(Feminist Movement 2012) Feminist movement-Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feminist_movement
TABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION1869:- Women suffrage movement in US1870:- Reproductive rights movement1908:- Women’s movement in Turkey1917:- Women’s movement In India1943:- Women’ Liberation in Italy1945:- Women suffrage movement in Japan1946:-UNICEF foundation1950:- Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender rights movement1960:- Women’s Liberation in Canada1964:- Feminist movement in US1979:- Women’s rights movement in JapanReferences
GENDERGender is a word that commonly used to pronouns the sexcharacteristics of an individual. The perception about genderaffects the life of an individual . There are two main genders inthe world such as male and female. Both genders show differentsets of characteristics’ by their culture, behavior and attitude.The sexuality concerns the ideology of sexual and biologicaldifference and culture plays a key role to build the difference ingender (Oxford Companion of African American Literature2012). The primary guide lines to shape the attitudes andbehavior of an individual can be obtained from the family likeparents, grand parents and siblings. Gender inequality is verycommon in the world. So certain movements and organizationsare developed around the world to fight for the rights to stopdiscriminations in gender. Gendered movement helped thepeople to realize the value of gender in the society.Gender Identity is a key to identify gender difference in the society
1870 Reproductive rights movement . Reproductive movement is also known as birth control movement. The Modern Movement for Birth control was begun in Great Britain in 1870. In 1878 the first birth control clinic was founded. Sweden was one of the major countries which promote their support from the government as early as 1930s (History of Birth control movement 2007). Christian organizations especially Roman Catholic groups opposed birth control movement and started to educate the public about the consequences of adolescent and pre marital sex, emotional problems, complications of pregnancy and financial issues after an abortion. Through these teachings Roman Catholics made their own space in the society to influence the people. Even in this new century Roman Catholics are still against to this Birth control movement. This movement fits with all other movements in regarding their teaching and guidance in their schools about this matter. Reproductive rights movement gave some hope to women about forced and
Women Suffrage Movement in US .• In 1869 two national organizations formed in U. S such as National women suffrage association and American women suffrage association to gain the right to vote among women. These organizations encouraged the women to vote and also educate them about the importance of vote. Women suffrage movement was originated from the changes occurred in social conditions. The main aim of NWSA was an amendment regarding the right to vote (History of women suffrage, n.d). This movement was important to ensure the right to vote and also it fits the overall movement to achieve equality about the issues of discriminations in voting.• In 1942 Labor board recommended to adjust the rates of pay ,then in June 10 1963 John of Kennedy signed Equal Pay Act to achieve parity in salaries. The restrictions of women’s participation to achieve equal rights and share in work field caused gradual rise in unemployment. President Obama signed Lilly led better fair pay restoration Act in 2009 which allows the people to fight for pay discrimination by file a complaint with the government against the employer within 180 days of their last paycheck (Ann-Marie Imbornoni 2007). A cluster of explanation occurred about this change which impressed the people to wok without specifying the quality or quantity of work. This suffrage movements opened a channel to form a league for voters in 1920, and the reform of equal pay act helped the people to think about the realities of discrimination in pay.
1908 • Women’s Movement in Turkey. • The women’s movement in Turkey founded in 1908 but this movement being recognized by the nation in 1923 for the advancement and the welfare of the women. In 1987 feminists organized the first public protest against male violence and sexual harassments. (Amargi Istanbul, n.d). It is important to reduce gender based discrimination for the welfare of the country by supporting these movements to remove female illiteracy and unemployment. It fits the overall movement because these movements help the women in the society to raise their voice against discrimination and achieved equality.This movement gave power to fight against violence and achieved freedom
1917 Women’s Movement in India Women’s Movement in India was organized to achieve gender equality and justice. The Women’s Indian Association was founded by Annie Besant in 1917, and the movement originated as Women’s Movement which was one of the first movements in India to eradicate social evils of Sati, and also to stop child marriage. Women’s Movement is Important to achieve equality in rights and gender, this movement influenced the country to stop racism and caste discriminations. The various social reforms and religious movements in India while British rule which encouraged the people to spread the ideas of social and political freedom among Indians (Socio religious reform movements in India 2012). It fits the overall movement to overcome inequality by achieving proper goal about the issues of women in the country. This movement was appropriate in India to remove social evils and beliefs in the society.
Women’ Liberation in Italy The government of Spain approved for the invasion of different thoughts and beliefs after Italy became a vital part of Spain. Basic support of economy was from Lombardy a major industrial area of the country. World War 2 gave some hope to women and encouraged them to participate in politics. Through the establishment of women liberation movement in Italy women achieved same right as men. The Italian resistance movement 1943 started to oppose Mussolini government in 1943 and women played an important role to defeat him for the freedom of the nation. Because of the support from women to this movement the people arranged so many concerts in each part of the country to celebrate the liberation of Italy (Italy liberation day 2012). The women joined together to change the movement as liberation movement to end fascism and fight for their rights and safety. So this was a major reform in Italy which celebrates till today. This movement fits with other movement in the history of Italy.Italy celebrates this day as their public holiday and remembers whoever lost their life during this movement. Italy still recognizes the efforts of women as an achievement
1945 WOMEN SUFFRAGE MOVEMENT IN JAPANWomen suffrage movement in Japan established in 1945 to support newroles for women in the nation passed the right to vote. The womensuffrage movement was not only a political movement in Japan but alsothis movement created and developed a theory of feminism in the nation(Kurihara.R 2007). This movement was emphasized the privilege to voteas a citizen of the nation without discrimination . It fits with all othermovements to express basic right of a citizen to vote. This movementencouraged them to address the issues of women like insecurity, lack ofeducation and un employment that affected their family and society. Sothey searched for new steps to open certain doors for their advancement.Women in Japan were prohibited, by law, from joining political parties,expressing political views and attending political meetings (WomenSuffrage in Japan 2011). Women in Japan acquired a strong belief abouttheir responsibilities and they used education and knowledge in politics astheir weapon. A movement to won the right to vote in Japan
UNICEF is founded in 1946 for the welfare of the children in both sexes by UN to provide living and education. Thisorganization expands their thoughts about the importance of the education and started to train teachers to provide better education to the children in the nation. In1965 UNICEF is awarded Nobel peace prize for the promotion of 1946 .UNICEF brotherhood among nations (UNICEF n.d). In this centuryUNICEF is working promptly as a responsible organizationto provide the security to the rights of the child and also this organization cope with other nations to fight against violence, discrimination and abuse of children. UNICEF formed as an organization to promote and support the basic needs of children in the society without the barrier of gender
1950• Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender rights movement• Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender rights movement is originated from Sweden and became first country in universe that removed homosexuality from the list of illness in 1950. The Swedish federation for gay and lesbian consider social invasion to spread their thoughts about gender change and same sex marriage. The gay rights movement is also called homosexual rights movement that recommends equal rights for homosexuals to eliminate sodomy laws and also predicted that something will happen to remove discriminations (Gay Rights Movement 2012).The federation provide support and started counseling and also educate men and women about the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and other health problems which would be considered for their personal safety and wellbeing. Government approved same sex marriage through Lesbian Gay Bisexual transgender movement.
1960 Women’s Liberation in Canada• The women liberation movement occurred in Canada in 1960s for the peace and safety of women. The 19th century was focused on pregnancy rights, education and economic independence (international Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family 2003). This movement was important to promote women’s equality with men and this movement fits with all other movements to ensure privacy and safety of women. This movement influenced the people in the society regarding the safety issues of the country
19 Feminist Movement in US6 The feminist movement is also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation. This movement began in western countries around late 18th century and4 maintained three different phases to fight against political inequalities, gender inequalities in laws and culture and focus on developing different achievements of women. The phrase Womens Liberation was first used in the United States in 1964, and first appeared in print in 1966. The division between women in America has been the result of differences of race, class, and sexual orientation. (Feminist movement 2012). Lack of participation occurred in respect due to the difference in colors of women in America and also due to the difference in the classes of the family.This feminist movement changed the nation; they won protection from employment discrimination. Allwomen from different cultures races and groups provide good effort to make feminism meaningful and success full based on their situation to achieve the goal of unity.
1979 Women’s rights movement in Japan The women’s rights movement launched in Japan and constitution permitted the women rights to enter in politics; they opened new doors to improve their education with their beneficial effects of equal rights. Equal employment opportunity law passed in 1986 to ensure that men and women have equal opportunities. (Century of Japanese women 2006). The foundations about the concepts to introduce women rights movement are occurred due to cultural, social and economic realities that the women facing around the world. The womens right movement was the first step by the women in Politics of Japan
References http://www.answers.com/topic/gender#Gender_and_development Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th Edition http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0856928.htmlhttp://www.indianetzone.com/22/indian_socioreligious_reform_movements _19th_century.htm http://lwvnet.org/tn/nashville/files/the_history_of_womens_suffrage.pdf http://www.infoplease.com/spot/womenstimeline3.html#ixzz1rTrDtSIu http://amargigroupistanbul.wordpress.com/feminism-in-turkey/feminist- movements-in-turkey/ Gay rights movement. (2012). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved fromhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/766382/gay-rights-movementFeminism in US: (Feminist Movement 2012) Feminist movement-Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feminist_movement http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/womens_movement.aspx http://www.hanamiweb.com/century_of_women.html