DAIRY FARM SYSTEMS FOR GOOD ECONOMIC AND    ENVIRONMENTAL     PERFORMANCE  VICKI BURGGRAAF1    IRIS VOGELER1   PIERRE BEUK...
NEW ZEALAND $$$$
48% NZ GREENHOUSE GASHow can we farm profitably with a  low environmental footprint?
OVERVIEWModel dairy farm with increased efficiency1.   Dairy intensification in NZ2.   Causes of environmental issues3.   ...
DAIRY INTENSIFICATION
DAIRY INTENSIFICATIONSince 1990:• 78% increase in dairy land area• 20% increase in SR (cows/ha)• 85% increase in total no....
DAIRY INTENSIFICATIONSince 1990:• 78% increase in dairy land area• 20% increase in SR (cows/ha)• 85% increase in total no....
DAIRY INTENSIFICATIONSince 1990:• 78% increase in dairy land area• 20% increase in SR (cows/ha)• 85% increase in total no....
PROBLEMS OF INTENSIFICATIONMore cows and high N feed:       More N fertiliser:         methane             nitrous        ...
REDUCING THE IMPACT 1.   Fewer animals 2.   Efficient animals 3.   Stand-off pasture – less nutrient loss 4.   Low N feed ...
MODELLED DAIRY FARMSPARAMETER                 BASE FARM EFFICIENT FARMStocking rate (cows/ha)   3.0           2.6Cow genet...
WAIKATO CLIMATE EFFECTS• Rainfall 1100 mm, temperate climate• Summer rain: more pasture → milk, profit• Winter rain: nitra...
WAIKATO SUMMER RAINFALL     250                             2003/04     200                     2004/05                   ...
MODELLING FRAMEWORK•Management                 WHOLE FARM MODEL•Daily climate    Pasture production                  Gra...
PASTURE PRODUCTION               20     Base                      Efficientt DM/ha/year               15               10 ...
TOTAL FEED INTAKE                      8%       4%          1%                             maize grain               14   ...
MILK PRODUCTION       1400       1200       1000kg MS/ha        800                                     Base        600   ...
OPERATING PROFIT       4500       4000   Base       3500   Efficient       3000       2500$/ha       2000       1500      ...
METHANE EMISSIONS            8t CO2 eq/ha/yr            6            4                           Base                     ...
TOTAL GHG EMISSIONS                 12                 10t CO2 eq/ha/yr                  8                  6             ...
N LEACHING               80                   Base               70                   Efficientkg N/ha/year               ...
CONCLUSIONSEfficient farm systems:   •Milk production ↑ 8-17%   •Profitability ↑ 18-80%   •GHG ↓ 23-27%   •N leaching ↓ 30...
This research was funded by:
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Dairy farm systems for good economic and environmental performance. Vicki Burggraaf

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Presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Brisbane, Australia.

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Dairy farm systems for good economic and environmental performance. Vicki Burggraaf

  1. 1. DAIRY FARM SYSTEMS FOR GOOD ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE VICKI BURGGRAAF1 IRIS VOGELER1 PIERRE BEUKES2 DAVE CLARK2 1 AGRESEARCH LTD 2 DAIRYNZ
  2. 2. NEW ZEALAND $$$$
  3. 3. 48% NZ GREENHOUSE GASHow can we farm profitably with a low environmental footprint?
  4. 4. OVERVIEWModel dairy farm with increased efficiency1. Dairy intensification in NZ2. Causes of environmental issues3. Strategies to reduce negative impacts4. Model effects on production, profit, GHG, N leaching5. Effects of year to year climate variability
  5. 5. DAIRY INTENSIFICATION
  6. 6. DAIRY INTENSIFICATIONSince 1990:• 78% increase in dairy land area• 20% increase in SR (cows/ha)• 85% increase in total no. cows
  7. 7. DAIRY INTENSIFICATIONSince 1990:• 78% increase in dairy land area• 20% increase in SR (cows/ha)• 85% increase in total no. cowsIncreased feed intake per hectare• Pasture utilisation• Increased use of nitrogen fertiliser• Increased use of bought-in supplements
  8. 8. DAIRY INTENSIFICATIONSince 1990:• 78% increase in dairy land area• 20% increase in SR (cows/ha)• 85% increase in total no. cowsIncreased feed intake per hectare• Pasture utilisation• Increased use of nitrogen fertiliser• Increased use of bought-in supplements MILK PRODUCTION INCREASED 130%
  9. 9. PROBLEMS OF INTENSIFICATIONMore cows and high N feed: More N fertiliser: methane nitrous oxide N fert URINE nitrate leached
  10. 10. REDUCING THE IMPACT 1. Fewer animals 2. Efficient animals 3. Stand-off pasture – less nutrient loss 4. Low N feed supplements 5. Less N fert use, nitrification inhibitor Small effects in isolationSTACKED TECHNOLOGIES
  11. 11. MODELLED DAIRY FARMSPARAMETER BASE FARM EFFICIENT FARMStocking rate (cows/ha) 3.0 2.6Cow genetic merit (BW) 60 120Replacement rate 23% 17%Feed Pasture Pasture + maize grainStand off pasture No YesEffluent area 20 24(% of farm)N fertiliser area 180 kg N/ha 50 kg N/ha/yr + nitrification inhibitor
  12. 12. WAIKATO CLIMATE EFFECTS• Rainfall 1100 mm, temperate climate• Summer rain: more pasture → milk, profit• Winter rain: nitrate leaching, nitrous oxide• Base vs efficient farm: Low Medium High production Dry Average Wet summer 945 mm 1056 mm 1197 mm rain/yr
  13. 13. WAIKATO SUMMER RAINFALL 250 2003/04 200 2004/05 2007/08 150mm 100 50 0 Dec Jan Feb Mar
  14. 14. MODELLING FRAMEWORK•Management WHOLE FARM MODEL•Daily climate  Pasture production  Grain fed  Milk production  Profit •Management •Annual rainfall  Methane  Urinary N APSIM OVERSEER  Nitrate leaching  Total GHG
  15. 15. PASTURE PRODUCTION 20 Base Efficientt DM/ha/year 15 10 5 0 Dry Average Wet
  16. 16. TOTAL FEED INTAKE 8% 4% 1% maize grain 14 12t DM/ha/year 10 8 Base 6 Efficient 4 2 0 Dry Average Wet
  17. 17. MILK PRODUCTION 1400 1200 1000kg MS/ha 800 Base 600 Efficient 400 200 0 Dry Average Wet
  18. 18. OPERATING PROFIT 4500 4000 Base 3500 Efficient 3000 2500$/ha 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Dry Average Wet
  19. 19. METHANE EMISSIONS 8t CO2 eq/ha/yr 6 4 Base Efficient 2 0 Dry Average Wet
  20. 20. TOTAL GHG EMISSIONS 12 10t CO2 eq/ha/yr 8 6 Base 4 Efficient 2 0 Dry Average Wet
  21. 21. N LEACHING 80 Base 70 Efficientkg N/ha/year 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Dry Average Wet
  22. 22. CONCLUSIONSEfficient farm systems: •Milk production ↑ 8-17% •Profitability ↑ 18-80% •GHG ↓ 23-27% •N leaching ↓ 30-50%Impact of climate: •Efficient always best •Variability high for leaching, profit
  23. 23. This research was funded by:

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