a private place for keeping up with theactivity occurring within each WIN Community. The functionality includes: Recent Blogs – list and link to recent blogs from members and workplaces Featured Member – display and link to top experts, coaches, or other members Featured Workplace – display and link to orientation or other workplaces Featured Blog – display most recent blog post of key member or workplace Community-wide Q&A – everyone can post questions or discussion topics and respond Message Boxes – from announcements to links to videos hosted on other sitesVirtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 9
  11. 11. Process Session Activities – Facilitation ToolsProcess Sessions are designed using a wide variety of facilitation tools for people to share ideas,discuss, decide, and assign. Great for simple meetings, crafting documents, or facilitatingcomplex group processes. The WIN Process Session Activities: List – brainstorm a list or import an existing list or document to discuss Category List – brainstorm within categories or import a document List to Category List – moderators identify categories and move list items to categories Select – moderators or participants can select items Vote – participants approve, disapprove, or abstain Prioritize – evaluate a list or category list Estimate – great for budget preparation Range Estimate – reveal the true level of uncertainty in a team Order – sequence a process or rank order options Weighted Criteria – evaluate lists or category lists using multiple weighted criteria Tasks – create tasks with dates and assignments that post to people’s profiles Media – upload and share files, images, or documents Text & Links – insert notes or include links to videos or other tools hosted on other sites Publish – all ideas, discussions, decisions, and assignments are automatically documented with HTML report ready for printing and XML for exporting Clipboard – used to copy and paste content within and between sessions. Additionally, moderators have the ability to clip and paste from external content enabling import of existing documents for group writing and approval.Member ProfilesMembers have their own profile with a lean set of team social networking tools. The team focusis designed so that a person can have their basic profile (photo, contact information) replicated toeach WIN Community they join, with shared media, private blogging, and messaging specific toeach Community. For example, Dr. Young’s blog in the XYZ Community can be different thanone she might post in the ABC Community. Member Profile tabs display: Workplaces – public or private with shared media, blog, and process sessions Tasks – to-do list and links from tasks assigned in process sessions Blog – each person can post blogs that are private to the Community Media – people can upload documents, photos and other media to share Bio – a brief biography Basics – share as much or as little information as you choose, and opt for sending messages and invitations to your emailVirtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 10
  12. 12. Workplaces Process Sessions – group processes mapped using Virtual WINs facilitation tools, either by clipping, pasting, and tweaking a WIN Team Map, or by creating new sessions Blog – members can post to a shared blog and comment on the posts of each other – blog posts are anonymous, while comments are attributed Media – workplace participants can share documents, photos, and other media Roster – view members and link to their profiles. Workplace moderators can add people and send invitations with links to login directly to the workplaceVirtual WINs Team MapsFor the next project, why not try something different? Rather than making it up each time, asmost teams are forced to do, especially when working virtually with web conferencing, wikis,discussion boards, and team spaces.Instead of hoping that a diverse group of individuals will somehow bond and figure out how touse all of the technology you throw at them, how about changing the game? Try a Virtual WINsTeam Map.In addition to mapping our own processes, we team with top professionals to map theirproprietary processes. For example, we teamed with a consulting firm to map the firm’sproprietary strategic planning and course correction processes, enabling their client to replacequarterly ½-day face-to-face meetings for eight regions, with 90-minute conference calls, withall participants reporting better outcomes. After the first quarterly sessions, the regional trainingmanagers assumed the role of facilitators, with co-facilitation support from our Coaches.The growing WIN Team Map Store with proven, repeatable group process Team Maps willvastly expand the reach of effective facilitation of virtual teams. For example, facilitators canassemble a team, clip the “Action Planning Team Map”, tweak the Team Map as needed, andfacilitate people to brainstorm possible actions, discuss them thoroughly, evaluate, makedecisions, and assign tasks, with everything documented automatically. Another Simple WIN!Each WIN Community can be equipped with a core set of Team Maps that address many of theneeds for facilitating virtual teams. The following are the Top 10 WIN Process Team MapsVirtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 11
  13. 13. Top 10 WIN Process Team Maps1. Canyon Leaping Session “The first thing we did….” Paint Shared Vision of Success Plan from the Vision Side2. Sales Strategy Identify Targets Strategies Tactics Assignments3. BIG IDEAS & Baggage Drop Build Shared Foresight BIG IDEAS Baggage Drop Action Plan4. SWOT+ Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats …and Actions5. Risk Assessment Identify Risks & Assess o Severity o Probability o VisibilityVirtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 12
  14. 14. 6. Customer-Centric Values Identify Values & Assess o Importance o Customer Visibility o How Well We Live Assess Gaps & Address7. Project Team Lifecycle Project Charter …to… Lessons Learned8. Action Planning Brainstorm & Discuss Actions Evaluate & Decide Assign Tasks & Timeframes9. Budgeting Identify Budget Items Range Estimate LOE Range Estimate Costs10. Advisory Board High Points Challenges Key Performance Indicators Actions & AssignmentsVirtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 13
  15. 15. Team Map Example - Action PlanningThis Virtual WINs Team Map includes a series of activities for either asynchronous or same timeparticipation to enable a team to move rapidly through idea generation to the assignment ofresponsibilities and timeframes for starting and completing tasks. Facilitators using Virtual WINscan clip and paste the Team Map into their own workplace, tweak the activities, inviteparticipants, and facilitate a team to rapidly create an action plan. Action Planning Session Team App Brainstorm Ideas Discuss Ideas Merge Redundant Ideas First Evaluation Surface reasons #1 & #2 for disagreeing Weed out weak ideas Generates great discussions Discuss, Add Ideas, Edit, & Merge Second Evaluation of Ideas Create Action Plan (assignments & due dates) Publish Report (discussions, decisions, tasks) Optional Activities Estimate Level of Effort Estimate Costs Risk Assessment (three criteria)Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 14
  16. 16. Lessons for Launching Virtual WINs CommunitiesThe focus of these lessons is to get 80%-100% active participation. Regardless of the purpose ofthe community most of these lessons should apply.Lesson 1 - Warm-EmbraceOffer a combination of technologies and human interaction to enable individuals to feelcomfortable with the many-to-many collaboration of Virtual WINs facilitation tools and teamnetworking. This is especially important cross cultures and cross generations with differences inlanguage, life experiences, and methods of collaboration and decision-making.Lesson 2 – Pre-Wire PeopleSet-up so that people are already part of the orientation workplace with initial task assignments.Lesson 3 - Multiple Orientation ApproachesSupport people from where they are in getting comfortable using the tools and confident theirtime will be well spent.While technologies are increasingly easy to use, most people find it helpful to have a brief 5-10minute orientation before posting their first blog, uploading their picture, posting a bio, or beforeparticipating in their first session using facilitation tools.Whether just-in-time, one-on-one orientations at the time of a meeting, scheduled formal team orinformal group orientations, self-orientations, or via streaming video tutorials, the goal is to bethere to give participants what they need, how they need it, and when they need it.Our experience is that ~40-60% of the people will attend group orientations, another ~30-50%will make it to one-on-one or will orient themselves, while the remainder will call in late to aconference call, unable to login. For these, we’ve learned to schedule a back-up call and anadditional Online Coach.Lesson 4 - Coaches and Catalysts OrientationInclude targets and milestones for seeding the Community with content. Online Coaches are thepeople who will provide coaching to new participants, while Community Catalysts (who may bethe same people) are charged with seeding content.Lesson 5 - Communication Campaign and Participant RecruitmentIntegrated program for inviting people to register, announcing upcoming activities, andrequesting participation in orientation sessions. A combination of email invitations,announcements, newsletters, orientation videos, team orientation sessions, and Online Coaching.Tools ranging from MailChimp to EventBrite may be very useful in your campaigns.Lesson 6 - Sponsor Recruitment and Advertising PlacementTargeted online communities are becoming highly valued by those who would like to get theirown message to the members. Most communities will not be of a size to justify Google Ads,though they are great opportunities for highly targeted sponsorship advertising, and throughexclusivity, justify membership fees.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 15
  17. 17. Lesson 7 - “Perfect Meeting” Warm-Up ActivitiesA perfect meeting we describe as one where people come up with ideas, discusses themthoroughly, make decisions, and assign actions. Most meetings only do the first activity fairlywell, not much of the second, and avoid the third.Our warm-up activities prepare people by helping them shift from what they had been doingprior to the session. This is an essential step, especially considering the tendency for peopleworking virtually to not schedule any breaks – often leaving one conference call early to joinanother one late. The warm-up activities provide orientation in a non-threatening manner, usinga topic removed from the reason for getting together.For example, asking participants to enter their favorite vacation destination, than having themmake comments on each other’s ideas, or ask and answer questions. Then, take the list and havepeople evaluate each of the destinations on a scale of 1 to 5 as to whether they agree it is a greatdestination for a vacation. In 10-15 minutes we will have gone through all three stages of aperfect meeting – the first time for most participants.Lesson 8 - On-Call Online Community CoachingAccess to Online Community Coaches provides an essential level of support to accelerate andincrease participation. Using Skype,, or similar, enabling people tocontact someone for help is a simple matter – and doing so will materially and positively impactparticipation.Coaches are on call for participants and moderators, for simple one-on-one orientations (or re-orientations), or to help guide the mapping of complex group processes to the Virtual WINsfacilitation tools.Online Community Coaches are important during early adoption so word spreads thatparticipation is easy and well worth the effort, thereby reducing the need for Coaches as usebecomes normalized.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 16
  18. 18. Lessons for Coaches, Facilitators, & ModeratorsVirtual WINs facilitation tools enable people to harness many-to-many interaction and weave ingroup processes and decision-making.Lesson 1 - Dive Right InResist the temptation to tell people how good it is going to be and instead jump right in with anactive learning experience. Our goal is to have people hitting the keyboards within the first 5minutes to experience true many-to-many interaction.Lesson 2 – Walk Before You RunResist the temptation to try all of the facilitation tools with new participants. Let everyone getcomfortable first – the value and impact of just brainstorming ideas, discussing them, voting andassigning actions is sufficient.Lesson 3 - The Power of SilenceIf everyone is asked to type in their thinking at the same time, guess what? People are going tobe silent – for far longer than they have ever experienced silence on a conference call before,with everyone absorbed in many-to-many collaboration as each other’s ideas and immediatelydisplayed.Lesson 4 - Make Decisions about Making Decisions BEFORE Making DecisionsOr, continue to make decisions about making decisions every time you make decisions. Givepeople confidence by deciding upfront how decisions will be made.For example:  Determining the percent that need to agree in order for all to support a decision.  Deciding if a subject matter expert (SME) can call for the floor and further discussion if they are one of the dissenters.  Identifying who are the subject matter experts and for what subjects.Lesson 5 - Vote Early and OftenCall it “polling”, “evaluating” or whatever is politically correct in your environment. The fastestway to kick interaction up a notch is to ask people to vote on something they’ve been discussing.Once a team goes through the mental switch from dialogue to decision making, assumptionsmasquerading as facts, knowledge gaps, and hidden agendas surface, launching some of the bestvocal discussions, thereby eliminating 2 of the 3 reasons people disagree. 1. People not having a common understanding of the alternatives 2. People not having a common understanding of the criteria 3. People come equipped with different knowledge, assumptions, experience, judgment, wisdom, and foresight – the real wealth of a community.Getting rid of the first two allows teams to concentrate on leveraging the latent value in thestrengths of our individual diversity (subject matter expertise, cultural, life experience,generational, etc.) of the third reason people disagree.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 17
  19. 19. With greater clarity on the alternatives and the criteria, the team votes again. What will surface isconvergence on a solution, or the recognition of the existence of well supported alternatives.Voting transforms a meeting from simply informing to robustly engaging people in GREATvocal dialogues about what is REALLY important. And, with voting so easy in a Virtual WINssession, people often vote at least twice, with the first vote igniting clarifying discussions, thesecond driving to decisions.Lesson 6 - Group Writing in a WIN - The Super WikiParticipants generate a draft document and recommend improvements virtually, while voting foreach paragraph of the document (Yes I Support, Yes with Edits, No I Don’t Support). As editsare made, people return to the continuous session and updated their votes until all parties agree.Lesson 7 - 2-3 Minute Follow-UpThink of the last PowerPoint Presentation you sat through – face-to-face or virtually. At thecompletion, when a call for questions was made, at best 3 or 4 of the 10, 20, 50 + people spokeup, and the discussion was surface level.Every time we add a 2-3 minute (yes, just 2-3 minutes) Q&A activity at the end of a PowerPointpresentation, 10, 20, or 50+ people hit the keyboards and there is no question remaining as towhether the participants “get it”. And, where they don’t, more often than not the otherparticipants teach each other what they learned before the presenter responds.Lesson 8 - Begin with a Straw manEspecially with large groups, seed idea generation and discussions with initial lists and examples(strawmen). People will see what to do by example, including the recommended syntax forwording of ideas. Where wording isn’t consistent, you will find that with anonymity, the teamwill self-correct. The intention isn’t to offer a recommended listing that is nearly complete, but astarter set to ignite the creativity of the team.Lesson 9 - Multiple Facilitator ScreensLogging on from multiple PCs or laptops can be very helpful. This enables the facilitator to haveone screen devoted to guiding participants through the various activities; with another screenshowing the participant’s view, or to see how participants might view the screen using a differentbrowser. 80% of IT budgets are spent on managing 4% of an organization’s knowledge – structured data.* We focus on engaging the 80% of an organization’s knowledge, and 100% of the assumptions, that only exists in people’s heads! * Giga Information Group, Inc.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 18
  20. 20. Lesson 10 – Accelerated Face-To-Face SessionsThe Virtual WINs facilitation tools impact more than online efforts. Face-to-face sessions aretransformed as well, since much of what is often crammed into face-to-face efforts can now bedone online, allowing for much higher value uses of increasingly rare face-to-face time.If you haven’t participated in a facilitated face-to-face session using collaborative decision tools,please know a few basics:  You won’t get any other work done, so don’t bring any.  You will work intensely for the full session.  Most people are “brain-drained” in 4-6 hours, even with lunch, breaks, and only 40%- 60% of the time spent on the keyboards,  You will accomplish more in those 4-6 hours than most teams would do in 2-3 days, if not weeks, or months, if even possible by other means.Lesson 11 – Blended SessionsA blended session has a core group face-to-face, with remote participants for some or all of thesession activities. With Internet access, nearly any facility can host remote participants forblended sessions. The result – getting a lot done and still having time for those able to be face-to-face getting in an unhurried 18-holes of golf – turning a “Retreat” into a “Golftreat”, enjoyinga leisurely meal, or other great relationship building face-to-face activities.Lesson 12 - Combination Same Time & Asynchronous ParticipationAsynchronous participation means people participate in continuously available sessions whentheir schedule permits. This is a powerful capability for engaging participants, though just asmany-to-many Virtual WINs facilitation tools need to be experienced to understand thepossibilities, so do people need to experience the use of asynchronous participation to understandthe potential.Many experienced teams find 30-60 minute same time sessions are sufficient, when interspersedwith asynchronous participation. For example, a 30-minute conference call once a week, withindividual and team assignments in between, or, a full team kick-off meeting for 60 minutesfollowed by sub-team “jamming” asynchronously for 48 hours, followed by a core "KnowledgeTeam" processing of the results of the sub-teams and reporting back to the full team prior to afollow-up same time decision session. Whew! These tools enable a new level of creativity fordesigning effective group processes.Lesson 13 - Dual Team approach – this approach can be effective for many group processes.A “Knowledge Team” is the core group who is charged with assimilating the input of the full“Planning Team” and/or Sub-Teams, and moving the process forward, with ground rules fordoing so agreed upon up-front. The Knowledge Team designs and tests all Planning Teamactivities.Lesson 14 - Sub-TeamsSub-teams are highly effective when used to rapidly process through significant quantities ofinput. In our processes we design for full team initial input on multiple topics (e.g., in ourCanyon Leaping process, teams are charged with envisioning what it will be like on the “VisionSide” for the most important stakeholders).Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 19
  21. 21. Sub-teams are then asked to take off their individual “hats”, and put on their “team hats” andwork as representatives of the whole to summarize the input of all participants on a specifictopic, knowing that other sub-teams are doing the same for other topics or questions.Returning to the “Main Tent”, sub-teams review their thinking, with other team members able torespond vocally or anonymously via their keyboards. This same process can be adapted toglobal teams participating in a series of sub-team activities, with asynchronous participationbetween same time activities.Lesson 15 - Conference Calls & Break-Out RoomsCreative use of a mixture of rapidly improving conferencing technologies, secondary conferencecalls, asynchronous participation, and voice/video solutions such as Skype and ooVoo providethe communications infrastructure needed to facilitate virtual team efforts. New, reliable andcost effective solutions (e.g.,, Adobe Connect, and Maestro) enablelarge group processes with “Big Tent” conference calls, and multiple breakout conference callrooms pre-set for use by sub-teams.By establishing and clearly communicating a set of ground rules beforehand, people know thatleaving the full team conference call and going to their break-out conference call is just liketaking a break and walking to a physical break-out room.Drive the point home by giving everyone 5 minutes so they can take care of personal mattersbefore meeting with their breakout group, then have them all return to the “Big Tent” for fullteam reviews. The facilitator can proctor each of the breakout teams via the Virtual WINsfacilitation tools, as well as pop in on each of the separate breakout conference calls.Lesson 16 - “Having Your Say” versus “Know You’ve Been Heard”By designing processes that weave together individual participation with sub-team and full-teamactivities, buy-in to the results is significantly enhanced because people know that even ifdecisions don’t go their way, at least they have been heard. The use of sub-teams to process andsummarize the input of the full team ensures that every idea and comment has been read andconsidered.When charging the sub-teams with what first appears a daunting task, summarizing a topic thatcould easily have a couple of hundred comments, we simply assign the roles, request a scribe foreach team to enter bulleted summaries, and give them 10-15 minutes. Amidst initial grumbling,people get to the task and pretty soon realize that rather than having someone else makedecisions about what they had to say; they can easily do it themselves. From there, the sub-teams are off and running through the team stages of forming, storming, norming, andperforming. First team finished gets to pick the next topic to summarize.Key to being able to focus each sub-team on summarizing separate topics is to convey that thereview step includes a discussion stage where the full team can review each of the sub-team’ssummaries and interject comments – either vocally or anonymously via the keyboards. Thiseither ignites further creative discussions and changes, or simply enables dissenters to gainclosure because they know they’ve been heard.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 20
  22. 22. Lesson 17 - Parking LotsIn a face-to-face session, a facilitator will often use a separate flipchart to list topics or issues thatsurface that need to be addressed, but that are NOT the focus of the specific session. ParkingLots take on a heightened value in virtual team efforts, especially with asynchronousparticipation.When utilized with anonymous participation, teams are able to voice tangential, yet importanttopics, and receive a full airing, without hampering the progress of the core process. Parking lotsare also a great place to move otherwise disruptive “team humor” so it can instead have aconstructive, relationship building role.Lesson 18 - Back-up CoachingTo minimize disruption, and to help those having problems to get help without feelinguncomfortable, provide “Back-up Coaching”. Back-up coaching makes use of an OnlineCommunity Coach to provide one-on-one or small group orientations by asking anyone stillhaving problems to hang-up and call back in using a secondary conference call number.Secondary numbers and/or breakout room conference call numbers are included in the pre-session information.Often simply knowing they can return later to add their thinking through blogs or their ideas andvotes in session activities, all asynchronously, will enable the session to move forward.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 21
  23. 23. Lessons for Participating in Online SessionsLesson 1 - Ground Rules for Online SessionsMany of these ground rules should serve as the foundation for all facilitated sessions – they arejust MORE important when people are participating virtually. The reality, they are treated asLESS important for virtual meetings, resulting in many of the poor behaviors. All sessions have agendas. All sessions begin by enabling people to get a GRIP – goals, roles, information, and process. All sessions start on time, break on time, and end on time – unless, of course, if meeting asynchronously when people can participate at any time. Everyone participates – “hitting the keyboards” for many-to-many interaction rather than succumbing to traditional linear one-to-many “dialogues”. The happy irony of hitting the keyboards is that this launches far better vocal discussions as the choir-preaching, show-boating, meeting-bullying, or other means by which people gain and wield power in traditional group processes are bypassed. Pre-work is provided with sufficient time for completion. All pre-work is completed prior to a session. Failure to complete pre-work has known consequences (e.g., login 10 minutes early for rapid review, loss of voting rights, loss of SME status, revoke invitation, etc.) Subject Matter Experts (SME) are identified BEFORE sessions, and are bounded to their subjects to serve as experts. Conduct ourselves with a “bias for decision-making”, so that when the opportunity for making a decision exists, we make it and record it. Neither head nodding nor silence is accepted as a substitute for decision-making. Nor is the last person talking/typing tolerated as the decision-making approach. Any team member can call for a vote at any time in the process. Patience will be extended to participants working in a second language, or who are working through the aid of a translator or similar assistance. Cross-functional, and especially cross-cultural teams require a Team Glossary so that a common language is built and utilized consistently. Respect the time investment made by other participants – don’t bring other work to the session expecting to get it done in between participating.Once you have a foundation, your team can lighten-up and have some fun, because everyonebuilds confidence and trust that they will succeed and their time will be well used.Lesson 2 - The Power of TeamsPretty quickly, people learn about the “Power of Teams” when everyone can get a word inedgewise. In a traditional 1 hour meeting with 20 team members, everyone would get amaximum of 3 minutes air time, though we all know that 3 or 4 people will dominate 50% - 80%of the meeting time.In a session where people have access to Virtual WINs facilitation tools, everyone gets to talk atonce. Assuming 50% of the time is spent on the keyboards, that means everyone will get 30minutes – or 7 to 10 times what they would have gotten even in the best of meetings, with eventhe “Meeting Bullies” getting more time!Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 22
  24. 24. Lesson 3 - Power of Simultaneous, Many-to-Many CollaborationAn example from hundreds of face-to-face sessions that can now be magnified with virtualteams. At the Carter Center, we were awaiting a visit by the heads of thirty of the topFoundations to hold a 45-minute demonstration of the Collaboration Room where I served as avolunteer facilitator.We were informed, due to the opportunity for an extended visit with President Carter, we wouldonly have 15 minutes! During that time, these leaders created a list of the top issues confrontingour children in urban areas, discussed them and why they were important, than rated them todecide on those that were most important to address. We handed everyone a report of the resultson their way out the door.Lesson 4 - Power of AnonymityWhile many have read the works of quality guru, W. Edwards Deming, few have experienced thepower of a safe environment he called for, such as is created by the use of optional anonymity.Creativity flourishes, as people are able to freely tap the thinking of each other.  Anonymity provides safety.  Anonymity provides leveraged creativity -- separating ideas from the personalities, igniting people to expand each other’s thinking.  Anonymity enables people to tell someone they care about that their ideas are wrong.  Anonymity launches some of the most fruitful, enjoyable, engaging dialogues.  Anonymity accelerates team formation and building of trust, thereby eliminating many of the reasons for needing anonymity.Anonymity can have another significant benefit, diffusing the individual who will not be silencedon a conference call or in a face-to-face meeting, the “Meeting Bullies”. With optionalanonymity, everyone is able to fully participate, even if some others try to monopolize either thevocal discussion, or the onscreen dialogue.If you want to know what people really think, you need to provide them the means to speakopenly. The easiest way to do this is to protect them by providing them with anonymity and aprocess everyone has confidence will work.An example was a quality team charged with developing clinical standards. The team of eightphysicians, supposedly peer subject matter experts, had one amongst them who felt he was theteam leader. After our warm-up activities, we launched the team into a brainstorming activityand seven of them hit the keyboards while the eighth one assumed his normal role of lecturinghis colleagues – for about 10 minutes straight. Taking a breath he paused to look at his screenand realized people had been typing ideas other than his. The rules hadn’t really changed, thetools simply made the rules effective – that everyone on the team participate!Lesson 5 – Don’t Assume the BIG StuffAnother example of the power of anonymity is in taking on the BIG stuff using traditional brain-writing. “What business are we in?” was printed on 5×7 index cards. The eight seniorexecutives who had all worked together in the same business for at least 25 years were amazedVirtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 23
  25. 25. when I charted their statements they had written on the cards onto flipcharts and they realized notone of them was in the same business. Don’t assume the big stuff was the other lesson.Leap ahead 30+ years and the same lessons apply. However, corporate cultures that insist on“openness” and “people speaking their minds” settle for the wisdom of the willing as the best wecan do. Great, if you really have such a culture. Do you?The reality is that the assumptions about the big stuff are even more important to debunk.Anonymity out on the open Internet is absurd. Anonymity within known or knowable groups canprovide the safety needed for people to reveal their true levels of uncertainty and elevate eachother above remaining barriers to innovation.As teams evolve in their confidence, trust, and knowledge of each other, the benefits ofanonymity will `iminish; though will still be used simply to minimize the clutter on the screen bynot having the user ids listed for every comment.Lesson 6 – Lead Rather Than DominateAn example of true leadership in my view was when the Chairman of a holding company askedme for some coaching during a session with his top executives. When reviewing his input, it wasobvious he was submitting ideas he was publicly against. He explained that for some thornyissues, he needed his people to think through them, rather than just telling them what to do or notdo, and that by anonymously floating ideas contrary to his position; his leadership team coulddebate the ideas without fear. CAUTION People who only know how to dominate may be uncomfortable with the level of collaboration these tools enable.Lesson 7 - Fear of Misuse of AnonymityIn 20 years facilitating teams using facilitation tools, with anonymity and simultaneous exchangeof ideas, we have found people respect the safe environment created by the facilitator, groupprocess, and the technologies. I have seen less than a handful of personal attacks – that arethemselves easy to address with the technology - as people appreciate the opportunity to not onlyhave a chance to have their say, to know they have been heard. Even in hundreds of sessionsfocused on some of the most controversial issues of our time.Lesson 8 - Attributed-to-AnonymousA creativity technique where the initial set of ideas is generated in an activity where theparticipant is identified with their ideas. Then, once these ideas have been processed (e.g.,redundant ideas merged, a simple Yes/No evaluation and subsequent discussion forclarification), they are transferred to another activity that is set-up for anonymous input so thateveryone can build on the ideas of each other without concern for who is saying what. Thereverse can also prove to be an effective creativity technique.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 24
  26. 26. Lesson 9 - Power for International TeamsDuring a kick-off session for a European based global manufacturer, we asked the managersfrom Europe, Asia, and South America what they thought of the process and tools we wereusing. The response was that they could finally get their thoughts into the session, rather thanjust listening to a few for whom English is their first language do all of the talking, and that theycould read and understand everyone else’s ideas much faster than they could when people weretalking.Lesson 10 - People Want to Work – People Expect Everyone Else to ParticipateIf you can show people you are not going to waste their time, a feeling of confidence that realwork can be done virtually will rapidly permeate a team. This becomes a positive, self-fulfillingprophecy as people participate more intensely and effectively, reducing the overall time, cost,and disruption to everyone.Rather than facilitating to the lowest common denominator, expect everyone to do their best.People want to do their best, so expect it of them. Manage the exceptions by having agreed uponground rules for the inevitable occurrences when people are not prepared, don’t show up on time,leave early, multi-task on other work, etc.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 25
  27. 27. Ending Poor Behavior in Virtual MeetingsThe initial technologies for virtual meetings (e.g., web conferencing, wikis, team spaces) oftengrasped out of desperation and pushed beyond their capabilities, have led to the toleration ofundisciplined team efforts. Poor behavior dilutes much of the savings from not traveling, anddilutes the confidence amongst participants that anything of value can be accomplished virtually.The payback for eliminating these poor behaviors is enormous – to the business and to theindividual. Many of these poor behaviors apply to face-to-face meetings as well. Where they dowe’ve found they are worse in virtual meetings.Poor Behaviors in Virtual MeetingsPoor behaviors that turn potentially great virtual meetings into just another in a seeminglyendless series of conference calls, include: 1. Virtual meetings – must not be worth it! 2. Everyone is multi-tasking 3. People don’t show up 4. Meetings don’t start on time 5. Few people do the pre-work 6. There is no pre-work 7. Few actively participate 8. No agenda, nor clear purpose for the meeting 9. Sponsor doesn’t prepare (tip-off – reads directly from yet another PowerPoint) 10. No team glossary 11. No clearly understood ground rules for proper individual and team behavior 12. “Meeting Bullies” dominate 13. Facilitator fails to ensure everyone is comfortable with the technologies 14. Remaining technophobes avoid any technology orientations 15. No clearly understood deliverables 16. No time allocated for relationship building 17. No effort to create excitement 18. No decisions made on anything of importance 19. Decisions, if made, made without a clear understanding of the alternatives 20. Decisions, if made, made without a clear understanding of the criteria. 21. No feedback from, nor follow-up to, the participants. 22. People expect the least from each other – and tolerate getting it!This is NOT the best we can do!People’s perception, backed by the inevitable poor performance from the self-fulfillingprophecy, is that if a meeting is not worth being face-to-face, it must not be worth investing yourfull effort. For many lean organizations, face-to-face is simply no longer an option. Even if youcould afford to, no one can get away!Time for WINs!Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 26
  28. 28. About The AuthorJohn co-founded Virtual WINs, LLC in 2010. For the twenty years prior to this, John served asthe head of Dynamic Directions, Inc. which he founded in 1991, conducting successful planningefforts for businesses, professional firms, and organizations across industries. John has particularexpertise in implementing technologies for virtual collaboration and decision-making.As a pioneer in the application of technologies to facilitate virtual teams, John designed uniqueapproaches to engaging people, including the Canyon Leaping approach to strategy formulationfrom the Vision side, Customer Advisory Boards to tap the latent value of this key resource, andthe Igniter Summit approach to engaging large groups of hundreds of participants.John began his career at IBM, bringing business systems planning to large clients. He broughtsophisticated market research and planning to businesses and agencies serving the senior market.John served as the lead instructor to over 700 partners of Deloitte & Touche for both businessdevelopment and the value added audit to assess the risks inherent in the strategies of publicallytraded companies.Recent clients range from the CDC, the Jholdas Group working with the United MethodistChurch, Great Lakes Dredge and Dock, Farm Management Canada, the Material HandlingIndustry of America, Elekta, Tenet Healthcare, IBM, and the Association of Public HealthLaboratories (APHL).For APHL, the State PHL’s, and the CDC labs, John served as the strategist, facilitator, andcommunity coach for PHLIP, the Public Health Laboratory Interoperability Project tostandardize vocabulary and messaging for infectious diseases, and co-authored the PHLIPPrimer, served on the core vocabulary team and as a contributor to the PHLIP ETOR HL7messages.Johns focus now is on developing best practices for professional firms to build thriving onlinecommunities of purpose using Virtual WINs and facilitating great team efforts.Articles and papers written include:Whittington, Carroll, "Strategic Planning for the Geriatric Care Organization," Aspen Press,Topic in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 1987.“Target Market Discrimination,” INSIGHTS, NASLI (National Association of Senior LivingIndustries), 1990."The Integrated Project Team Approach to Strategy Formulation," INSIGHTS, NASLI, 1991."Canyon Leaping Collaboration: Lessons Learned Facilitating Virtual Teams," IAF(International Association of Facilitators), 2006.The 1987 paper was the first published in an Aspen healthcare journal to be allowed to use theterms "marketing", "strategic planning", and "strategic management" as prior to this, each wasconsidered unethical in healthcare. Twenty-five years later, we can now deliver on the strategicmanagement concepts we introduced in this paper.Virtual WINs – Teaming with Power January, 2013 John Carroll Page 27