Has all agro-ecologicial zones Rain varies from 200mm (Karoo) to more than 1000mm (Bizana + Lusikisiki area)
- Port St Johns
Inflation has to be included
Qunu – Nelson Mandela village
Poor production (Ngcobo, April 2008)
High potential: min 600mm, not more than 6% slope,
Result of a project identification
Successful CA projects KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho
Feedback to the trainees and their respective farmers
During the yearly monitoring, other key issues could be identified that have a negative impact on extension officer’s performance:Loss of indigenous knowledge due to one-sided research dominated agronomy – Higher yield as a meassurement of success
- Training Devision of ECDRDAR as co-operator
which would, for instance, bring together 4 trainees from 5 areas each instead of one trainee each from 20 areas
We can see that new trainees have better pre-knowledge of CA when they come to start CA training courses.
We cannot emphasize quality of CA enough
Training programme to overcome barriers and to intesify the adoption of CA in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Dirk Lange
5th World Congress of Conservation Agriculture incorporating 3rd Farming Systems Design Conference, 26th September 2011 Brisbane, Australia Training Programme to Overcome Barriers and to Intensify the Adoption of Conservation Agriculturein the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa 3.2 Adoption and Innovation Plattforms Lange D1, Ristow W2, Ellis R1 1CAT, University of Fort Hare, 2Eastern Cape Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform
Contents1. Introduction2. Methods3. Results and Discussion4. Final remarks
Estimated Costs of Erosion South African National Action Programme Combating Land Degradation to Alleviate Rural Poverty (2004) (Part of the UNCCD)“The cost of soil erosion per year was estimatedat about R2 billion in 1992”.“Nutrient loss from soil in South Africa has beenestimated as having a worth of R1.5 billion peryear” in 2001.
Farming SystemCommunal farming systems =>no land titles, 1 + 1 has.
1. IntroductionIn 2002, the Eastern Cape Department ofRural Development and Agrarian Reform(ECRDAR), embarked on a farmer supportprogramme aimed at stimulating theproduction of food grains in the highpotential areas of the Province; part of theprogramme was the introduction ofConservation Agriculture (CA) as one of itsconditions.
1. IntroductionCA was not implemented during the first 5 years ofthe programme due to the lack of knowledge of CAand about its principles.The ECDRDAR made the decision to initiate atraining programme to equip gov. extensionofficers with the necessary knowledge and skills inorder to:• Introduce on-farm CA demonstrations;• Manage the CA production process; and• Identify and prevent possible problems that might occur during the implementation of CA.
How we understand CABasic Elements of CA – simultaneously used1. Continuous Minimum Soil Disturbance,2. Permanent Organic Soil Cover,3. Diversification of crop species grown in sequences and/or associations. (FAO, 2011)• Green Manure Cover Crops,• Integrated Pest and Weed Management, and• Integration of Livestock.For us, CA is eco–LOGIC.
2. MethodsIn 2007, ECDRDAR entered into a partnership withthe University of Fort Hare (UFH) and establishedthe Conservation Agriculture Thrust (CAT), taskedwith inter alia stimulating establishment ofeconomically successful and environmentallysustainable crop/livestock production systemsamong communal smallholders.CAT is a project that focuses on CA only, mainlyby training of EOs.
2. MethodsThe main areas on which the training programmefocuses are:• CA principles and practices;• Basic agricultural arithmetic calculations;• Soil fertility and plant nutrition;• Weed and pest management;• Utilization and maintenance of CA machinery;
2. MethodsThe main areas on which the training programmefocuses are: (cont)• Utilization of and safety in the use of agro- chemicals;• Post harvest seed selection and storage;• GMCC and crop rotations; and• Introduction to value adding.
2. MethodsThe course is divided into three phases:1. A 3-week (equalling 15 days or 120 hours) basic training, includes an exposure tour to successful CA projects in the region as well as a basic CA starter kit that includes equipment, documentation and inputs;2. Season-long, on-the-job training in selected, on- farm CA demonstrations; and3. A Cross Visit Tour.The duration of the training is approximately oneyear, with follow-ups during the next 2-3 years.
2. Methods• A yearly monitoring system, which was adopted and adapted from the very successful Paraguayan CA project Proyecto de Manejo Sostenible de Recursos Naturales (PMRN).• Results of each monitoring report are analysed and feedback is provided.• Furthermore, the monitoring results, i.e. the on-CA-field-performance, serve as an indicator of the quality of the training methods and help to continuously improve the CA training programme.
3. Results and DiscussionThe following key outcomes during thetraining process are relevant:• Experiential learning is key to CA adoption (constructivism);• 38 (of 40) extension officers completed field demonstrations successfully in the first year; and
• No-till practices were the more widely adopted entry points to CA during the first year, followed by soil cover and the utilization of GMCCs in the second year.
3. Results and DiscussionOther key issues that have a negative impact onextension officer’s performance, e.g.:• Basic agronomic skills are not sufficient/missing;• Lack of knowledge about different extension approaches;• Socio-economic conditions in South Africa, i.e. hand-out mentality deriving from state grants;• Loss of indigenous knowledge;• Ageing of the agricultural active population; and• Lack of leadership by the top-management of ECDRDAR.
3. Results and DiscussionSome issues are now being tackled:• Through closer cooperation with other ECDRDAR training initiatives; and• Identification of motivated farmers that are not biased by the hand-out mentality.However, it is clear that some of the constraintsto CA adoption have to be appreciated as they areout of influence or control of projects.
3. Results and DiscussionKey aspects for overcoming barriers and forintensifying the adoption and adaptation of CA:• Formal accreditation of CA training;• Implementation and long-term practical learning with innovator farmers TOGETHER with trainees;• CA training should be a broad strategic objective for the extension service in the Province;• Awareness and training for extension supervisors and managers; and• A cluster approach to training.
Cluster Building EO 2007/8 EO 2008/9 Supervisor 2008/09 EO 2011/12
4. Final Remarks• Training programmes need to be flexible and adaptable (our programme has changed again…)• Accreditation of CA training via CA Academy seems a key as it provides quality assurance, too;• CA trainees and farmers need to be provided with a vision;
4. Final Remarks• Start small, 10% of farming area is enough for learning;• No quick-fixes;• There is compaction in the head, no doubt. People want change, but they do not want to change. Comfort zones are just too nice and comfy…