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Critical reading

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Presentation given at JALT 2018 CT Forum.

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Critical reading

  1. 1. John Blake University of Aizu Critical reading: Integrating argument mapping into the curriculum
  2. 2. Overview 02 1. Reading and Critical reading 2. Argument mapping 3. Courses: Core & Elective 4. Activities 5. Argument visualizer
  3. 3. 03 1. Reading Polar bears Polar bears are most at home on the polar sea ice. The main food source was seals. However, due to global warming, polar bears now rely on penguins as their primary source of food. Task Answer these questions. Do polar bears eat more seals or more penguins now? Why is that?
  4. 4. 04 1. Critical reading Polar bears Polar bears are most at home on the polar sea ice. The main food source was seals. However, due to global warming, polar bears now rely on penguins as their primary source of food. Task Critically evaluate this passage.
  5. 5. 05 1. Critical reading Polar bears Polar bears are most at home on the polar sea ice. The main food source was seals. However, due to global warming, polar bears now rely on penguins as their primary source of food. World knowledge: Polar bears live in the northern hemisphere. Penguins do not! Therefore, ….. Key points Animals: polar bears, seals, penguins Place: polar sea ice. Causality: due to CAUSE, EFFECT.
  6. 6. 06 2. Argument mapping Polar bears Polar bears are most at home on the polar sea ice. The main food source was seals. However, due to global warming, polar bears now rely on penguins as their primary source of food. Argument map Evidence 1 Claim 1 Evidence: global warming [reduced the number of seals] Claim: polar bears now rely on penguins as their primary source of food
  7. 7. 07 2. Argument mapping Polar bears Polar bears are most at home on the polar sea ice. The main food source was seals. However, due to global warming, polar bears now rely on penguins as their primary source of food. Structure: Premise 1 (Assumption 1: number of seals decreased) Premise 2 (Global warming caused the decrease) Conclusion 1 (Polar bears eat more penguins) The conclusion follows the logical indicator due to. Reasoning: inductive Truth value: Premise 1 – false Premise 2 – true Conclusion 1 – false Evidence: World knowledge Arg Map P1 + A1 C1
  8. 8. 08 3. Courses: Core and Elective 1. Core course (Basic, Year 2) 2. Elective course (Intermediate, Year 3) • approx. 50 students • 24 hours per quarter • 2 koma per week
  9. 9. 09 3. Core course: Reading and writing Basic, Year 2 • Differentiate opinions from facts • Highlight claims • Identify supporting evidence. • Match claims to supporting evidence using argument mapping
  10. 10. 10 3. Elective course: Logic and language Intermediate, Year 3 • Valid arguments: conclusion, logical indicator, premises, assumptions • Reasoning: deductive and inductive • Formal fallacies • Informal fallacies • Critically evaluate claims using argument mapping
  11. 11. Activity 1 (facts vs opinion) 1. The boiling point for water is 100 degrees Celsius. 2. Hiroshi Abe is a good actor. 3. You are alive. 4. Newton`s second law is “F=ma”. 11 Basic level Fact or Opinion
  12. 12. Activity 2 (facts vs opinion) 1. The boiling point for water is 100 degrees Celsius. 2. I believe that Hiroshi Abe is a good actor. 3. The sun rises in the East. 4. There are 7 colours in a rainbow. 5. I think that Newton`s second law is “F=ma”. 12 Basic level Higher level Fact or Opinion Assumptions Hidden facts Vague-clear continuum
  13. 13. Activity 3 (claims) 1. Tim can speak English fluently so he can order food in a restaurant in the States for us. 2. Professor X has 1000 citations in Google Scholar, so his research is good quality. 3. Professor X read a research paper stating that top researchers drink more coffee. This is the sign in his lab: If you drink more coffee, you will become a top researcher. 13 Basic level Fact or Opinion Logical indicators
  14. 14. Activity 4 (claims vs evidence) 1. Tim can speak English fluently so he can order food in a restaurant in the States for us. 2. Professor X has 1000 citations in Google Scholar, so his research is good quality. 3. Professor X read a research paper stating that top researchers drink more coffee. This is the sign in his lab: If you drink more coffee, you will become a top researcher. 14 Basic level Higher level Fact or Opinion Logical indicators Assumptions Hidden facts Vague-clear continuum Logical fallacies
  15. 15. Activity 5 (arguments & fallacies) 1. All questions have answers. All answers are correct. All professors are correct. 2. All men are human. No women are men. Therefore, no women are human. 3. All English are football fans. All English are tea drinkers. Thus, all football fans are tea drinkers. 4. Xin is a professor. He completed his PhD. Now, he lives in the US. 15 Basic level Higher level Argument or not. Claim (conclusion) Evidence (premise) Assumptions Fallacies (syllogistic)
  16. 16. Activity 5 (logical indicators) 1. All questions have answers. All answers are correct. All professors are correct. 2. All men are human. No women are men. Therefore, no women are human. 3. All English are football fans. All English are tea drinkers. Thus, all football fans are tea drinkers. 4. Xin is a professor. He completed his PhD. Now, he lives in the US. 16 Basic level Higher level Argument or not. Claim (conclusion) Evidence (premise) Assumptions Fallacies (syllogistic)
  17. 17. Activity 5 (fallacies) 1. All questions have answers. All answers are correct. All professors are correct. 2. All men are human. No women are men. Therefore, no women are human.  Venn diagram 3. All English are football fans. All English are tea drinkers. Thus, all football fans are tea drinkers.  Venn diagram 4. Xin is a professor. He completed his PhD. Now, he lives in the US. 17 Basic level Higher level Argument or not. Claim (conclusion) Evidence (premise) Assumptions Formal Fallacies
  18. 18. Activity 6 (formal fallacies) If he is in hospital, then he is sick. He is not in hospital. Therefore, he is not sick. 18 Basic level Higher level Argument or not. Claim (conclusion) Evidence (premise) Assumptions Formal fallacies (invalid arguments)
  19. 19. Activity 7 (formal fallacies) If he is in hospital, then he is sick. He is not in hospital. Therefore, he is not sick. 19 Basic level Higher level Argument or not. Claim (conclusion) Evidence (premise) Assumptions Antecedent, Conscequent Formal fallacies (invalid arguments) If P, then Q Not P ∴ Not Q Denying the antecedent (Abductive reasoning) P1 P2 C1
  20. 20. Activity 8 (formal fallacies) All men are human. No women are men. Therefore, no women are human. 20 Basic level Higher level Argument or not. Claim (conclusion) Evidence (premise) Assumptions Fallacies (syllogistic)
  21. 21. Activity 9 (formal fallacies) All men are human. No women are men. Therefore, no women are human. 21 Basic level Higher level Argument or not. Claim (conclusion) Evidence (premise) Assumptions Antecedent, Consequent Formal fallacies (invalid arguments) All A are B No C are A ∴ No C are B Illicit major B = major term (error: assuming all human are men) P1 P2 C1
  22. 22. True False Truth value Declarative statement Premise Conclusion Logical indicator Inference Inference bar 22 Activity 10 1. Grass is green. 2. Green Grass is green Green is blue Therefore, grass is blue Reading task 1
  23. 23. antecedent consequent true false deny affirm Denying the antecedent Affirming the consequent 23 Activity 11
  24. 24. 24 If Hillary is speaking, she is lying. She is lying. Therefore, she is speaking. Structure: Premise 1 Premise 2 Conclusion The conclusion follows the logical indicator therefore. Reasoning: deductive Truth value: uncertain Evidence: none Formal fallacy: affirming the consequent Proof of fallacy: P = Hillary is speaking Q = she is lying. P --> Q Q P This argument is also a form of ad hominem or personal attack. Activity 12
  25. 25. 25 Structure: Most choose A so I choose A too The conclusion follows the logical indicator so. Reasoning: inductive Truth value: uncertain Evidence: weak Informal fallacy: ad populum (Bandwagon) Conclusion: uncogent Activity 13 (student-created materials) In a programming course students must solve problem A or problem B. Most of the students selected to solve question A, so I also chose to solve that problem. (student-created material)
  26. 26. 26 Activity 14 (student-created materials) Argument 1 If Java language is running, then the function of C++ language is used. If the function of C++ language is used, then we can utilize C language. Therefore, If Java language is running, we can utilize C language. Argument 2 In a programming course students must solve problem A or problem B. Most of the students selected to solve question A, so I also chose to solve that problem. Evaluate and name the following short arguments. Identify the conclusion, evaluate the truth value of the statements and validity of the argument. If a fallacy is present, name it.
  27. 27. Activity 15 (student-created materials) Summative quiz example Professor X conducted a telephone survey one afternoon by calling houses in Miyatake village (n=35). From his results he concluded that 100% of the respondents were either retired, stay-at-home mothers or unemployed. He then generalised from this sample survey to the city and claimed that no-one in Nomi city (which includes Miyatake village) was employed. Select one: a. Post hoc ergo propter hoc b. Appeal to ignorance c. False dilemma d. Deceptive statistics e. Slippery slope f. Red herring g. Ad hominem - abusive h. False analogy 27
  28. 28. 28 Student feedback -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 Low challenge High challenge LowsupportHighsupport EL317 cohort n=40 (range -10 to +10) Csikszentmihalyi (1993) Flow theory High challenge && high support  in the zone/flow Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). The evolving self: A psychology for the third millennium (Vol. 5). New York, NY: HarperCollins publishers.
  29. 29. Any questions, comments or suggestions? John Blake jblake@u-aizu.ac.jp
  30. 30. • What`s wrong with these activities? • How can they be improved? • Do you have better (different) suggestion? Teaching critical thinking: A collaborative critique
  31. 31. Generative scenario 01
  32. 32. 02 Communication gap Work in pairs. Use the vocabulary below to name the type of causes (C1, C2, C3, C4) that lead to effect, E1. proximal, distal, sufficient, necessary, rival, common, root
  33. 33. 03 Work in pairs (student A and student B). Discuss the figure and complete the table. Do not allow let anyone see your table. Term Example Description C1 First cause in a series Common cause C2 & C3, C4 Competing causes Necessary cause Sufficient cause One of the possible causes Distal cause C3, C4 Cause near the effect Student A Information gap
  34. 34. 04 Read the example to your group who try to name the fallacy. Read the definition to your group who name the fallacy Read the name of the fallacy to your group who explain it. Kinesthetic information gap (cards!)
  35. 35. Tobacco directly kills around 6 million1 people each year. There are approximately 1.1 billion1,2 smokers worldwide. Therefore, on average only 6 out of 1000 smokers die due to smoking. 1. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en 2. www.bbc.com/news/health-25635121 05 Critical reading Task Critically evaluate this passage.
  36. 36. 06 Artefact production Video or audio artefacts 30-second audio recording assess and re-purpose Chewar, C. and Matthews S J. (2016). Lights, Camera Action! Video Deliverables for Programming Projects. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, 31(3), 8-17

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