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7205 health hazards in construction 2015

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A ppt that I use in the class

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7205 health hazards in construction 2015

  1. 1. John NewquistDraft 8 4 2015 Course #7205 Health Hazard Awareness
  2. 2. Course Objectives • Identify four types of health hazards that are present in the workplace. • Discuss techniques to recognize health hazards. • Describe tools and methods to evaluate health hazards. • Discuss measures to control exposure to health hazards. • Describe OSHA resources that available to assist employers and employees in finding information about health hazards.
  3. 3. Types of Health Hazards • Chemical • Physical • Biological • Ergonomic
  4. 4. Chemical Health Hazards • The majority of health hazards encountered in workplace are chemical hazards.
  5. 5. Physical Characteristics of Chemical Hazards • Dusts • Fumes • Mists • Aerosols • Fibers • Vapors • Gases
  6. 6. Dust • Dust are solid particles that are formed by handling, crushing, grinding, drilling, or blasting of organic or inorganic materials.
  7. 7. Fumes • Fumes consists of very small fine solid particles in air that form when solid particles are heated to a high temperature, evaporate to vapor, and become solid again
  8. 8. Fibers • Solid particles whose length is several times greater than their diameter. Asbestos is an example.
  9. 9. Vapors • The volatile form of substances that are normally in a solid or liquid state at room temperature and pressure.
  10. 10. Gases • Gases are formless fluids that expand to occupy the space or enclosure in which they are confined.
  11. 11. Routes of Entry • Inhalation • Ingestion • Skin Absorption • Injection
  12. 12. Respiratory System • The respiratory system is the major route of exposure for airborne chemicals and dusts.
  13. 13. Health Effects • Local • Systemic (inhaling solvent vapors which can be absorbed through the lungs then travel in the bloodstream and cause an effect in your brain.)
  14. 14. Acute Exposure • Acute exposures and acute effects generally involve short-term, high concentrations, and immediate or prompt health effects (illness, irritation, or death).
  15. 15. Chronic Exposure • Chronic exposure refers to exposure continued or repeated for a prolonged period, usually years. For example, asbestosis.
  16. 16. Worst Job?
  17. 17. December 2014 • Evanston IL • $132,000 to six contractors • OSHA's inspection found that onsite asbestos consultant directed the HVAC contractor to cut and remove 60 feet of piping that contained asbestos insulation without PPE. Typical asbestos pipe.
  18. 18. Risk Factors in Construction • Daily change vs. fixed establishment • Many contractors at onsite who may create problems for you • Turnover; who is responsible to train new employees? • Several tasks during the day Factors increasing the health risk of construction workers include:
  19. 19. Clean Air Paradox • Quality of Air • 78.1% Nitrogen • 20.9% Oxygen • 0.9% Argon • 0.03% Carbon Dioxide
  20. 20. Units Seem Small 1 % = 10,000 ppm PEL = Permissible Exposure Limits (OSHA) 5 Mg/M3 is very small 2 f/cc = 2,000,000f/M3
  21. 21. Health Effects • Irritation • Asphyxiation • Organ Specific Effects • Mutagen • Teratogen • Acute/Chronic • Reversible vs. Nonreversible
  22. 22. Factors • Genetics • Age • Health status • Route of entry • Frequency and duration of exposure
  23. 23. Exposure Limits • Animal Studies • Epidemiological studies • Industrial Experience • STEL – 15 minutes • Ceiling – never exceeded • Threshold Limit Value
  24. 24. Control of Health Hazards • Hierarchy of Controls – Engineering – Work practices – Administrative – Personal protective equipment
  25. 25. Engineering Controls • Engineering controls include: – Substitution with less harmful material – Enclosure – Isolation – Ventilation
  26. 26. Ventilation
  27. 27. Work Practice Controls • Work practice controls include: – Hygiene practices – Housekeeping and maintenance – Procedures and process changes
  28. 28. Administrative Controls • Administrative controls include: – Controlling employees' exposure by scheduling production and workers' tasks – Or both, in ways that minimize exposure levels
  29. 29. Personal Protective Equipment • Personal protective equipment includes: – Respirators – Ear muffs – Gloves – Safety goggles – Helmets – Safety shoes – Protective clothing
  30. 30. Recognition of Health Hazards • Clues that may indicate exposure to chemical hazards: – Odor – Taste – Particles in respiratory system – Acute symptoms – Visible material in air – Settled dust
  31. 31. Evaluation of Health Hazards • Screening equipment – Sound level meters – Detector tubes and pumps – Radiation survey meters
  32. 32. Sampling • Qualified person • Appropriate instrument • Duration of sampling • Pre and post calibration
  33. 33. Past Health Hazards • 400 BC Hippocrates describes lead poisoning in mines • 1473 Ellenbog – Mercury Poisoning • 1700 Dr. Ramazzini published the first edition of his most famous book, the De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Diseases of Workers) “I can hire one-half the working class to kill the other half.” Jay Gould
  34. 34. Problem #1 Noise • BLS • 125,000+ workers w permanent, hearing loss since 2004 • In 2008 alone, 22,000 hearing loss cases were reported
  35. 35. #1 Noise • 70% construction workers were exposed to over 85dba* • 30% over 90 dba* • Hearing Protection worn 20%* • Several processes involving hammering, cutting, blasting will cause overexposure • Set up an effective hearing conservation program
  36. 36. REMEMBER! • The aforementioned applies to overexposures above 90 dBA TWA (Time-Weighted- Average)
  37. 37. “Effective hearing conservation program?” Monitoring Engineering, work practice, and administrative controls Hearing protectors with an adequate noise reduction rating Employee training and education in hazards and protection measures Baselines and annual audiometry
  38. 38. Audiograms • Conduct a baseline analysis on all equipment (New too!) • Employees can request personal noise monitoring at any time at VPP sites • 60 employees were tested in IL. It cost $29.00 per person plus some labor cost (VPP) • Insurance carrier will charge $35.00 per person. (VPP site)
  39. 39. #2 Lead • Many bridges have lead coated surfaces • Requires compliance with 1926.62 • Overexposure can occur in less than 5 minutes when torch cutting or painting Lead coating of bridge beams usually requires an enclosure
  40. 40. Lead effects • Chronic overexposure - severe damage to the blood-forming, nervous, urinary, and reproductive systems • High levels will require medical removal • Bridge Painting/Removal continues to be ones of the consistent lead issues in construction
  41. 41. Residential Lead • Lead can be 20% • Cadmium and arsenic above 10 micrograms • Written Program. L, C, A • Training L, C, A • Determination above AL • Protective Clothing • Change Areas • Decon • Sanitary Issues for lunch Can anyone comply?
  42. 42. Lead • Vacuum equipment can be used
  43. 43. #3 Silica • Cutting, hammering, drilling, blasting can create high silica levels • Use wet methods and wear respirators • One of the oldest occupational diseases Tuckpointing has one of the highest silica generating process in construction
  44. 44. Silica • Ventilation
  45. 45. June 2014 • If he has a respirator, is it safe?
  46. 46. Silica • 150-200 deaths a year (2009) • 1150-1200 deaths a year (1968) • Yet….one company had 3 silicosis and 10x+ severe respiratory diseases Gauley Bridge in 1920’s had workers die in months.
  47. 47. #4 Copper Fumes - Welding • Copper is inhalation hazard affecting respiratory system • Mild steel (red iron) and carbon steel contain manganese • Manganese may cause Parkinson's disease What do you see?
  48. 48. #5 Total Dust • All the things not regulated. • Good, bad, or indifferent? • Air blowing!
  49. 49. #6 Iron Oxide -Welding • Metal fume fever • Direct Draw or forced ventilation should be used • Personal Protective Equipment should be used • Bystanders should be protected as well
  50. 50. #7 Carbon Monoxide • Generators are most common problem of CO • Heaters out of tune are another cause • CO TWA is 50 ppm • Others set levels 25 ppm
  51. 51. Carbon Monoxide • 11/8/1991 • A couple and their eight children were found dead late today, their bodies scattered throughout their small house on the city's Southwest Side. • The police said it appeared that the family died of carbon monoxide poisoning. • "Apparently a spot weld in a flue pipe gave way, leaving a three-inch gap [ that ] caused byproducts of combustion, including carbon monoxide, to recirculate throughout the home.“ • A neighbor said he saw repairmen working at the house last week
  52. 52. Carbon Monoxide • April 7 2015 • Princess Anne MD
  53. 53. #8 Hex Chrome • Stainless steel contains nickel and chromium • Some cements • Expanded standard like lead. • PEL is 5 micrograms/m3 • Chromic ulcers, perforated nose, lung cancer I see it with MIG and stick. - Janice Turner
  54. 54. Also, is there a requirement to retest atmosphere for Hexavalent Chromium if the process hasn’t changed since the last test? If you have to retest – how often do you have to do it • depends on the level found. see below. • Exposure Scenario - Required Monitoring Activity • Below the Action Level (< 2.5ug/m3)- No periodic monitoring required for workers represented by the initial monitoring. • At or above the Action Level but at or below the PEL (2.5 µg/m3 to 5 µg/m3)- Monitor every six months. • Above the PEL (> 5 µg/m3)- Monitor every three months
  55. 55. # 9 Cadmium • Overexposure to cutting cadmium bolts, coated poles • Torch cutting should never be used • Use hydraulic bolt cutters • Comply with 1926.1127 Cadmium bolts are often found in sprinkler pipe use.
  56. 56. #10 Methylene Chloride • Paint stripping • Parts cleaners • Cancer causing
  57. 57. August 2015 • Cleveland OH • Worker apparently was overcome with chemical fumes while stripping the glaze off a bathtub. • The agency says 14 people have died nationwide since 2000 related to bathtub refinishing with stripping agents containing methylene chloride
  58. 58. Asbestos • Where is it found?
  59. 59. Asbestos • Common Fireproofing material used pre- 1980s • Found in pipe insulation, ceiling tiles, and floor tiles • Must comply with 1926.1101
  60. 60. Asbestos • 3000 die in the US • Some are spouses or kids of asbestos workers • Stephanie Harper of the North Texas city of Bonham
  61. 61. June 2014 • The asbestos lawsuit that saw a $1 million award • Richard Rost has Mesothelioma • Defendants included Ford Motor Company (Ford), General Electric, Westinghouse and Ingersoll- Rand. • However, the latter three defendants settled with the plaintiffs out of court, before the trial had an opportunity to begin. Overall, nearly 3,000 people are diagnosed with mesothelioma each year in the United States, which represents 0.02 percent of all U.S. cancer cases.
  62. 62. Asbestos • $1.8 million dollar fine to IL Roofer for OSHA violations for asbestos. • “This case stands out because of the outrageous behavior of Joseph Kehrer,” said Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health David Michaels. • Workers were threatened with firing if they spoke to investigators, Michaels said.
  63. 63. Heat Stress • Train the workforce • Perform the heaviest work in the coolest part of the day • One GC stops outside work at noon. • Slowly build up tolerance to the heat and the work activity (usually takes up to two weeks) • Drink plenty of cool water (one cup every 15-20 minutes) • Wear light, loose-fitting, breathable (cotton) clothing Take frequent short breaks in cool or shaded areas Provide fans
  64. 64. June 2013 • June 25 • Death of a 36-year-old worker who developed heat stroke at a job site in Chicago. • The company was installing electrical conduit in an uncovered trench. • "This worker died from heat stress on his first day on the job.” • “This tragedy underscores the need for employers to ensure that new workers become acclimated and build a tolerance to working in excessive heat with a program of water, rest and shade," said Dr. David Michaels, • "A worker's first day on the job shouldn't be the last day of their life."
  65. 65. Raynaud’s • Raynaud's phenomenon is characterized by a pale to blue to red sequence of color changes of the digits, most commonly after exposure to cold.
  66. 66. Paint Solvents • Ventilation is required or overexposure can result • Fire Hazard • Electrical must be Class I if within 20 feet during open spraying with flammable paints Tank painting. What could go wrong?
  67. 67. Tank Coating • What issues are needed if spraying a rust resistance coating?
  68. 68. Isocyanates • Isocyanates in roof glues and paints in construction
  69. 69. Waterproofing • Volatile compounds are heavier than air and toxic. • Death • Hazards similar to a confined space
  70. 70. Confined Spaces • Manholes, pits, vaults, tanks, are common confined spaces • Ensure atmosphere is safe by testing and ventilating Worker in a sludge pit exposed to lead, arsenic, and cadmium
  71. 71. Diesel Fuel Exhaust • blue smoke (mainly oil and unburnt fuel) • black smoke (soot, oil and unburnt fuel); • white smoke (water droplets and unburnt fuel) • Diesel Fuel Exhaust is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen per IARC What else is toxic in this ????
  72. 72. Back Strains • Many workers out in construction with bad backs • Due to lifting and twisting constantly • Heavy loads should have assistance via machines or another person Workers shoveling under a pipe. Safe or unsafe job?
  73. 73. Knee Strains • Housekeeping often a common cause • Several $50,000 cases
  74. 74. Biological Health Hazards • Bacteria – Brucella – Legionella – Mycobacterium tuberculosis • Virus – Hepatitis B – HIV • Fungi – Aspergillus – Histoplasma
  75. 75. Mold • Stachybotrys chartarum (also known as Stachybotrys atra) • Aspergillus sp. • Penicillium sp. • Fusarium sp. • Trichoderma sp. • Memnoniella sp. • Cladosporum sp. • Alternaria sp.
  76. 76. Bloodborne Pathogens • To protect workers from the risk of exposure to biological agents, such as bloodborne pathogens, OSHA issued the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard.
  77. 77. Bloodborne Pathogens • Sewer lines have sewage
  78. 78. Legionella • August 2015 • 7 dead, 87 sickened • Transmission of Legionnaires’ disease occurs when microscopic airborne droplets of water that contains LDB are inhaled by an at-risk host • Early symptoms can include low fever, headache, aching joints and muscles, fatigue and lack of energy, and loss of appetite.
  79. 79. West Nile • Use DEET or lemon eucalyptus based sprays for protection • Clothing can be treated with Permethrin • Wear light color clothing and reduce exposed skin • 2014 – IL had 44 cases, 4 died
  80. 80. West Nile
  81. 81. Radiation • Radiation sources are found in a wide range of occupational settings. If radiation is not properly controlled, it can be potentially hazardous to the health of workers.
  82. 82. Creosote • Contact with skin can result in irritation which when not washed off or when accentuated by sunlight, can result in minor burns • The application of a barrier cream (e.g. Ply 9 Gel, MSA's Fend AE-2, Kerodex 51, Jergens SBS-46) is recommended to prevent coal tar containing products from contacting skin. • IARC/NTP potential Carcinogen
  83. 83. On The Horizon • Silica? • Noise?
  84. 84. Chemical Hazards Controls
  85. 85. Biological Hazards Controls
  86. 86. Physical Hazards Controls
  87. 87. Ergonomic Hazards Controls
  88. 88. Where Can You Find Information on Health Hazards • OSHA Website Compliance Assistance Website Safety and Health Topics Industry Specific Topics Limited Access Website Electronic Technical Assistance Tools (e-Tools) and Expert Systems Slide Presentations and Videos Multimedia Enhancements Targeted CD-ROMs OSHA Website Compliance Assistance Website Safety and Health Topics Industry Specific Topics Limited Access Website Electronic Technical Assistance Tools (e-Tools) and Expert Systems Slide Presentations and Videos Multimedia Enhancements Targeted CD-ROMs
  89. 89. OSHA Consultation Program
  90. 90. Laws and Regulations
  91. 91. eTools and Advisors
  92. 92. Quick Start
  93. 93. Quiz • CO PEL is ___ ppm. • Name one place where cadmium can be found in construction. ______________ • ____% Oxygen is in normal air. • Which color smoke from a diesel engine is a concern? __________________ • Overexposure can occur in less than ____ minutes when torch cutting lead painted surfaces • The Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) is for ____ minutes
  94. 94. Summary • A baseline hazard analysis for normal routine tasks is accomplished by use of a Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
  95. 95. Further • This ppt was prepared by John Newquist as a preliminary aid for people required to evaluate health hazards in construction • Thanks to Kim Stille and Richard Gilgrist for the many training sessions on the subject • Janet Schulte for corrections and suggestions. • This is not an official OSHA publication. Those will be on the OSHA.gov website. • My contact information is Newquist.john@dol.gov or 312-353-5977 if you see any errors. • This is a draft as of the date on the first slide.
  96. 96. April 2014 to do • Keystone and lafarge bring in 69,000 volts to the cement facilities. • Cal osha prohibited dry cutting of concrete • Control dust by regular damping. Vehicle speeds. • Operating engineer want to retrofit cabs. Determine ℅ silica before work. Competent person checklist. Task specific checklist for drilling. Rock crushing. Training onsite people to collect data. Use material testers. Look at how long dust takes to settle.
  97. 97. • Need to add table 1 to ppt • Half of table 1 activities are operating engineers • Year to year and half to look at data. Hex chrome and ergo took 1.5 years to get to department review final rule then there is OMB review of the final rule. • Getting pressure to hold second sbrefa panels but declined • American chemistry council and construction coalition hired one expert who did very detailed analysis with multiple spreadsheets • Required med exams every 3years • Table 1 is a safe harbor? Silica • Silica proposed 50 micrograms m3 • Final briefs on silica July 18 2014

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