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History of Imaging


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History of Imaging

  1. 1. The History of Imaging Conventional/Silver Processes
  2. 2. Visual Communication began with Cave Art
  3. 3. Continued with Hieroglyphics
  4. 4. Then lead into Drawing/Painting
  5. 5. Aiding Drawing/Painting with Camera Obscura
  6. 6. Camera Obscura <ul><li>The earliest camera obscura s were actually rooms with a hole in the wall at one end, which projected an image (upside down) on the wall at the opposite end. These were eventually made portable to a box that could be carried around and pointed at various scenes to project an image on a ground-glass screen. An artist could then trace the scene from the ground glass onto paper. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The first “photo•graph” (Light Drawing) <ul><li>Name: Helio•graph (Sun Drawing) </li></ul><ul><li>Date/Location: c.1826/France </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: Nicéphore Niépce (nee•say• fawr nyeps) </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pewter plate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bitumen of Judea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil of Lavendar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equipment: Camera Obscura </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure time: Eight hours </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long exposure times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor image quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique image (non-reproducible) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. First Popular Photographic Process <ul><li>Name: Daguerreotype </li></ul><ul><li>Date/Location: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Announced 1839 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creator: Jacques Mandé Daguerre (da• gherr ) </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siver-plated copper sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium thiosulfate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exposure time: 15 - 30 seconds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not go for any motion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantage: beautiful, durable, grainless image </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure times still too long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poisonous chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-reproducible </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. First Reproducible Process <ul><li>Name: Calo•type (beautiful impression) or Talbotype </li></ul><ul><li>Date/Location: 1839/England </li></ul><ul><li>Creator: William Henry Fox Talbot </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver chloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver iodide/Gallo nitrate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exposure time: 5 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: silver NEGATIVE image </li></ul><ul><li>could be reproduced </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: paper base obscured detail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of the reproduced images </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Wet-Plate Process <ul><li>Name: Collodion wet-plate (also Ambrotype & Tintype ) </li></ul><ul><li>1851/England </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick Scott Archer </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass plate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collodion (nitrocellulose/ether/alcohol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver chloride, Silver iodide,Silver nitrate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exposure time: 5 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparent (glass) base produced sharp, clear images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative image could be printed on paper for limitless reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be exposed and developed wet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure times still too long. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Notable Glass Plate <ul><li>Taken by Alexander Gardner in 1865, the picture of Abraham Lincoln has A jagged line that appears upper-right corner of the photograph and slashes through the top of Lincoln’s head. It’s a crack in the glass-plate negative due to careless handling by the photographer or his assistant. This is one of the last images of the President before being assonated two months later. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>1871/England </li></ul><ul><li>Richard L. Maddox </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass plate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gelatin emulsion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(increased sensitivity of silver compounds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver salts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exposure time: under 1 second </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion-stopping exposure times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plates could be exposed dry </li></ul></ul>Dry-Plate Process: Gelatin Emulsion
  13. 13. Other Improvements to Conventional Photography <ul><li>Projection printing (enlarging) allowed use of smaller negatives/smaller cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Emulsion coated onto flexible film allowed roll-film (George Eastman of Eastman Kodak) </li></ul><ul><li>Color Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1861 an additive color process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1869 subtractive color theory developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1907 Autochrome process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1935 Kodachrome film introduced </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>1936 : Development of Kodachrome, the first color multi-layered color film; development of Exakta, pioneering 35mm single-lens reflex (SLR) camera </li></ul><ul><li>1963 : First color instant film developed by Polaroid; Instamatic released by Kodak; </li></ul><ul><li>1973 : C-41 color negative process introduced. (That’s what we still use today for color neg. film.) </li></ul><ul><li>1990 : Adobe Photoshop released. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>1991 : Kodak DCS-100, first digital SLR </li></ul><ul><li>2000 : Camera phone introduced in Japan by Sharp/J-Phone </li></ul><ul><li>2001 : Polaroid goes bankrupt </li></ul><ul><li>2004 : Kodak ceases production of film cameras </li></ul>