Development of the CA  equipment industry forsmallholder farmers in SSA Brian Sims, Christian Thierfelder, Josef Kienzle, ...
Contents• Tillage in SSA• CA mechanization options• Development of the CA equipment industry  – Brazil  – East Africa  – S...
Smallholder farm tillage in SSA •Hand tools 80% •DAP <20% •Tractor <10%
Farmers’ perceived advantages             of soil tillage•   Weed control•   Mobilization of nutrients•   Smooth seed bed•...
BUT: damage caused by hoes and  ploughs soon becomes evident• SOM is oxidized• Physical, chemical and biological  degradat...
CA is an answer. BUT there are widely discussed problems:•Maintenance of organic soil cover•Crop ‒ livestock competition•W...
Contents• Tillage in SSA• CA mechanization options• Development of the CA equipment industry  – Brazil  – East Africa  – S...
CA mechanization options for   smallholder farmers in SSA1. Removal of  hardpans and  increasing water  infiltration
CA mechanization options for   smallholder farmers in SSA2. Direct planting
CA mechanization options for   smallholder farmers in SSA3. Weed control• Mechanical: surface   scraping, hand   pulling, ...
Contents• Tillage in SSA• CA mechanization options• Development of the CA equipment industry  – Brazil  – East Africa  – S...
Development of the CA machinery industry      1. Brazil, 50 years of evolution Commercial                       Physical m...
Development of the CA machinery industry         2. East Africa, in its infancy• Uganda (AEATRI)• Kenya & Tanzania  (train...
Training East Africans in S.          AmericaAntunes Agropastoril, Bella   Fitarelli, Aratiba, Brazil     Vista, Paraguay ...
Intermech and Nandra are now       market leaders              • Nandra, Moshi              • Intermech, Morogoro
Ndume, Kenya has now entered           the market• Ndume, Gilgil
Development of the CA machinery industry    3. Southern Africa (i), just awakening• 1980s RTZ (later Hastt) in Zimbabwe• 1...
Development of the CA machinery industry    3. Southern Africa (ii), moving forward2000s: innovation networks (manufacture...
Development of the CA machinery industry 3. Southern Africa (iii), South Africa and                 Namibia               ...
Contents• Tillage in SSA• CA mechanization options• Development of the CA equipment industry  – Brazil  – East Africa  – S...
Contrasts between S America and SSA• Development and financing. Public  sector support• Materials supply• Appreciation of ...
Contents• Tillage in SSA• CA mechanization options• Development of the CA equipment industry  – Brazil  – East Africa  – S...
Guidelines for development of the CA            industry in SSA• Market studies• Thorough field testing• Technical trainin...
Contents• Tillage in SSA• CA mechanization options• Development of the CA equipment industry  – Brazil  – East Africa  – S...
Conclusions• SSA CA equipment manufacturing  industry is in its infancy and needs  nurturing• Need local adaptation. Impor...
Thank you!www.engineering4development.co.uk
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Development of the CA equipment industry for smallholder farmers in SSA. Brian Sims

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A presentation made at the WCCA 2011 event in Brisbane, Australia.

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Development of the CA equipment industry for smallholder farmers in SSA. Brian Sims

  1. 1. Development of the CA equipment industry forsmallholder farmers in SSA Brian Sims, Christian Thierfelder, Josef Kienzle, Theodor Friedrich and Amir Kassam
  2. 2. Contents• Tillage in SSA• CA mechanization options• Development of the CA equipment industry – Brazil – East Africa – Southern Africa• Contrast between Brazil and SSA• Guidelines for development of the industry• Conclusions
  3. 3. Smallholder farm tillage in SSA •Hand tools 80% •DAP <20% •Tractor <10%
  4. 4. Farmers’ perceived advantages of soil tillage• Weed control• Mobilization of nutrients• Smooth seed bed• Elimination of compaction• Incorporation of amendments• Control of pests and diseases• Control of runoff and accumulation of water
  5. 5. BUT: damage caused by hoes and ploughs soon becomes evident• SOM is oxidized• Physical, chemical and biological degradation of the soil – Hard pans – Crusting – Erosion• Yields decline leading to abandonment and hunger
  6. 6. CA is an answer. BUT there are widely discussed problems:•Maintenance of organic soil cover•Crop ‒ livestock competition•Weed control•Pest controlThere is, however, little informationon the problems of developing aviable CA machinery manufacturingsector
  7. 7. Contents• Tillage in SSA• CA mechanization options• Development of the CA equipment industry – Brazil – East Africa – Southern Africa• Contrast between Brazil and SSA• Guidelines for development of the industry• Conclusions
  8. 8. CA mechanization options for smallholder farmers in SSA1. Removal of hardpans and increasing water infiltration
  9. 9. CA mechanization options for smallholder farmers in SSA2. Direct planting
  10. 10. CA mechanization options for smallholder farmers in SSA3. Weed control• Mechanical: surface scraping, hand pulling, knife rolling• Biological: mulch, cover crops, rotations and associations• Herbicides: sprayers and applicators
  11. 11. Contents• Tillage in SSA• CA mechanization options• Development of the CA equipment industry – Brazil – East Africa – Southern Africa• Contrast between Brazil and SSA• Guidelines for development of the industry• Conclusions
  12. 12. Development of the CA machinery industry 1. Brazil, 50 years of evolution Commercial Physical manufacturers SWC PIONEER works FARMERS Private sector input suppliers R&D NT farmers Centres associations
  13. 13. Development of the CA machinery industry 2. East Africa, in its infancy• Uganda (AEATRI)• Kenya & Tanzania (training in S America with FAO)• Nandra and Intermech
  14. 14. Training East Africans in S. AmericaAntunes Agropastoril, Bella Fitarelli, Aratiba, Brazil Vista, Paraguay Guarany, Itu , Brazil
  15. 15. Intermech and Nandra are now market leaders • Nandra, Moshi • Intermech, Morogoro
  16. 16. Ndume, Kenya has now entered the market• Ndume, Gilgil
  17. 17. Development of the CA machinery industry 3. Southern Africa (i), just awakening• 1980s RTZ (later Hastt) in Zimbabwe• 1990s GTZ/BMZ contill project, Zimbabwe• 1990s CFU and GART, Zambia. (Chaka hoe, Magoye ripper, Palabana subsoiler and planter)• 2010 GART planter
  18. 18. Development of the CA machinery industry 3. Southern Africa (ii), moving forward2000s: innovation networks (manufacturers,researchers, farmers) create new products andnew approaches Grownet inclined plate AFGRI service provider planter, Zimbabwe ripper, Zambia
  19. 19. Development of the CA machinery industry 3. Southern Africa (iii), South Africa and Namibia 1. Sprayer, Dragon Engng (SA) 2. 2. Piket DAP planter (SA) 3. Baufi 2-row ripper (Namibia)
  20. 20. Contents• Tillage in SSA• CA mechanization options• Development of the CA equipment industry – Brazil – East Africa – Southern Africa• Contrast between Brazil and SSA• Guidelines for development of the industry• Conclusions
  21. 21. Contrasts between S America and SSA• Development and financing. Public sector support• Materials supply• Appreciation of critical part design• Creation of demand• Training• Interactions (innovation networks)• Policy environment
  22. 22. Contents• Tillage in SSA• CA mechanization options• Development of the CA equipment industry – Brazil – East Africa – Southern Africa• Contrast between Brazil and SSA• Guidelines for development of the industry• Conclusions
  23. 23. Guidelines for development of the CA industry in SSA• Market studies• Thorough field testing• Technical training for manufacturers, operators, dealers, extensionists• Support for hire service providers• Active promotion• CA farmers’ groups
  24. 24. Contents• Tillage in SSA• CA mechanization options• Development of the CA equipment industry – Brazil – East Africa – Southern Africa• Contrast between Brazil and SSA• Guidelines for development of the industry• Conclusions
  25. 25. Conclusions• SSA CA equipment manufacturing industry is in its infancy and needs nurturing• Need local adaptation. Import is OK in the short term• National governments must address the creation of an enabling environment. Signs are encouraging
  26. 26. Thank you!www.engineering4development.co.uk

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