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Kaizen approach to teaching

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Application of the aggregation of maximal gains to improve teaching quality using ideas from expectancy theory and value analysis.

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Kaizen approach to teaching

  1. 1. Kaizen approach to teaching: 1% John Blake University of Aizu
  2. 2. Abstract 02 Teachers with many years of experience may opt to avoid new challenges and rely on tried-and-tested techniques. This presentation aims to show that experimentation not only results in significant improvements in the quality of students' learning, but also boosts teachers' effectiveness, renews enthusiasm and enhances employability.
  3. 3. Overview 03 • Kaizen: – Marginal gains – Expectancy theory – Model of service quality – Value analysis – Root cause analysis • Implementation: – Plan-do-check-act cycle – Attendance – Grades – Materials – Feedback • Conclusion
  4. 4. Kaizen 04 Continuous improvement, 5 Ss, Quality improvement, Total quality improvement, Six sigma, Lean production, Value analysis tear-down, etc. 改善[change] [good]
  5. 5. Marginal gains 05 What would be the result of improving your class by 1%? A change that nobody would notice.
  6. 6. Aggregation of marginal gains 06 What would be the result after a year of improving each class by 1%? A substantial change that everyone would notice.
  7. 7. Expectations 07 “Assessment 1 should be easy” • Will not fail “Assessment 1 is really difficult” • Probably fail
  8. 8. Expectation confirmation theory Low expectations Perceived performance Satisfaction Disconfirmation High expectations Santos, J. and Boote, J. (2003). A theoretical exploration and model of consumer expectations, post-purchase affective states and affective behaviours. Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review, 3(2), 142-156. Oliver R. L. (1980). A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(3), 460. 08
  9. 9. Model of service quality Align expectations Meet expectations Exceed expectations Delighted students Increase reliability Excel in service delivery Communicate with students Capitalise on service recovery Blake, J. (2001). Total Quality Management in an English Language Teaching Unit. MBA Dissertation. University of Abertay.09
  10. 10. Value analysis FUN GRADE TIME COST CONTENT FEEDBACK HOMEWORK DIFFICULTY OF CLASS CLASS CONTENT RELATES TO ASSESSMENT INTERACTION FRIENDLY No effect Dissatisfaction driver Satisfaction driver Remove drivers of dissatisfaction first. Then improve drivers of satisfaction. Note: learning ≠ satisfied10
  11. 11. Root cause analysis 11 CLASS CONTENT RELATES TO ASSESSMENT • Students do not know which activities relate to assessment • Some activities are • routine, e.g. attendance register (cut or justify) • unrelated (cut or justify) • related (show link by stating objectives • on board e.g. Sp – process (Ass 2) • at start of class explain • on materials • at end of class check them off )
  12. 12. 12 My classes are fine. I have taught for years. My students are happy. But could your classes be better and students happier?
  13. 13. Implementation 13
  14. 14. Identify areas to improve and act 14 Deming cycle Plan-do-check-act cycle Do CheckAct Plan Find something worth changing Make the change. A quick fix is fine. Think “better now” Evaluate the success of the change Take any action needed to make the change better
  15. 15. Attendance register 15 Student perception: No learning. Admin task. Wasted time. Function(s): Frame class? Expected routine? For teacher to learn names? To monitor attendance? To get know students? Ideas to experiment with 1. Drop register 2. Clipboard register and headcount 3. Digital register on LMS (student self register) 4. Student takes register (X. Is X here? Has anyone seen X today?) 5. Teacher takes register using arrow system  6. Teacher takes register, adding notes about students 7. Teacher takes register, immediately messaging students who are absent
  16. 16. Grade 16 Therefore, enable students to get high grades. Ethical teachers will achieve this though increasing student achievement in assessments. Ideas to experiment with 1. Set clear target (e.g. write a 100-word descriptive paragraph) 2. Ensure students know assessment criteria (e.g. register, content & length) 3. Ensure students know what they need to do to meet those criteria 4. Give examples of work at different levels: fail, borderline and pass 5. Give as many practice activities as necessary 6. Ensure students know their current level (e.g. Borderline) 7. Give formative feedback 8. Offer extra help to at-risk students Grade maxims (mine) When students get high grade, they take the credit themselves. When students get low grades, they blame the teacher.
  17. 17. Materials 17 Function: To enable students to learn Ideas to experiment with • standardized format for handouts– layout, font • objective in English or Japanese e.g. To be able to use very and absolutely before adjectives. • instructions in italic font e.g. Work in pairs. Identify which adjectives can be compared. • Images and colour? • motivational saying e.g. Students will forget what you taught them, but will remember how you made them feel. • challenge activity for more able students • suggested further practice activities for enthusiastic students • paper? print-on-demand? LMS or CMS? Webpage?
  18. 18. Feedback -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 Low challenge High challenge LowsupportHighsupport EL317 cohort n=40 (range -10 to +10) Csikszentmihalyi (1993) Flow theory High challenge + high support  in the zone/flow Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). The evolving self: A psychology for the third millennium (Vol. 5). New York, NY: HarperCollins publishers.18
  19. 19. Effect of kaizen 19 teacher effectiveness teacher enthusiasm employability Kaizen has had an amazing effect on my sporting, personal and professional life. What effect could it have on yours?
  20. 20. Any questions, comments or suggestions? John Blake jblake@u-aizu.ac.jp

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