Effect of establishment method and tillage of rice and wheat in the rice-wheat system of the Indo Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India. Virendra Pratap Singh
Effect of establishment methodand tillage of rice and wheat in the rice- wheat system of the Indo Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India Speaker: Dr Virender Pratap Singh Professor and Programme Coordinator Weed Control Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar Uttarakhand India
Background In the recent times a slowdown in the agricultural rate of growth is observed in India. Among the various factors responsible, depletion and deterioration of natural resources especially water and soils are considered most vital. The growth in total factor productivity (output per unit labour and capital combined), has also slowed especially during last 15 years.
Contd. If we go back to history then we will find that during the green revolution era the share of inputs use towards yield improvement in crops like rice and wheat has increased more than the share of new varieties. At present, if we add the increased spending of farmers on leasing of land, labour, pesticides and land preparation, the spending on input use has increased more than the increased output.
Food grain demand on the other hand inIndia by 2020 will be 268.8 Mt.
soWe will have to reduce the negative effect onour natural resources and at the same timeneed to produce more to meet the demand ofever increasing population.Also from the farmers perspective concertedefforts are needed to reduce his input cost tomake farming profitable and sustainable.
Importance of rice wheat cropping system Rice and wheat are two most dominnat crops of the world and India. The combined share of rice (41.1%) and wheat (33.9%) towards total food grain production will be 79.6% by 2020. Together these two crops share about 87.5% of the irrigated area of the country and thus make a very dominant rice wheat cropping system (RWCS) in Indo Gangetic Plains (IGP).
Contd. The favoured position of Rice-Wheat Cropping System in IGP is due to least risk associated with this cropping system. It is also the most convenient cropping system with most field operations are mechanized or are done by hired labour.
The majority of the rice is transplantedbecause Availability of labour for intensive cultivation Extensive irrigation infrastructure Mechanization Easy access to production inputs Better marketing and better weed management
But??Now farmers are facing shortage of labour and water during thepeak transplanting time and due to this transplanting is delayedsometime upto month of August which results in reduced yield.Also transplanting is drudgery and had adverse effect on theoccupational health of laborers.Sometime rice stands becomes patchy and optimum plantpopulation can not be obtained.Due to intensive cultivation and long duration rice varietieswheat sowing is delayed sometimes upto January
Water ScarcityPer capital availability of water 40 - 60 % (1955-1990)Fresh water supplies 8 – 10 % (2010)Water table 0.1 – 1.0 m / yearLeading to Increased Cost of pumping Aggravating energy crisis
Wheat yield under different dates 6 5Yield (t ha-1) 4 3 2 1 0 20 Nov. 7 Dec. 7 Jan. 30-Jan Sowing dates Mean of 10 years
SolutionTo combat these adverse effects on naturalresources, methods for reducing the adverseeffects are needed. Direct dry seeding ofrice, instead of transplanting into puddledsoil, and zero till sowing of wheat offers thepotential for water savings, reduced labourdemand at peak times, and improved soilstructure.
Cracking pattern in Direct Seeded and Transplanted Rice Fields Transplanting – a labour intensivePuddling – a water intensive operation operation TRANSPLANTED RICE Puddled field DIRECT SEEDED RICE Unpuddled field
Direct sowing in rice and zero tillage inboth rice and wheat reduces productioninputs, and with potential benefits forsoil structure.Weeds however are a major challengeto direct seeding.
A long term study thus was carried out toevaluate rice, wheat and total croppingsystem performance as affected by rice andestablishment method and tillage for bothcrops.
Treatments: Kharif SeasonRice-Establishment (Main plot) Conventional transplanting – TPR Wet seeding after puddling – WSR (Drum seeded) Dry seeding after conventional tillage – DSR Dry seeding after conventional tillage but with last tillage following a flush irrigation - DSFR. Dry seeding zero-tillage after flush irrigation and glyphosate application-ZTRWeed management (Sub-plots) • No weed control (T0) • One hand weeding at 30 DAS/DAT • Weed free (herbicide + 2 HW at 30-60 DAS/DAT)
Treatments: Rabi Season Zero tillage wheat (ZTW) Conventional Tillage Wheat (CTW) View of the growth differenceSowing of wheat with zero-till Zero-till wheat between ZTW and CTW at 15 drill in standing stubbles of sowing interval paddy
9000 TPR)-1 8000 WSRRice grain yield (kg ha 7000 DSR 6000 DSFR 5000 ZTR 4000 Linear (TPR) 3000 Linear (WSR) 2000 Linear (DSR) 1000 0 Linear (DSFR) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Linear (ZTR) 2009 2010 Years Figure 1 Regression trendlines between years and different rice establishment methods with respect to rice grain yield
5000Wheat Grain yield 4000 TPR (kg ha -1) 3000 DSR 2000 Linear 1000 (TPR) Linear 0 (DSR) 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Years Figure 2: Regression trendlines of TPR and DSR on wheat grain yield across nine years
Table 1: Economics of RWCS (Rs ha-1), rice equivalent yield(kg ha-1) and tractor time (hr) under different establishmentmethods of rice and wheat in rice-wheat system Total cost Gross return Net return Rice Tractor time equivalent Yield CT ZT CT ZT CT ZT CT ZT CT ZTTPR 35574 33146 76752 74327 33146 41181 10538 10014 67.8 7.1DSR 31752 30464 72009 78127 30464 47682 9798 10151
Conclusion Across nine years there was decline in rice yield in all the rice establishment methods. Rice yield were most stable in the DSFR followed by TPR Wheat yield predicted to increase in response to different rice establishment methods over a period of nine years. Regression analyses indicate that over the years there was more increment in wheat yields when it was followed by DSR than TPR. Dry seeding (DSR) had higher net returns than both TPR and WSR mainly due to higher cost involved in puddling/transplanting. Zero till planting of wheat reduced production cost of the system further due to less tractor time The tractor time under ZTW was just 10.5% that of CTW which reduced fuel consumption and ultimately the cost of production.
Sowing of Direct seeded riceSpray of herbicide