Integration of Language and Content Objectives Project


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This is a lesson plan integrating language and content objectives that I wrote for my ESL Methods class.

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Integration of Language and Content Objectives Project

  1. 1. Teacher: John Stanley Grade Level: Third Subject Area: Science: Rocks and Minerals Unit State and WIDA standards Standard Performance Objective Science 11.B.2c: Build a prototype of the design using available tools and materials.  Late Elementary  State Goal: 11: Understand the processes of scientific inquiry and technological design to investigate questions, conduct experiments and solve problems.  Learning Standard: B: Know and apply the concepts, principles and processes of technological design. Standard Performance Objective Science 12.E.2b: Describe and explain short-term and long-term interactions of the Earth's  Late Elementary components (e.g., earthquakes, types of  State Goal: 12: Understand the erosion). fundamental concepts, principles and interconnections of the life, physical and earth/space sciences.  Learning Standard: E: Know and apply concepts that describe the features and processes of the Earth and its resources.
  2. 2. Example Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Topics Entering Beginning Developing Expanding Bridging Nature Describe Describe Categorize Compare Discuss and natural natural natural features of explain phenomena phenomena phenomena natural physical from real-life from real- from phenomena relationships examples life examples real-life from real-life among natural using using examples examples phenomena SPEAKING general general and give using specific from real-life vocabulary vocabulary reasons for and some examples using (e.g., ―This (e.g., ―This categorization technical technical leaf has five leaf has five scheme vocabulary vocabulary points.‖) in points.‖) in using general (e.g., ―This small groups small groups and some leaf has five specific veins while vocabulary in this one has small groups two.‖) in small groups Earth’s Label Classify Describe Differentiate Compose history features of features of features of the features fictional and the Earth the Earth, past Earth, past or of the Earth in non-fictional based on or present, past, multiparagraph WRITING diagrams or present, from from diagrams present or pieces about models diagrams or future from the Earth’s (e.g., its or graphic graphic diagrams or features layers) organizers organizers graphic using phrases using organizers or short related using sentences sentences paragraphs Earth Match Sort descriptive Differentiate Interpret Apply materials labeled phrases among information information on pictures according to earth materials on earth earth materials representing pictures of using materials to new READING earth earth materials charts, tables from contexts using materials or graphic charts, tables grade level with organizers or graphic text vocabulary organizers (e.g., ―Which one is a rock?‖) Big Idea/ Broader and Topical Understandings The earth has layers: crust, mantle, and core. This is a lesson I taught in my third grade classroom as part of our “Rocks and Minerals” unit in Science. The lesson comes from a book called Geology: Science Works for Kids Series by Jo Ellen Moore. DESCRIPTION OF CURRENT LESSON: Introduction (e.g., presentation of concepts, key vocabulary, links to previous lessons, and links to student experience) Preparation for the Big Idea/Understandings Layers of the Earth Song
  3. 3. The following is a song I wrote to help students remember the layers of the earth and what the layers of made of. This is my favorite type of active involvement and has been very successful over the years in aiding student retention (and joy of learning). It is sung to the tune of Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes. Rather than the traditional hand movements, the students hold their hands out like they are holding a very large ball. As they sing about the inside layers of the earth, they pretend that they are holding smaller balls. This song could be used as a culminating activity, but I prefer to use this also at the beginning of the lesson to frontload the vocabulary in a fun, low anxiety environment (Fisher & Rothenberg, 2006, p. 35). I want my students to be familiar with (or at least exposed to) the terms and what they mean before we go to the text and the activity (p. 116). Providing this redundancy allows “students to hear the language and vocabulary over and over again (multiple exposures), at the same time as clarifying the ideas through further explanation” (p. 42). Layers of the Earth Song (sung to “Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes”) Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core. Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core. The crust is what we walk on every day. Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core. Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core. Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core. The Mantle is mag-ma and hot rock. Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core. Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core. Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core. Outer Core is melted metal. Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core. Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core. Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core. Inner core is solid metal. Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core. Locate the Layer  Bring a peanut butter and jelly sandwich to class for this lesson. Say, ―I am going to show you what is in my bag. I want you to describe it.‖ Show them the sandwich and ask, ―What do you see?‖ Ask them to describe the sandwich starting with the bottom layer. Continue asking, ―What is the next layer?‖ until they reach the top slice of bread (bread, peanut butter, jelly, bread). Then say, ―Let’s think about other things that have layers.‖ Draw diagrams of students’ ideas on the chalkboard and ask them to name the layers.
  4. 4. For example: birthday cake: cake, frosting, cake, frosting, candles; pizza: crust, sauce, pepperoni, cheese. The goal of using relia such as the sandwich is a way I can improve comprehensible input for students, “alleviate the complex language demands of text,” and “connect their own understanding” to the object and to the class discussion (Fisher & Rothenberg, 2006, p. 43). It is also important that the teacher use “speech that is appropriate to students’ proficiency level” (Echevarria, Short, & Vogt, 2007, p. 79). The creation of a class graphic organizer is a perfect time for a quick snapshot assessment to check for ELL understanding. The use of gestures, especially when it comes to layers (such as layering one’s hands) would also be an appropriate form of active involvement. The layering of hands could also be a good Total Physical Response for the term “layer” for those at the emerging level of language. Creating class graphic organizers is helpful to meet my language objectives because they o Require critical thinking o Organize information visually o Build schema o Categorize information o Lower the affective filter (Fisher & Rothenberg, 2006, p. 193). By making the chart interactive (in which students share the pen), the teacher can take the opportunity to do an observational data collection for specific students, “noting the progress of . . . oral language development, print conventions, and letter formation” Fisher & Rothenberg, 2006, pp. 84-85).  Divide the class into groups of three to explore layers. Each person in the group will explore one item (chocolate-covered cherry, sandwich cookie, or ½ of a piece of fruit). Students find and describe the layers their items contain and share that information with the other members in their group. While it may seem that breaking up into small groups to explore the concept of layers may be awfully time-consuming for just one vocabulary word, it is better to take less key points and teach them in a way students will remember (verbal interaction, including various grouping methods) than it is to present “more content per minute or [move] from one piece of learning to the next too rapidly” (Echevarria, Short, & Vogt, 2007, p. 124). It is also important for teachers to remember that grouping should be done in a combination of skills-based grouping and heterogeneous grouping. Placing ELLs with lower-level learners is not always appropriate, because ELLs simply have a barrier of language, not necessarily one of learning (p. 126). Materials for Each Group  chocolate-covered cherry  sandwich cookie  1/2 of a piece of fruit (a type containing one large seed)  plastic knife (to cut open the chocolate-covered cherry)  record sheet, reproduced for each student (The record form, called “label the layesr.pdf” is attached).
  5. 5. Steps to Follow 1. Students separate their items into parts to examine the layers. 2. They identify and describe the layers on their record forms and write a definition of a layer. 3. Provide time for each group to share their findings with the rest of the class. This small-group activity provides the teacher with another chance to work around the room and take an informal assessment. Students are encouraged to work together and scaffold each other’s learning, and the activity fulfils both the language objectives of speaking and writing (Fisher & Rothenberg, 2006, p. 21). Follow Up Begin a class geology log. Add the title ―Layers‖ to a sheet of chart paper. Ask students to tell what they think a layer is. Write this on the chart paper. Explain that they have written a meaning for layers and that this meaning is called a definition. (You will return to the chart later to make corrections and additions.) Body of Lesson (e.g., learner interaction in a variety of grouping configurations and provide opportunities for reading, writing, listening, and speaking in engaging ways) Gather Information  Check your district audiovisual catalog for a filmstrip or video about the Earth’s layers or read selections from books. Pages 27–29 of The Magic School Bus, Inside the Earth by Joanna Cole (Scholastic, 1987) and pages 1–15 from Planet Earth/Inside Outside by Gail Gibbons (Morrow Junior Books, 1995) describe and illustrate the Earth’s layers. These read alouds are used to (1) provide students an opportunity to listen to connected texts . . . (2) introduce new words and concepts in context; (3) build background knowledge on a topic; and (4) introduce students to various text patterns, structures, and features (Fisher & Rothenberg, 2006, p. 158).  Ask students to explain one way in which the piece of fruit and the Earth are alike (both have layers). Add a page entitled ―Earth’s Layers‖ to the class logbook. Have students write about the Earth’s layers for their individual logs. By using the class logbook before having students write in their individual logs, the teacher is providing a clear explanation of Academic Tasks (SIOP Feature 11) and specifically modeling what students are expected to do, making the chances of success greater (Echevarria, Short, & Vogt, 2007, p.). The individual log also serves as a written assessment and meets the written language objectives.  Key vocabulary terms are layers, crust, mantle, inner core, outer core Activity: Clay Models of the Earth (This activity fulfils Illinois Performance Standard 11.B.2c: Build a prototype of the design using available tools and materials. It also fulfills the writing language objective). Materials  small balls of clay—yellow, red, orange, blue, and green  plastic knife
  6. 6.  record sheet (attached as earth s layers.pdf), reproduced for each student Steps to Follow 1. Have students roll a ball of red clay about 1" (2.5 cm) in diameter (the inner core). 2. Cover the red ball with a layer of yellow clay (the outer core). Try not to disturb the red layer. 3. Cover the yellow ball with a layer of orange clay (the mantle). 4. Cover the orange clay with a thin layer of blue clay and green clay (the crust). These represent the surface of the Earth covered with the blue water and green land. 5. Cut the model in half. (An adult will need to do this for younger students.) 6. Have each student name the layers of the model (crust, mantle, outer core, inner core) to a neighbor. 7. Complete the record sheet Conclusion (e.g., review of CLO, key vocabulary, and informal assessment of learning) Summary Activity Reproduce the minibook (attached as mini book.pdf) for each student. Read the minibook together and confirm understanding of the information. Then have students complete the last two pages independently. One change I would make to the above is to have students read independently (or partner read) a second time after the class reads the book together. This final activity is more of an individual assessment and fulfils the reading language objective. The last page of the mini book (attached) contains cloze sentences that “teach and review the vocabulary” (Echevarria, Short, & Vogt, 2007, p. 67). After this assessment, the teacher should know if students have achieved the content and language standards and be able to judge whether or not they will require reteaching. Concept(s) (Key content concepts) The earth is made of layers made of different materials: crust, mantle, and core. Key Vocabulary (e.g., language necessary to read, write, talk about, and listen to the concept(s) in this lesson)  Primary vocabulary related to objective: earth, layers, crust, mantle, outer core, inner core,  Secondary vocabulary: hottest, coolest, solid, liquid, volcano, rock, soil, mineral, drill Content Objectives: Teacher Friendly: Students will be able to name and describe the earth’s layers: crust, mantle, outer core, inner core. The crust is the outer layer we live on, made of soil and rock. The mantle is made of molten and solid rock and metal. The core is made of two parts: the outer core is liquid metal, while the inner core is solid metal. Student Friendly: After this lesson, you will be able to name the earth’s four layers: the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core.
  7. 7. Language Objectives: Teacher Friendly:  Speaking: SWBAT discuss and label the layers of the earth with small groups.  Writing: SWBAT label the layers of the earth based on diagrams or models.  Reading: SWBAT differentiate among earth’s layers using charts, tables or graphic organizers Student Friendly: After this lesson, you will be able to tell a classmate about the earth’s layers, create a model of the earth and label the layers, and read a minibook to learn more about the earth’s layers. Differentiated Language Objective(s) for the Levels of Proficiency: Entering & Beginning Developing & Expanding Bridging & above Speaking Describe the layers of the Categorize the earth’s layers Discuss and explain the earth using from real-life examples earth’s layers from real-life general vocabulary and give reasons for examples using (e.g., ―This is the crust‖) in categorization scheme technical vocabulary small groups using general and some specific vocabulary in small groups Writing Label features of Describe the layers of the Compose fictional and the Earth based on Earth, from diagrams or non-fictional multiparagraph diagrams or models graphic organizers using pieces about (e.g., its layers) related sentences the Earth’s layers Reading Match labeled Differentiate among Apply information on pictures representing earth layers using earth layers to new earth materials with charts, tables or graphic contexts using grade level vocabulary (e.g., organizers text ―Which one is the mantle?‖) Bibliography Echevarria, J., Short, D. J., & Vogt, M. (2007). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model (3rd Edition) (3 ed.). Boston: Allyn &Amp; Bacon. Fisher, D., & Rothenberg, C. (2006). Teaching English Language Learners: A Differentiated Approach (1 ed.). Alexandria, VA: Prentice Hall. Moor, J. E. (1998). Geology, Grades 1-3. Monterey, California, USA: Evan-Moor Educational Publishers.