Philsophical foundation of Curriculum


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Philsophical foundation of Curriculum

  1. 1. School Purposes Studies of Learners Suggestions from Subject Specialists Studies of Contempo- rary Life Use of Psycho- logy of Learning Use of Philosophy
  2. 2. Perennialism Essentialism Progressivism Roconstructionism Aim of Education To educate the rational person ; To cultivate the intellect To promote the intellectual growth of the individual and educate a competent person To promote democratic and social living To improve and reconstruct society education for change Role of Education Teachers help students think with reason The teacher is the sole authority in his or her subject area or field of specializa-tion Knowledge leads to growth and development of lifelong learners who actively learn by doing Teachers act as agents of change and reform in various educational projects including research.
  3. 3. Perennialism Essentialism Progressivism Reconstructionism Focus in the curriculum Classical subjects, literary analysis and curriculum is constant Essentials skills of the 3R’s and essential subjects of English, Science, History, Math, And Foreign Language Subjects are interdiscipli- nary, integrative and interactive. Curriculum is focused on students interest, human problems and affairs Focus on present and future trends and issues of national and international interests Curriculum Trends Use of great books and return to liberal arts Excellence in education, back to basics and cultural literacy School reforms, relevant and contextualized Curriculum, humanistic education Equality of educational opportunities in education, access to global education.
  4. 4. Philosophical Foundations of Education The most remarkable thing about philosophy…is that the questions raised never seem to get answered.
  5. 5. - The most significant philosophy…most of the world’s religions are based on idealism - Idealism as idea-ism - Plato—the Academy opened in 397 B.C., believed that material things are of little consequence…the everyday world of things and objects is a shadowy copy of the true idea which the soul carries within itself from heaven, reason is rooted in a spiritual soul. Idealism
  6. 6. -No discipline problems, because the teacher knows the content well, likes to teach, and knows the students - The idealist philosophy views the school as representing the community
  7. 7. Idealist philosophers - Plato, Descartes, Kant, Spinoza, Leibniz, Hegel, Schopenhauer - Students are encouraged to stretch themselves through higher-level thinking to become truth seekers - The teacher will devote considerable time and energy to the one who goes astray
  8. 8. Realism - Objects exist regardless of how we perceive them - Focuses on the scientific method and personal experience - The crux of realism is science— empirical, objective, and experimental…with precise measurements
  9. 9. Realist philosophers - Aristotle, Comenius, Pestalozzi, Herbart, Montessori, Hobbes, Bacon, Locke - Thomas Jefferson and Horace Mann embraced realism - Accountability in the schools is an outgrowth of realism
  10. 10. Existentialism - Focuses on the individual - Not a logical theory, but one that can be felt as an attitude or mood - Awareness, anxiety, choice take on special meaning - Revolt against the traditional philosophical stance - A way of life which involves one’s total self in complete seriousness about the self
  11. 11. Existentialist philosophers - Kierkegaard, Sartre, Nietzsche - Kierkegaard—themes of passionate choice, absolute freedom, total responsibility - Life must be understood backward, but lived forward - The theory focuses on value questions
  12. 12. Goals and Objectives Institution should define overall goals and aims for the curriculum.  Specific measurable knowledge, skill/ performance, attitude, and process objectives should be stated for the curriculum.  Learning goals and outputs for every course and subject should be compatible with mission of institution.
  13. 13. An aim indicates the direction or orientation of a course in terms of its content. An aim is written in terms of level, teaching intentions and management of learning. The aims of the course encapsulate the purpose of the course and what the institution trying to do in providing the course. Aims are therefore more about teaching and the management of learning.
  14. 14. Learning Outcome is an expression of what a student will demonstrate on the successful completion of a course. Learning outcomes are related to the level of the learning; indicate the intended gain in knowledge and skills that a typical student will achieve and should be capable of being assessed.  Learning outcomes are more about the learning that is actually to be achieved by the learner. The outcomes are coherent with the educational vision. These objectives make it also clear to the student what may be expected of the course.