We Love Change? Change is Scary!


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Note: the audio is a recording of a quite fast-paced rehearsal. The audio from the presentation, including me improvising a little song, will be available as a UIE podcast.
Humans are creatures of habit who find dealing with change difficult. Even when we’ve planned and desired it, its manifestation scares us.

As UX designers, we’re often the ones who make changes tangible. Sometimes met with love, more often met with resistance.
Drawing from psychology, philosophy and change management theory, this IA Summit 2011 session discusses how e.g. re-designs like the new Twitter, incremental changes to Facebook, or the updates to Meetup.com were introduced, communicated and received.

And it’s not only about consumer products. A new tool or software can change how people go about their daily work. Without their buy-in, the best design fails. The website we’re building for our client can cause them to re-think their approach to content, development, or their internal structure. This can be challenging. How can UX help to make the project successful?

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  • Virginia Satir (Family therapist):Virginia Satir Change Process Model, a psychological model which was developed through clinical studies. Change management and organizational gurus of the 1990s and 2000s embrace this model to define how change impacts organizations. Foreign element: Can be eg a new job. In groups, it’s often new ideas brought in by a small group of people. Met with resistance and chaos.Transforming idea:The members discover a transforming idea that shows how the foreign element can benefit them. The group becomes excited. Ups and downs, as you need to try out and learn how to integrate the new idea.
  • Story about Sweden. As UX designers, we’re often the ones who are driving the first car on the right side of the street.Good reasons for change, but very unpopular. Government set up four-year education program, with the advice of psychologists. Because the first cars in Sweden were left-hand-drive imports, Swedish automakers also put left-hand steering in all their cars.
  • Drive on the right for economic and safety reasonsCommunicate, explain, inform, convinceOrchestrate & celebrateShare status and successDecision/visionProblem definition. Why must we do this? Involve the people who will be affected.Develop a shared vision of an altered and improved futureIdentify the leadership - who will champion the change?Build upcommunicate vision. be specific about how change will improve the business and how people will benefit from it.An effective vision must describe a desirable future, be compelling, be realistic, focused and flexible, and easy to communicate on different levels.Communicate relentlessly. communicate specific information about how change will affect, explain why and share options, explain scope, develop a graphic representation of the change project that people can understand and hold in their heads, predict negative aspects, explain success criteria and how it will be measured, explain how people will be rewarded, repeat purpose of change and actions planned, use diverse set of comms styles and tools, make comms a two-way proposition, be the change poster-boy/girl. ManifestationStages in reaction to change. 1. shock: people feel threatened. 2. Defensive retreat: anger, complaints, ask to revert to the past. 3. Acknowledgment. taking risks becomes easier, people explore the pros and cons. important that people can take action - each 'risk' that succeeds builds confidence and prepares people for more. 4. Acceptance and adaptation. Adapt and move on, see the positive in the change. Follow upMonitor and adjust strategies in response to problems in the change process
  • Change is easier to deal with if immediate action follows. I overcome my fear if I master something and succeed.
  • Philosopher Eric Hoffer (in The Ordeal of Change)"Things are different when people subjected to drastic change find only meager opportunities for action or when they cannot, or are not allowed to, attain self-confidence and self-esteem by individual pursuits."
  • Hence you need change allies. Your communication allies are product managers, marketing/PR, and community managers. Work with them!
  • Tools for change are about: communicating a vision moving people from chaos and resistance to practice and integration
  • Proquest talkOne method we can use to change this development style is the tracer bullet. I first read about the tracer bullet in The Pragmatic Programmer by Hunt & Thomas, and then again in Agile Estimating and Planning by Cohn. Dave Thomas: The idea of tracer bullets comes obviously from gunnery artillery. In the heavy artillery days, you would take your gun position, your target position, the wind, temperature, elevation, and other factors, and feed that into a firing table. You would get a solution that said to aim your gun at this angle and elevation, and fire. And you'd fire your gun and hope that your shell landed somewhere close to your target. An alternative to that approach is to use tracer bullets. If your target is moving, or if you don't know all the factors,you use tracer bullets—little phosphorous rounds intermixed with real rounds in your gun. As you fire, you can actually see the tracer bullets. And where they are landing is where the actual bullets are landing. If you're not quite on target—because you can see if you're not on target—you can adjust your position. The gist of the tracer bullet is to think about the system vertically and program a very small part of the program end-to-end. Don’t confuse a tracer bullet with a prototype; prototypes are meant to be thrown away, while tracer bullets will become part of the production system.The Tracer Bullet is a fantastic method for getting teams to break out of the waterfall mindset and fully embrace agile.
  • what feeds in: experience planning, content strategy, personas and background research
  • And there’s more tools. SamanthaStarmer showed some experience maps, service design tools.
  • Eric Hoffer: People should be able to handle regular change as long as it is: explained right, anticipated, handled in manageable doses, participatory rather than imposed and made routine. > Will agile, fast-paced mobile apps that change a lot, etc. change people's acceptance of change?
  • We Love Change? Change is Scary!

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    3. 3. We Love Change? <br /> Change Is Scary!<br />Johanna Kollmann<br />@johannakoll<br /> IA Summit 2011, Denver, CO<br />
    4. 4. Productivity<br />New Status Quo<br />Foreign Element<br />Status Quo<br />Practice & Integration<br />Chaos<br />Transforming Idea<br />Satir Change Model<br />Time<br />Adapted from http://www.satirworkshops.com/workshops/balancing-act/satir-change-model/<br />
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    7. 7. Marketing & PR<br />Redesign<br />Philosophy<br />Change management<br />Community Management<br />Psychology<br />
    8. 8. So, books for managers. <br />What do they say about change?<br />
    9. 9.
    10. 10. A (very) simple change process <br />Decision/vision<br />Build up<br />Follow up<br />Manifestation<br />
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    12. 12. Productivity<br />New Status Quo<br />Foreign Element<br />Status Quo<br />Practice & Integration<br />Chaos<br />Transforming Idea<br />Satir Change Model<br />Time<br />Adapted from http://www.satirworkshops.com/workshops/balancing-act/satir-change-model/<br />
    13. 13. A (very) simple change process <br />Decision/vision<br />Build up<br />Follow up<br />Manifestation<br />
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    24. 24. A (very) simple change process <br />Decision/vision<br />Build up<br />Follow up<br />Manifestation<br />
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    27. 27. Blog announcement, 05.08.2009<br />http://meetupblog.meetup.com/2009/08/new-feature-members-can-post-ideas-for-meetups-and-vote-on-them.html<br />
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    31. 31. A (very) simple change process <br />Decision/vision<br />Build up<br />Follow up<br />Manifestation<br />
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    33. 33. If you want to make enemies, try to change something.  ~Woodrow Wilson<br />
    34. 34. TOOLS<br />
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    36. 36. UX Tracer Bullet (Anders Ramsay)<br />
    37. 37. Productivity<br />New Status Quo<br />Foreign Element<br />Status Quo<br />Practice & Integration<br />Chaos<br />Transforming Idea<br />Satir Change Model<br />Time<br />Adapted from http://www.satirworkshops.com/workshops/balancing-act/satir-change-model/<br />
    38. 38. A (very) simple change process <br />Decision/vision<br />Build up<br />Follow up<br />Manifestation<br />
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    40. 40. Exemplary Experience Architecture<br />
    41. 41. confidential, hence no detailed descriptions<br />
    42. 42. Exemplary Value Map<br /> confidential, hence blurry<br />
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    44. 44. Take-aways<br />It’s true, we don’t like change on first encounter.<br />Change management is about communication. How are you/your client communicating change?<br />Befriend your communication allies. Collaborate!<br />Design for success. Let people achieve their core goals with the new design to move them from chaos to practice and integration.<br />A believable vision talks about customers, and business.<br />
    45. 45. Things alter for the worse spontaneously, if they be not altered for the better designedly.  ~Francis Bacon<br />
    46. 46. If you want to truly understand something, try to change it.  ~Kurt Lewin<br />
    47. 47. Image credits<br />Sweden on H-Day: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kungsgatan_1967.jpg<br />Book by Andrea K.: http://www.flickr.com/photos/andrea_k/339229476<br />Tracer bullet by David Weber: http://www.flickr.com/photos/david_weber/756985210/<br />Communication drain by Rupert Ganzer: http://www.flickr.com/photos/loop_oh/3294984769/<br />Bike tools by Bre Pettis: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bre/552152780/<br />Thank you<br />Amanda Wright and Anders Ramsay<br />Richard Wand and the EMC Consulting team<br />Friends and colleagues who listened to my dry-runs and provided feedback<br />
    48. 48. Johanna Kollmann- @johannakoll<br />User Experience @ EMC Consulting<br />
    49. 49. My personal wish is that change management ceases to exist. <br />That we commit to evolving our businesses, organisations and departments, improving and developing them as business as usual.<br />~Keely Nugent, author of 'Change, bring it on’ <br />