Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Common errors in scientific research articles (for JAIST students)

1,173 views

Published on

Common errors in scientific research articles

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Common errors in scientific research articles (for JAIST students)

  1. 1. J-BEANSセミナー:第27回 Common errors in scientific research articles 科学研究論文に見られるよくある誤り Wm R. Holden III and John Blake Institute of General Education Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
  2. 2. Increase the chances your manuscript will be accepted Identify and eliminate obstacles between your manuscript and your audience www.postersessi on.co m
  3. 3. www.postersessi on.co m Write with a journal in mind - Submission guidelines - Mission / vision - Categories of submission - Key subject areas - Impact factor - Rejection rate - Reviewers - Audience
  4. 4. www.postersessi on.co m Analyze target journal articles - How are articles structured - What level of detail is used - Level of context provided - Important types of evidence - Prominent stylistic features - Organisational features
  5. 5. www.postersessi on.co m Rejection will likely occur where - Submission guidelines ignored - Aim of paper not clearly stated - Content not important or timely - Content & journal purpose not consistent - Research design problems - Results & data are at odds - Unwarranted conclusions drawn - Multiple submission
  6. 6. www.postersessi on.co m CONCLUSIONS To increase the chances that your paper is accepted, you should: - Create time and space for writing - Be willing to revise & rewrite - Solicit opinions and input - Work with an experienced author - Collaborate with your peers - Learn from reviewers` comments - Take writing classes at JAIST
  7. 7. DISCUSSION Misconceptions about the writing process can lead to anxiety and lack of confidence or motivation www.postersessi on.co m -Writing is easy - You can`t write well enough - Good writing ability is innate - Your research is of poor quality - Your English isn`t good enough - The reviewer was unfair J-BEANSセミナー:第27回
  8. 8. www.postersessi on.co m Investigate the possibility that working with a Writing Lab tutor can increase the chances your manuscript will be published. J-BEANSセミナー:第27回
  9. 9. Hands-on practice Types of errors Source Intralingual vs. interlingual errors (Selinker, 1972; Brown, 2000) Accidental slips, ingrained errors vs. attempts (Edge, 1990) Learner-induced vs. teacher-induced Form Lexical, grammatical vs. discoursal Effect Intrusive vs. non-intrusive errors Errors that lead to rejection vs. errors that don`t Edge, J. (1990). Mistakes and correction. Harlow: Longman. Brown , H. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Selinker, L. (1972) Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 10(3), 209-231
  10. 10. Hands-on practice Common errors in SRAs in Writing Lab Type Description Accuracy concerning mistakes in facts, meaning, grammar, usage and spelling Brevity using too many words to say something simple Clarity using vague or ambiguous terms Objectivity using terms that appear subjective* Formality using abbreviations, contractions and informal terms Time to think…..30 errors to identify, correct and explain
  11. 11. Hands-on practice Accuracy errors (1) 1. The population of Japan is 12,734,100 [1]. 2. There are four types of… First,.. Second, ..Third,.. 3. All women… 4. XXX will play a key factor in the near future. 5. This is a improtant topic 6. p < 0.5
  12. 12. Hands-on practice Accuracy errors (1) 1. The population of Japan is 12,734,100 [1]. 2. There are four types of… First,.. Second, ..Third,.. 3. All women … 4. XXX will play a key factor in the near future. 5. This is a improtant topic 6. p < 0.5 cf. (p < 0.05)
  13. 13. Hands-on practice Accuracy errors (2) 1. All the formulas on all the XXX for our XXX is completely XXX. 2. This paper first proposes a XXX[…] and then reformulate XXX in terms of XXX. 3. The XXX in the XXX of XXX are two. 4. XXX (e.g. XXX , XXX, XXX) has attracted many attention. 5. However, past studies to date, including XXX, are limited, since they have XXX on ”XXX data”.
  14. 14. Hands-on practice Accuracy errors (2) 1. All the formulas on all the XXX for our XXX is completely XXX. 2. This paper first proposes a XXX[…] and then reformulate XXX in terms of XXX. 3. The XXX in the XXX of XXX are two. 4. XXX (e.g. XXX , XXX, XXX) has attracted many attention. 5. However, past studies to date, including XXX, are limited, since they have XXX on ”XXX data”.
  15. 15. Hands-on practice Accuracy errors 1. Factual errors related to the world 2. Factual errors related to the article 3. Overgeneralization errors 4. Overly bold claims 5. Spelling and grammar errors, esp. LaTeX users 6. Statistical errors
  16. 16. Hands-on practice Brevity errors 1. The concept that was chosen as the primary focus of this research is XXX 2. ..providing the user with various XXX and asking him/her to XXX. 3. We analyze XXX regarding the XXX qualities, XXX qualities and XXX qualities. 4. On each and every occurrence, the XXX was noted.
  17. 17. Hands-on practice Brevity errors 1. The concept that was chosen as the primary focus of this research is XXX 2. ..providing the user with various XXX and asking him/her to XXX. 3. We analyze XXX regarding the XXX qualities, XXX qualities and XXX qualities. 4. On each and every occurrence, the XXX was noted.
  18. 18. Hands-on practice Brevity errors 1. Using multiple vague words 2. Repeated words 3. Redundant words
  19. 19. Hands-on practice Clarity errors 1. XXX is something which is XXX from XXX of somewhere of, is something which XXX 2. It is really good for XXX. 3. Referring to Smith [10], Jones notes that he… 4. XXX found two AAA and one BBB, which CCC 5. The journal plans to publish this paper were just a rumour.
  20. 20. Hands-on practice Clarity errors 1. XXX is something which is XXX from XXX of somewhere of, is something which XXX 2. It is really good for XXX. 3. Referring to Smith [10], Jones notes that he… 4. XXX found two AAA and one BBB, which CCC 5. The journal plans to publish this paper were just a rumour. (jb)
  21. 21. Hands-on practice Clarity errors 1. Vague expressions 2. Lexical ambiguity 3. Referential ambiguity 4. Syntactic ambiguity 5. Garden path sentence Brevity Clarity
  22. 22. Hands-on practice Objectivity errors* 1. We are confident that XXX will become XXXX 2. We are pleased to announce that XXX 3. …such as services to your XXX, to your XXX, and to XXX. 4. I interviewed 10 of my best students. (jb) * ‘taming’ one’s subjectivity Peshkin, A. (1988). In search of subjectivity. One`s own. Educational Researcher, 17 (7), 17-21.
  23. 23. Hands-on practice Objectivity errors 1. We are confident that XXX will become XXXX 2. We are pleased to announce that XXX 3. …such as services to your XXX, to your XXX, and to XXX. 4. I interviewed 10 of my best students. (jb)
  24. 24. Hands-on practice Objectivity errors 1. Focus on people & feelings, not things & ideas 2. Emotive wording 3. Excessive personalization, e.g. use of pronouns
  25. 25. Hands-on practice Formality errors 1. To be more precise, act doesn’t directly cause the effect (E). 2. What’s more, we could not only control the torque,…. 3. This is the RQ of this paper. 4. A bunch of IT engineers collaborated and launched… 5. They launched the website right after the earthquake 6. The key question to ask is: how can we…?
  26. 26. Hands-on practice Formality errors 1. To be more precise, act doesn’t directly cause the effect (E). 2. What’s more, we could not only control the torque,…. 3. This is the RQ of this paper. 4. A bunch of IT engineers collaborated and launched… 5. They launched the website right after the earthquake… 6. The key question to ask is: how can we…? RQ = CO2 eliminated / O2 consumed
  27. 27. Hands-on practice Formality errors 1. Contractions 2. Abbreviations 3. Slang 4. Informal terms 5. Rhetorical questions
  28. 28. Hands-on practice Example paragraph A This is a hot topic nowadays. So, how can you accept both the potential pros and cons of the Internet? It’s important for us to remember that hi-tech developments are not good or bad by themselves.
  29. 29. Hands-on practice Example paragraph B This has become a controversial topic recently. Therefore, it is necessary to identify both the potential advantages and disadvantages of the Internet. It is important to remember that technological developments are neither intrinsically positive nor negative.
  30. 30. Hands-on practice Example paragraphs A & B This has become a controversial topic recently. Therefore, it is necessary to identify both the potential advantages and disadvantages of the Internet. It is important to remember that technological developments are neither intrinsically positive nor negative. This is a hot topic nowadays. So, how can you accept both the potential pros and cons of the Internet? It’s important for us to remember that hi-tech developments are not good or bad by themselves. (Taken from new E113 Unit 11, formerly E112)
  31. 31. Hands-on practice Common errors in SRAs in Writing Lab Type Advice Accuracy Check facts, spelling and grammar Brevity Remove redundancy Clarity Avoid ambiguity; be precise Objectivity Focus on things and ideas, not people and feelings Formality Avoid abbreviations, contractions and informal terms
  32. 32. Technical communication courses 2016-7 www.postersessi on.co m Recommended TOEIC score Spoken Technical Communication Written Technical Communication TOEIC < 500 Pre- Intermediate Interaction Seminar A Interaction Seminar B TOEIC 501 – 600 Intermediate E111 Academic Discussion & Debate E112 Academic Writing E113 Reading Research Articles TOEIC 601 – 700 Upper Intermediate E212 Presenting Research E211 Writing Research E213 Scientific Discussion I: Critical and logical thinking TOEIC 700 plus Advanced E411 Writing Short Research Articles E412 Writing Extended Research Articles E413 Scientific Discussion II: Critical and logical thinking
  33. 33. www.postersessi on.co m Writing Courses 2016 E112 Students will produce a 5-7 paragraph essay introducing their research. E113 Students will learn to read research articles more effectively and efficiently. E211 Students will plan a writing project from conception to completion, and produce an outline and the methodology section of a short RA. E411 Students will learn to write a short RA based on research conducted in their field of study. E412 Students will learn to write a longer research document that can be submitted for publication.

×