Ecosystem services – what are they, why are we interested, how can they be harnessed (micro-macro relationship) CA-based ecosystem services in different parts of the world Canada: Carbon offset scheme in Alberta Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basin Some conclusions
In agricultural landscapes managed under the tillage-based production paradigm, soil-mediated ecosystem functions and services, are disrupted often severely due to high disturbance from tillage, agrochemicals, low soil carbon, soil compaction, runoff and soil erosion, low agro-biodiversity etc. Soil health and productive capacity and crop & ecosystem performance remain sub-optimal.
Alberta is number one! We produce 34% of Canada's emissions (2008). 244,000,000 T CO2e. Canada has 734,000,000 T CO2e annual total emissions (2008).Alberta increase in emissions is proportional to Alberta energy exports.Agriculture is 8.4% of Canada’s emissions. Agriculture is 8% of Alberta emissions.Alberta produces 32% of Canada’s Agriculture emissions.
The POLICY slide.Regulation came in (amended) in April 2007. July 1 implementation.Applies to all facilities with >100,000 T CO2e emission intensityExisting Facilities (pre-2000) – 12% reduction off of baseline (2003-5)New Facilities (post-2000) - adjusted targets
The ones below the break are in the final stages of development.The ones in the box are simply examples of the other 22 protocols.The new protocol getting lots of interest is the Nitrous Oxide Emissions Reduction protocol (NERP) which follows the 4R system of nitrogen management (Right product, Right rate, Right placement, Right time)
Approximately 36% of all compliance requirements are satisfied by purchasing offsets. About 44% is payments into the Tech Fund. The rest is Emission Performance credit trading and internal efficiencies.Approximately 40% of all offsets are agriculture NoTill offsets.AWWT= Anearobic Wastewater Treatment protocolEOR = Enhanced Oil Recovery
This and remaining slides are not meant to be used as is but only here to provide points that could be used to summarize the whole presentation.
Harnessing ecosystem services with CA in Canada and Brazil. Amir Kassam
5th World Congress of Conservation Agriculture, 25-29 September, Brisbane Harnessing Ecosystem Services WithConservation Agriculture in Canada and Brazil Amir Kassam, Ivo Mello, Tom Goddard, TheodorFriedrich, Francois Laurent, Tim Reeves, Berthold Hansmann University of Reading, UK Brazilian No-Till Federation, Ponta Grossa Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Alberta Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome University of Maine, France Timothy G. Reeves & Associates, Australia GIZ, Germany
Ecosystem Services• Societies benefit from the many resources and processes supplied by nature. Collectively they are known as ecosystem services, or goods and services. Some of the goods and services are also referred to as environmental services.• Many services are of a public goods nature – clean water, nitrogen fixation, carbon sequestration, erosion control, pollination services, etc.• They operate at various nested levels from micro and macro to mega scale – field, farm, catchment, and landscape level in watersheds and basins.
Benefits of CAEcosystem services:• provisioning: food and clean water• regulating: climate and pests/diseases• supporting: nutrient cycles, pollination• cultural: recreation• conserving: biodiversity, erosion control
CA-Based Ecosystem Services• In agricultural landscapes managed under the tillage-based production paradigm, soil- mediated ecosystem functions and services, are disrupted often severely. Soil health and productive capacity and crop & ecosystem performance remain sub-optimal.• With CA, it is possible to harness enhanced productivity and production as well as ecosystem services often with less inputs.
CA-Based Ecosystem Services• CA-based ES are now operating in several countries, as part of larger national programmes. For example: – The agricultural carbon offset scheme in Alberta, Canada (as part Alberta’s GHG offset system) – The hydrological services programme in Parana’ III basin in Brazil (as part of integrated Itaipu basin management programme) – Control of soil erosion, water and wind, in Spain – Control of dust storms and water erosion in the loess plateau of the Yellow River basin in China – Reducing susceptibility to land degradation in western Australia
Case one Canada: Carbon offset scheme in AlbertaSequestering soil Carbon with CA and trading offsets with regulated companies to offset their emissions by purchasing verified tonnes (from ag and non-ag sectors)
Alberta Greenhouse Gas Offset System (2007+)1. Applies to all facilities in Alberta that produce over 100,000 tonnes of CO2e per year 1. reporting required since 2003 2. 90 facilities reporting as of 20062. As of 2007 facilities must reduce emissions -12% from their baseline (2003-5)3. Facilities settle annual statements by: 1. Pay into Technology Fund @ $15 per tonne 2. Trade Performance Credits 3. Purchase registered offsets 1. Government approved protocol 2. Alberta sourced 3. Not required by any other law or regulation
Alberta agriculture protocols (32)• Tillage Quantification• Nitrous Oxide Emissions Reduction Renewable energy:• Beef feeding – edible oils - solar; wind; run of the river• Beef feeding – reduced days on feed Geologic Sequestration:• Beef feeding – lifecycle quantification - acid gas injection; enhanced oil recovery• Dairy cattle emission reduction• Pork quantification - Modal freight shifting• Biogas quantification - N2O abatement from nitric acid production - Sulphur extender in ashphalt• Beef feeding – residual feed intake• Conservation fallow• Afforestation• ….
Learnings in a GHG market1) Reductionist Science Integrated Science • Lagoons • National Inventory modeling • Plots Regions/years2) Operational policy is needed • Glues the science together into protocols • Defining No-till, Dry Prairie boundary, historical tonnes, Registry3) Implementation needs more than a Protocol • Private sector involvement, learning, development • Farm financers, supply dealers, etc need to understand – part of the new way of doing business. • Clearing house, oversight, Registry
Learnings….4) Verification – Prove what happened, what you are doing. – No more labs and plots – Scale and levels in time and space – Converging professions are learning5) GHG Derivatives – Working together across disciplines, gov’t – Integrative science + policy – Coefficients, Footprints, ISO, LCA – EGS, Government/public readiness
Conclusions• Government policy is always criticized• Policy controls: who, quantity, price• Farmers are not under a financial burden• It is a voluntary offset market• It is beyond Business As Usual• Protocols: – We didn’t have it perfect the first time – People don’t read well – Interpretations can differ• Industry is generally appreciative Tom.Goddard @ gov.ab.ca www.carbonoffsetsolutions.ca
Case TwoBrazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basinThe Itaipu lake eastern watersheds (Paraná 3) Growing Good Water – Cultivando Agua Boa
Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basin the Itaipu lake eastern watersheds (Paraná 3) BRAZIL watershed limits Paraná 3 watershed Itaipu dam and Paraná 3 watershed
Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basin• Water resources are threatened by conventional tillage agricultural practices: sediments in rivers turbidity phosphorus eutrophication turbidity + toxicity of some algae reduce biodiversity pesticides pollution toxicity for humans and ecosystems• Conservation Agriculture is an alternative to reduce impacts on river’s quality and to maintain a high level of productivity improves infiltration improves cation exchange capacity reduces erosion
Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basin Itaipu watershed Deep red ferralsols, with good fertility potential + humid subtropical climate characterized by hot, humid summers and mild winters ↓High agric. productivity: 3 harvests a year: soya / corn / wheat or oats but violent rain storms high erosion ↓ Itaipu lake receives important flows of sediments and nutrients from agricultural lands ↓ Eutrophication / sedimentation in the lake could reduce the dam productivity in the medium and long term ↓“Cultivando Água Boa” is a Itaipu Binacional Management Program in order to take care of its reservoir water applied to Paraná 3 watershed
Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basin Linear erosion in a grassland
Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basinErosion damages in a soya field
Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basin Turbidity generated by soil erosion in an Itaipu lake affluent
Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basin Lake eutrophication
Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basinItaipu dam today (source: Itaipu Binacional)
Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basin No-till in Parana 3 watershed
Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basin • No-till is largely applied on the Paraná 3 watershed but is more widely practised on the eastern part with large farm size on the soft-rolling eastern plateau than near the lake with middle and little farms on the hilly area • Farmers motivations for no-till: reducing erosion and superficial runoff reducing turnaround time between crops reducing fuel consumption increasing soil water capacity for a better resistance to drought
Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basin No-till and anti-erosive terraces has been realized since the 1990s to reduce soil erosion However, they are useful but insufficient… Indeed, soya leaves residues which mineralize quickly because the C/N index is low and the climate is hot and wet during large part of the year The challenge is to make farming systems evolve toConservation Agriculture with higher organic matter production through more persistent crop residues and wider use of cover crops reduces erosion and herbicide usage improves farm productivity + water quality of Itaipu lake
Brazil: Watershed services in the Parana’ basin Brazilian Federation of No Till Farmers Associations – FEBRAPDP supported by Itapúa Binacional has developed a participatory assessment of no-till system quality =Tool for land management based on a no-till quality index (Roloff et al.) 1. allows the farmer or his consultant to enter his data automatically provides graphically the scoring of his parcels (overlaid on Google Earth images) and ranking it within his sub-watershed or larger regions 2. provides information needed to generate a continuous improvement plan to optimize the current score, Considering the records obtained in the various indicators - available online using free open source software firstname.lastname@example.org http://confins.revues.or/7143
Ecoagriculture landscapes: harmonizing multiple objectives at farm, community, landscape scales Path to waterfall on private property brings income to locals in the Monteverde Cloudforest Reserve form of ecotourism provides important source of water in landscape and downstream ● Fotos Shaded coffee extends wildlife habitat from reserve and reduces erosion grandes. Solo arrastra una nueva imagen Coffee, corn, sugar cane and other products are sold at a local cooperative y pásala paraWindbreaks provide habitat andcorridors for wildlife, control erosion átrasand protect livestock from wind All fences are live rows of trees
The “promised land” today: view from mount Nebo towards Jordan Valley(suggested reading: Dirt – the erosion of civilizations by David Montgomery)