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Energy scenario and water productivity of maize  based CS under CA practices in South Asia         Parihar CM, Jat SL, Sin...
Major challenges for South Asian Agriculture   Climate change: Aberrant rainfall, drought and high    temperature   Low ...
Yield gaps in major cereal crops                            Potential yield   Attainable yield   Average yield   Managemen...
Moving ahead yet standing still - India250         Population (crores)            Food grains (mt)          Wheat producti...
Growth in Indian maize productivity                                                                                       ...
CA?Minimum soildisturbanceRational soil coverEfficient crop          CA based                          RCTsrotationsImmedi...
Why CA for South Asian Agriculture?Due to intensive production system,Declining water table,Residue removal and burning...
Role of CARestores soil carbon                         EmploymentConserves moisture                           Generation...
Water productivity under different tillage practices                          Water requirement   Water Productivity      ...
Water productivity of different maize based           cropping systems                                                 Wat...
Water productivity of different maize based  cropping systems under CA practices 2.50                  2008-09   2009-10 2...
Water requirement of different maize based  cropping systems under CA practices                Water requirement (M3) 8000...
Energy scenario of different tillage practices                        2008-09                               2009-10Treatme...
Energy scenario of different maize base                cropping systems                        2008-09                    ...
Net energy output (MJ/ha) of different maizebased cropping systems under CA practices 160000            2008-09 140000 120...
Correlation between system productivity and               energy input                                12000               ...
Success stories in India                                                                  ZT Maize in A.P.                ...
Conclusions CA based crop management is much  needed in South Asian agriculture under  climate change scenario Adoption ...
Future thrusts Identification of new plant types in location  specific CA practices for climate resilient  agriculture C...
Energy scenario and water productivity of maize based CS under CA practices in South Asia. CM Parihar
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Energy scenario and water productivity of maize based CS under CA practices in South Asia. CM Parihar

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Presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

Energy scenario and water productivity of maize based CS under CA practices in South Asia. CM Parihar

  1. 1. Energy scenario and water productivity of maize based CS under CA practices in South Asia Parihar CM, Jat SL, Singh AK and Jat ML Directorate of Maize Research (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) Pusa, New Delhi-12, INDIA
  2. 2. Major challenges for South Asian Agriculture Climate change: Aberrant rainfall, drought and high temperature Low water, energy and nutrient use efficiency Degradation of natural resources Biotic stresses Small land holding Yield gaps: Wider at research & farm level and yield stagnation
  3. 3. Yield gaps in major cereal crops Potential yield Attainable yield Average yield Management gap Total gap 16.0 90.0 14.0 80.0 70.0 12.0 60.0 Yield Gap (%)Yield (t/ha) 10.0 50.0 8.0 40.0 6.0 30.0 4.0 20.0 2.0 10.0 0.0 0.0 Rice Wheat Maize Rice Wheat Maize Rice Wheat Maize Rice Wheat Maize
  4. 4. Moving ahead yet standing still - India250 Population (crores) Food grains (mt) Wheat production 230.7 208.6200 196.8 180.4150 150.4 121.0 119.3 110.0100 102.7 93.0 77.5 81.0 72.4 69.68 69.35 64.0 62.10 50 45.0 47.05 28.84 10.40 0 1965-66 1975-76 1985-86 1995-96 2000-01 2005-06 2009-10Modified from: KS Gill, PAU, Ludhiana
  5. 5. Growth in Indian maize productivity DC/TWC/SCH SCH/TWC/DC SCH Land Races DC Composites Composites & /Composites /Composites DTC/DC 25.0 2500Area (mha), Production (mt) Area (mha) Production (mt) Yield (kg/ha) 20.0 2000 3 times 12 times 5 times 15.0 1500 Yield (kg/ha) 10.0 1000 5.0 500 0.0 0 Year A (mha) P (mt) Y (kg/ha) Year Yield Increase 2006-07 7.89 15.09 1912.5 (kg/ha/annum) 2007-08 8.11 18.96 2337.8 2008-09 8.17 19.73 2414.9 50-51 to 87-88 13 LR, OPV 100% 2009-10 8.26 16.68 2020.0* 88-89 to 06-07 46.5 DCH 30% 2010-11 8.26 21.23 2570.2 *Severe drought year 07-08 to 10-11 164.5 SCH 25%
  6. 6. CA?Minimum soildisturbanceRational soil coverEfficient crop CA based RCTsrotationsImmediateeconomicalbenefits to thefarmers
  7. 7. Why CA for South Asian Agriculture?Due to intensive production system,Declining water table,Residue removal and burning,Depletion of soil organic matter and nutrient imbalance,Soil salinity and sodicity,In certain situation, where tillage operations caused delay in sowing and add to the cost of production.
  8. 8. Role of CARestores soil carbon EmploymentConserves moisture Generation NaturalSaves fuel Biodiversity & Resource ConservationSaves labor Agro-ecosystemLowers machinery costs Food RCTsReduces erosion & EnvironmentalImproved soil fertility Livelihood Security QualityPlanting on the best dateImproves wildlife habitat Sustainable Development Crop Diversification (Adopted from Gupta and Malik, 2009)
  9. 9. Water productivity under different tillage practices Water requirement Water Productivity (m3) (kg/m3water) Treatments 2008-09 2009-10 2008-09 2009-10 Zero till (ZT) 6100 b 5950 b 1.38 b 1.31 b Permanent Bed (PB) 5100 c 5100 c 1.78 a 1.63 a Conventional Till (CT) 6800a 6800 a 1.17 c 1.11 c
  10. 10. Water productivity of different maize based cropping systems Water Productivity Water requirement (m3) Treatments (kg/m3water) 2008-09 2009-10 2008-09 2009-10 Maize-Wheat-Mungbean 7200 a 7000 a 1.27 c 1.47 b (MWM) Maize-Chickpea- 4200 d 4200 c 1.75 a 1.68 a Sesbania (MCS) Maize-Mustard- 5600 c 5600b 1.58 b 1.09d Mungbean (MMM) Maize-Maize-Sesbania 7000 ab 7000 a 1.18 d 1.15 c (MMS)
  11. 11. Water productivity of different maize based cropping systems under CA practices 2.50 2008-09 2009-10 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00
  12. 12. Water requirement of different maize based cropping systems under CA practices Water requirement (M3) 8000 6000 4000 2000 0
  13. 13. Energy scenario of different tillage practices 2008-09 2009-10Treatments Energy Net Energy Net Energy Energy output Energy output Energy Productivity Productivity (MJ/ha) (MJ/ha) (MJ/ha) (MJ/ha)ZT 137198 b 4.27 b 105018 b 108004 a 4.56 b 84043 aPB 149963 a 4.78 a 118609 a 100242 b 5.07 a 79778 bCT 134307 c 3.88 c 99645 c 87797 c 3.67 c 63553 c
  14. 14. Energy scenario of different maize base cropping systems 2008-09 2009-10Treatments Energy Net Energy Net Energy Energy output Energy output Energy Productivity Productivity (MJ/ha) (MJ/ha) (MJ/ha) (MJ/ha)MWM 149680 b 4.06 c 112544 b 151079 a 4.10 d 113943 aMCS 156164 a 4.64 a 122527 a 100976 b 4.27 bc 77268 bMMM 140467 c 4.61 ab 109835 c 78804 c 4.94 a 62648 cMMS 115645 d 3.92 d 86122 d 63864 d 4.42 b 49307 d
  15. 15. Net energy output (MJ/ha) of different maizebased cropping systems under CA practices 160000 2008-09 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0
  16. 16. Correlation between system productivity and energy input 12000 y = 0.121x + 4958 System productivity (kg/ha) 10000 R² = 0.486 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 20000 40000 60000 Energy Input (MJ/ha)
  17. 17. Success stories in India ZT Maize in A.P. Area (000 ha) 6000 Production (000 tonnes) 900 Production and productivity Productivity (kg/ha) 5000 850 4000 800 Area 3000 750 2000 700Maize revolution in A.P. 1000 650 0 600
  18. 18. Conclusions CA based crop management is much needed in South Asian agriculture under climate change scenario Adoption of CA practices enhances energy productivity Crop establishment in Permanent Beds helps in realizing “more crop per drop”
  19. 19. Future thrusts Identification of new plant types in location specific CA practices for climate resilient agriculture CA practices Refinement for large scale adoption using farmers expertise with scientific know-how Development of new farm implements for small and marginal farmers

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