Examples of complex concepts and technical terminology covered
• deductive, inductive, abductive, …
Valid propositional forms:
• modus ponens, modus tollens, hypothetical syllogism,…
• affirming the consequent, undistributed middle term,…
• ad hominem, ad populum, equivocation,…
• proximal, distal, necessary, sufficient,…
• Liar, Sorites, Heap,…
• Confirmation, Anchoring, Framing,…
Mean TOEIC score: c.350
Actual input + nα
Comprehensible input + α
Expected detail for written analysis
If Hillary is speaking, she is lying.
She is lying.
Therefore, she is speaking.
The conclusion follows the logical indicator therefore.
Truth value: uncertain
Formal fallacy: affirming the consequent
Proof of fallacy: P = Hillary is speaking
Q = she is lying.
P --> Q
This argument is also a form of ad hominem or personal attack.
50 students x
7 weeks x
Students master lower-level concepts prior to higher-level concepts.
(Bloom, 1971, 1985; Slavin, 1987; Guskey, 2007)
1 x 2 = ? 1 x 12=? 12 x 12=? 13 x 125 =?
Bloom, B. S. (1971). Mastery learning. In J. H. Block (Ed.), Mastery learning: Theory and practice (pp. 47–63). New York:
Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Bloom, B. S. (1985). Developing talent in young people. New York: Ballantine Books.
Guskey, T. R. (2007). Closing the achievement gap: Revisiting Benjamin S. Bloom’s “learning for mastery.” Journal of
Advanced Academics, 19, 8–31.
Slavin, R. E. (1987). Mastery learning reconsidered. Review of Educational Research, 57, 175-213.
Mastery learning: Step 2 Sequence
1. This is red.
Grass is green
Green is blue
Therefore, grass is blue
Denying the antecedent
Affirming the consequent
Mastery learning: Step 3 Chain
Active learning (Communication gap)
Work in pairs. Use the vocabulary below to name the type of causes
(C1, C2, C3, C4) that lead to effect, E1.
proximal, distal, sufficient, necessary, rival, common, root
Work in pairs (student A and student B). Discuss the figure and
complete the table. Do not allow let anyone see your table.
Term Example Description
C1 First cause in a series
C2 & C3, C4 Competing causes
Sufficient cause One of the possible causes
C3, C4 Cause near the effect
Active learning 2
Read the example to your
group who try to name the
Read the definition to your
group who name the fallacy
Read the name of the fallacy to
your group who explain it.
Active learning 3
Active learning 4
(student created materials/tests)
If Java language is running, then the function of C++
language is used. If the function of C++ language is
used, then we can utilize C language. Therefore, If Java
language is running, we can utilize C language.
In a programming course students must solve problem
A or problem B. Most of the students selected to solve
question A, so I also chose to solve that problem.
Evaluate and name the following short arguments. Identify the conclusion,
evaluate the truth value of the statements and validity of the argument. If a
fallacy is present, name it.
start with course review; end with lesson/unit review, e.g.
Formative test Determine progress
Summative test Assess mastery
Assessor: Self, Peer, Teacher, Online
Test (Basic knowledge) Type Mode Participant Assessor
#1 List concepts formative paper individual self
#2 Label concept descriptions formative paper pairs peer
#3 Write concept descriptions summative paper individual teacher
#4 Discuss concepts formative live/video pairs/threes teacher
#5 Explain concepts summative audio rec individual peer
#6 Multiple-choice quiz formative online individual software
#7 Explain concepts summative live individual teacher
S a M
M a P
A tale of two students
Student A masters the concept
earlier and moves on to the next
Student B masters the concept
on the third summative
Tests 2 Student A
#3 Write concept descriptions
No further test
To clarify these
#5 Example artefact
30-second audio recording
assess and re-purpose
Chewar, C. and Matthews S J. (2016). Lights,
Camera Action! Video Deliverables for
Programming Projects. Journal of Computing
Sciences in Colleges, 31(3), 8-17Thanks for the reference
• Paired reviews
• Clarity of 108-item mastery list
e.g. 3 invalid arguments
• Multiple chances to get 100%
e.g. Live vs. recorded
e.g. Discussion vs. presentation
• Not having to take tests once
concept is mastered “I can know
what I need to doing”[sic]
• Ability to self-evaluate using
checklist “I can know what I need
-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
Low challenge High challenge
EL317 cohort n=40 (range -10 to +10) Students did not like
• 9am tests
• Missing 9am tests
Csikszentmihalyi (1993) Flow theory
High challenge + high support in the zone/flow
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). The evolving self: A psychology
for the third millennium (Vol. 5). New York, NY: HarperCollins
Practical take-away tips
1. Write clear assessment guidelines (or aims/objectives)
2. List knowledge, skills and behaviours required
3. Knowledge is easiest to create mastery learning syllabus
4. Write clear rubrics
5. Provide measurable objectives
6. Include paired reviews
7. Get students to create artefacts. Digital artefacts are
easier to re-purpose, e.g. text, video or audio files
8. Assess artefacts using clear criteria
9. Create materials and tests from artefacts
10. Would mastery learning help your Japanese?
Any questions, comments or