BackgroundMy situation• Started in 1999 - Teaching academic writing touniversity students in Hong KongMy problem• 3 assessments & 3 mocks (500 words each)• 20 students x 15 classes• 6 x 300 x 500 words = 900,000 words +03
Method• Interviewees identified• Semi-structured informal interviews orfocus groups held• Suggestions coded by primary purpose• Coded suggestions categorised04
• 100 experienced teachers of writing• 80% University / 20% High schoolteachers• In Hong Kong, Japan and Thailand• Over five yearsMethod: subjects05
Results# Purpose6 Checking in class time7 Fewer & shorter comments8 Harnessing technology9 Investing time upfront toreduce time spent later10 Avoidance07
OPERATIONAL STRATEGIES1. Fewer submissions08• Pair or group work submissions• Elective and compulsorysubmissions• Set strict deadlines for homeworkcompletion.
2. Fewer words09• Strict word or line limits• Time limits
3. Less variation10• Use a template answer form• Fix font, size, margin & spacing• Set classes similar tasks
3. Less variation –example instructions to student11You must:1. Place your name, your student number and the title in theheader (view – header footer)2. Use the font called Times New Roman, size 12 (go to toolbar)3. Single-space your essay (Microsoft default)4. Submit one copy5. Include the word count (tools – word count) at the end (Itshould be between 700-800 words)6. Staple together the pages of each essay with one staple inthe top left corner. Do not put the essay in a folder, file orbinder.
QUALITY CONTROL STRATEGIES4. Fewer errors12• Self check• Peer check- e.g. Read aloud- e.g. Checklist• Technology check
5. Higher quality submissions14• Provide models or templates• Set rewriting tasks• Half finished translations• Distribute a hate-list• Request colour-coded essays.
5. Higher quality submissions –problem paragraph template15Topic Topic sentence The main problem that FFF faces is the difficulty of GGG.AAA and BBB pose tremendous obstacles.Elaboration Sub-problem 1 Although AAA is an onerous task, it is not insurmountable.Description:Explanation: XXX resulted from AAAExample: XXX is a case in pointSub-problem 2 The next hurdle is one which may [verb]Description:,Explanation: XXX stems from AAAExample: For instance, XXX is a case in pointSub-problem 3 The final challenge is possibly more daunting: VVVingDescription:Explanation: XXX is caused by AAAExample: XXX.exemplifies this point.
5. Higher quality submissions –hate list16Hate list items: “someone says…”• Many people, however, are opposed to theidea of ________ because…• Some people however oppose the idea(of….ing), arguing that ….• A strong objection to the idea, however, is thefact that…
5. Higher quality submissions –colour coded submission17The objective of time management is to use our limited time ina more effective and efficiency way in order to achieve ourgoal. As Holden (2009,p.12) states, one of the maincharacteristic of time management is to “concentrate onresults, not on being busy.” Some people, who have not wellmanaged their time, spend their all day time and work veryhard to do just a little and irrelevant things. It may be due tolack of a well planning and schedules. However, if we knowwhat we should do in these few hours, how much time weshould spend on this jobs, what is the next tasks we should do,it probably enhance our working speed and save our time.
FEEDBACK STRATEGIES6. Check in class18• Use transparencies and OHP• Use A3-size paper and walls• Use projector to display emailedsubmissions• Use class time when studentsare busy
7. Fewer and shorter comments19• Use a timer• Only correct key errors• Only indicate location of error –line, phrase or word• Use a correction code
7. Fewer and shorter comments -examples20The are three main issue.The are three main issues.The are three main issue.The are three main issue. *The are three main issue. AgThe are three main issue. Ag
9. Invest time upfront24• Create one task-specific generalfeedback sheet for each class• Create a general feedback video• Create a general feedback sheet.
9. Invest time upfront –task specific class feedback25RegisterThere are a number of words which can be classed asinformal. Some examples of these taken from yourassessment are given below. Find suitable formalreplacements for them.1. Thanks to…….. 2. Now3. So 4. but5. more and more 6. very very7. a lot 8. big