Plant morphology

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Plant morphology

  1. 1. Dr. EDEN V. EVANGELISTA Philippine Normal University Plants
  2. 2. Seedless Non vascular Moss Liverwort Hornwort Vascular With seeds Ferns Lycopods Psilophytes Sphenopsida W/O Flowers W/ Flowers Cycads Ginkgo Conifers Gnetum Monocots Dicots Plant Kingdom
  3. 3. Monocot and Dicot Plant
  4. 4. Monocot Plant
  5. 5. Dicot Plant
  6. 6. Apical Meristem of Coleus
  7. 7. Types of Roots
  8. 8. Tap Root
  9. 9. Fibrous Root
  10. 10. Adventitious Root
  11. 11. Root (Longitudinal section)
  12. 12. Root hairs
  13. 13. Monocot Root (X section)
  14. 14. Dicot Root (x section)
  15. 15. Dicot Root
  16. 16. Sweet Potato
  17. 17. Adventitious Roots
  18. 18. Adventitious Roots of Philodendron
  19. 19. Pneumatophores
  20. 20. Prop Roots (Corn)
  21. 21. Aerial Roots of Orchids
  22. 22. Monocot Vascular Bundle
  23. 23. Monocot Stem
  24. 24. Monocot Stem
  25. 25. Dicot Stem
  26. 26. Vascular Bundle
  27. 27. Phloem Xylem Occurrence: Roots, stems and leaves Roots, stems and leaves Additional Functions: Forms vascular bundles with xylem Forms vascular bundles with phloem and givesmechanical strength to plant due to presence of lignified cells. Elements: Sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma, bast fibers, intermediary cells Tracheids, vessel elements, xylem parenchyma, xylem sclerenchyma Nature of tissue: Living tissue Non living tissue at maturity Movement: Bidirectional Unidirectional (upward) Function: Transportation of food and nutrients from leaves tostorage organs and growing parts of plant. Water and mineral transport from roots to aerial parts of the plant. Structure: Tubular with soft walled cells Tubular with hard walled cells
  28. 28. Phloem is made of living  sieve-tube elements that lack a nucleus, ribosomes, or  vacuoles; their metabolic functions are  provided by companion cells. The end walls between cells (sieve plates)  have pores for transport of sugars.
  29. 29. T.S. Tilia sp. secondary growth outer layer Dicot Stem
  30. 30. Secondary Growth of Stem
  31. 31. Cypress stump  said to be 2000 yrs  old and around  100 ft high when  cut 
  32. 32. Tubers are  actually  swollen  portions of  underground  stems  (stolons) and,  have nodes,  and buds.
  33. 33. Rhizomes
  34. 34. Corms are unlike stolons and rhizomes because they usually grow vertically, instead of lying horizontally. They're unlike tubers in that tubers are typically attached to the main plant by a slender rootlike part of the stem, a sort of umbilical cord, while corms constitute the below- ground "heart" of the plant, the part from which aboveground stems and leaves directly sprout. Gladiolus
  35. 35. Tendril: Modified Coiled Stem That Twines Around A Support 
  36. 36. Stolons are slender stem-branches running horizontally away from the main plant, either above or below ground.
  37. 37. Water - Storing Stems specializing in storing water for the plant's use between rains
  38. 38. Monocot and Dicot Venations
  39. 39. Phyllotaxy ( leaf arrangement) Opposite Alternate Irregular Whorled
  40. 40. Simple Leaf Netted Venation Simple Leaf Parallel Venation
  41. 41. Palmate Leaf Palmate Leaf - Trifoliate Pinnately Compound Pinnately Compound Bipinnate
  42. 42. Monocot Leaf Bulliform Cells
  43. 43. Dicot Leaf
  44. 44. Stomatal impression of corn
  45. 45. Modified leaf – for storage
  46. 46. Bulbs
  47. 47. Bulbs can be considered to be very short stems encased in thickened, fleshy bulb scales (which are modified leaves). As the drawing below shows, the two basic bulb types are layered and scaly:
  48. 48. LAYERED BULBS are composed of a series of fleshy scales that form concentric rings when the bulb is cut in cross-section.
  49. 49. SCALY BULBS, such as the lily bulb have fleshy bulb scales, which are modified leaves loosely clustered around the stem base.
  50. 50. Poinsettia
  51. 51. Bougainvillea
  52. 52. Mussaenda sp.
  53. 53. Aloe
  54. 54. Venus Fly Trap
  55. 55. Pitcher Plant - Nepenthes -
  56. 56. Tendrils
  57. 57. Kalanchoe
  58. 58. Gumamela Flower – Hibiscus rosasinensis
  59. 59. Cauliflower
  60. 60. Dicot Flower Monocot Flower
  61. 61. Rosa sp.
  62. 62. Stargazer
  63. 63. JadeVine Stongylodon elmeri LEGUMINOSAE
  64. 64. Rafflesia arnoldii measuring up to 150 cm (42 inches) weighing up to 10kg
  65. 65. Leafless when flowering Amorphophallus sp.
  66. 66. Allium
  67. 67. Amorphophallus Anthurium
  68. 68. Anthurium Shows an open heart and hospitality
  69. 69. Male flowers Female flowers
  70. 70. Dendrobium
  71. 71. Caesalpini a
  72. 72. Mimosa pudica
  73. 73. Amherstia nobilis Queen of the flowering plants
  74. 74. Dicot Flower
  75. 75. Rice
  76. 76. Types of Inflorescence Raceme PanicleSpike Umbel Corymb
  77. 77. Types of Inflorescence Solitary Head or Capitulum Cyme
  78. 78. Sunflower Heliathus annuus
  79. 79. These flowers can be classified into : Regular or Disc Florets -All petals have same size -They form the central disk of the capitulum in typical daisies -Usually surrounded by an outer ring of ray florets Disc floret, typical for flowers of the Family Asteraceae A. ovary B. pappus C. theca D. ligule E. style with stamen
  80. 80. ●Irregular or Ray Florets -Usually pistillate or sterile, and have three or fewer teeth on the extended portion of the corolla Ray floret, typical for flowers of the Family Asteraceae A. ovary B. pappus C. theca D. ligule E. style with stamen
  81. 81. Puya raimondii Bolivian bromeliad longest inflorescence
  82. 82. Hypanthodium
  83. 83. Fruits
  84. 84. Pome Drupe
  85. 85. Samara
  86. 86. Hesperidium Berry
  87. 87. Follicle
  88. 88. Legume Nuts
  89. 89. Pea pod
  90. 90. Placentation Axial Parietal
  91. 91. Dry indehiscent fruit
  92. 92. Multiple fruits - Nangka
  93. 93. Coconut
  94. 94. Caryopsis
  95. 95. Pollen Grains
  96. 96. Male gametophyte
  97. 97. Stages of growth and development of the embryo
  98. 98. 1. Water – The testa ruptures when exposed to water 2. Oxygen – Required for respiration 3. Heat – suitable temperature required to stimulate germination Seed germination Three factors needed for seed germination:
  99. 99. Thank You

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