Striga asiatica:a driving-force for dissemination of conservation agriculture systemsbased on Stylosanthes guianensis     ...
Michellon, R.; Naudin, K.;Letourmy, P.; Enjalric, F.;  Penot, E., Séguy, L.      Moussa, N.;Randrianjafizanaka, M.T.;    A...
Striga in the world   Parasite of cereals   50 million hectares, 300 million people   Jeopardizes food security (Ejeta, 20...
Striga in Madagascar   Striga asiatica   South–West & Middle West   700 - 1,100 meters a.m.s.l.   1,000-1,500 mm/year   6 ...
Striga in Madagascar  Compacted soil, +/- degraded  “Medium” scale agriculture   Rice//maize   Field abandonment – Village...
Objective   Can we propose practical CA systems   that effectively control striga?   YES WE CAN !!!   Striga :   driving–f...
Material and methods (1/3)   From 2002/03   TAFA/CIRAD   Test of 4 CA   systems   Rice//maize   + tillage   2 to 4 replica...
Material and methods (1/3)   DMC systems : Direct-Seeding, Mulch-   based Cropping systems   3 principles of CA   + high b...
Material and methods (1/3)   1. Rice + Stylosanthes // maize+ Stylo.
Material and methods (1/3)2. Rice // maize+B. ruziziensis + C. cajan
Material and methods (1/3)   3. Rice // maize + cowpea
Material and methods (1/3)   4. Rice + Arachis sp // maize + Arachis      Arachis pintoï and Arachis repens
Material and methods (2/3)   From 2004/05, extension programmes   FAFIALA, ANAE, SD-Mad   Monitoring / Data base
Material and methods (3/3)   2009/10 specific study on striga   control: striga seeds and plants   Ø 12 cm cylinder x 4 re...
Results (1/3)   Systems with Stylosanthes or Arachis   control striga                                         Average Aver...
Results (2/3) Systems with Stylosanthes produce more and more regularly than other systems                     4275 kg/ha ...
Results (3/3)  Rapid dissemination of systems with  Stylosanthes
Results (3/3)   Fastest rate of CA dissemination in   Madagascar   Possibility to re-introduce rice and   maize in the cro...
Discussion Why DMC/CA controls striga (hypothesis)    Temperature control/conditioning    N + C inputs    Triggering “suic...
Discussion  Stylosanthes based cropping systems     Easy to implement     Easy to learn (progressive)     Robust and resil...
Conclusions  Some CA/DMC systems actually  control striga  CA/DMC systems based on  Stylosanthes are practical, easy to  i...
Thanks for your attention ! Website: http://agroecologie.cirad.frhttp://agroecologie.cirad.fr/librairie-virtuelle
Thanks for your attention !  Conservation agriculture :100% of the winners did play !
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Striga asiatica: a driving-force for dissemination of CA systems based on Stylosanthes guianensis in Madagascar. Olivier Husson

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Presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Brisbane, Australia.

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Striga asiatica: a driving-force for dissemination of CA systems based on Stylosanthes guianensis in Madagascar. Olivier Husson

  1. 1. Striga asiatica:a driving-force for dissemination of conservation agriculture systemsbased on Stylosanthes guianensis in Madagascar Dr. Olivier Husson
  2. 2. Michellon, R.; Naudin, K.;Letourmy, P.; Enjalric, F.; Penot, E., Séguy, L. Moussa, N.;Randrianjafizanaka, M.T.; Andrianaivo, A.P. Raveloarijoana, N. Rakotondramanana
  3. 3. Striga in the world Parasite of cereals 50 million hectares, 300 million people Jeopardizes food security (Ejeta, 2007) Elusive wide-scale effective control S. asiatica S. hermontica
  4. 4. Striga in Madagascar Striga asiatica South–West & Middle West 700 - 1,100 meters a.m.s.l. 1,000-1,500 mm/year 6 months dry season S. asiatica
  5. 5. Striga in Madagascar Compacted soil, +/- degraded “Medium” scale agriculture Rice//maize Field abandonment – Village migration
  6. 6. Objective Can we propose practical CA systems that effectively control striga? YES WE CAN !!! Striga : driving–force for CA dissemination
  7. 7. Material and methods (1/3) From 2002/03 TAFA/CIRAD Test of 4 CA systems Rice//maize + tillage 2 to 4 replicates 200 m²
  8. 8. Material and methods (1/3) DMC systems : Direct-Seeding, Mulch- based Cropping systems 3 principles of CA + high biomass production by multifunctional cover crops Muskwari sorghum
  9. 9. Material and methods (1/3) 1. Rice + Stylosanthes // maize+ Stylo.
  10. 10. Material and methods (1/3)2. Rice // maize+B. ruziziensis + C. cajan
  11. 11. Material and methods (1/3) 3. Rice // maize + cowpea
  12. 12. Material and methods (1/3) 4. Rice + Arachis sp // maize + Arachis Arachis pintoï and Arachis repens
  13. 13. Material and methods (2/3) From 2004/05, extension programmes FAFIALA, ANAE, SD-Mad Monitoring / Data base
  14. 14. Material and methods (3/3) 2009/10 specific study on striga control: striga seeds and plants Ø 12 cm cylinder x 4 rep. 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth 0-12 cm and 24-36 cm from maize row
  15. 15. Results (1/3) Systems with Stylosanthes or Arachis control striga Average Average number Cropping system number of of parasite striga striga plants (0-12 and Maize + seeds 24-36cm) (0-12 cm) (CA) Arachis pintoï 1.0 a 0.0 a (CA) Stylosanthes 1.5 a 1.0 a (CA) Brachiaria+Cajanus 4.5 ab 3.5 bc (CA) Cowpea 15.5 c 3.0 bc (CT) Tillage 8.6 bc 8.4 c Mean values in each column followed by the same letter(s) are not different in Fisher pairwise comparison (least significant difference, p-value= 0.05).
  16. 16. Results (2/3) Systems with Stylosanthes produce more and more regularly than other systems 4275 kg/ha 1805 kg/ha Recommended fertilization: 5t/ha manure + 50 N - 30 P – 40 K
  17. 17. Results (3/3) Rapid dissemination of systems with Stylosanthes
  18. 18. Results (3/3) Fastest rate of CA dissemination in Madagascar Possibility to re-introduce rice and maize in the cropping systems with CA identified as a major factor of CA adoption (Sorreze, 2010)
  19. 19. Discussion Why DMC/CA controls striga (hypothesis) Temperature control/conditioning N + C inputs Triggering “suicidal germination” Favourable conditions for striga parasites
  20. 20. Discussion Stylosanthes based cropping systems Easy to implement Easy to learn (progressive) Robust and resilient Flexible Small scale, low input to mechanized, commercial agriculture Efficient Production Weed control 60-70 % of CA systems in the area
  21. 21. Conclusions Some CA/DMC systems actually control striga CA/DMC systems based on Stylosanthes are practical, easy to implement and very efficient Farmers adopt CA/DMC systems as it is the only possibility they have to effectively control striga Major constraint  driving force for CA
  22. 22. Thanks for your attention ! Website: http://agroecologie.cirad.frhttp://agroecologie.cirad.fr/librairie-virtuelle
  23. 23. Thanks for your attention ! Conservation agriculture :100% of the winners did play !

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