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How to get more than opinions<br />Interview techniques and advice<br />Johanna Kollmann- @johannakoll<br />Lean UX Machin...
UX helps you to get out of the building<br />Photo by Bottleleaf  http://www.flickr.com/photos/bottleleaf/2258627441/<br />
(Some) research methods (yeah we have a lot)<br />Quantitative<br />Qualitative<br />Contextual inquiry<br />Mental models...
Non-leading interviews are a conversation<br />Photo byDave Gilbert http://www.flickr.com/photos/eye2eye/50892860/<br />
Non-leading interviews<br /><ul><li> Are generative
 Focus on people’s behaviours and goals
 Capture their way of thinking and vocabulary
Are about listening to stories
 Can be conducted in-person or remotely
 Should be done with people who haveimmediate experience</li></ul>Mental Models byIndi Young<br />
Planning the interview<br />Photo byangelamaphonehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/angelamaphone/2663422833//<br />
Define your goals<br /><ul><li> Who do you need to talk to?
 What do you need to observe?
 What do you hope to find out?
 What’s  your hypothesis?</li></ul>Also, make sure you identify your own bias and beliefs!<br />
What topics shall the interview cover?<br />Dieting<br />Buying food<br />Exercise<br />Preparing food<br />Eating out<br ...
Prompts rather than set questions<br />Day-in-a-life (today, yesterday)<br />Decide what to eat<br />Last time on a diet<b...
Have a ‘softball question’ ready<br />Please tell me a little bit about your cooking this week.<br />Could you tell me abo...
During the interview<br />Photo by Anders Zakrisson http://www.flickr.com/photos/anders-zakrisson/4982281184/<br />
Photo byJitter Buffer http://www.flickr.com/photos/ph0t0s/5984587230/ <br />We are so used to being interrupted that we ha...
Photo byEd Yourdon http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/2574628438/<br />Really listening lets you understand someone, or ...
Active listening<br />Receive<br />Appreciate<br />Summarise<br />Ask<br />From Julian Treasure’s TED talk ‘5 ways to list...
Ask open questions – don’t lead<br />YAY<br /><ul><li> Who
 What
 When
 Where
 Why
 How</li></ul>NAY<br /><ul><li> Did
 Have
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How to get more than opinions: Interview techniques and advice

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Given at the intro evening of Lean UX Machine Tel Aviv (http://leanuxmachine.com/ & http://leanuxmachine2011.tumblr.com/), this short talk on interview techniques introduces basic principles of how to facilitate qualitative research. Aimed at lean startups, I hope it will be relevant advice for 'getting out of the building'.
Shared under a Creative Commons with Attribution license :)

Published in: Design, Technology, Business

How to get more than opinions: Interview techniques and advice

  1. 1. How to get more than opinions<br />Interview techniques and advice<br />Johanna Kollmann- @johannakoll<br />Lean UX Machine Tel Aviv, 4 August 2011<br />Photo by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center http://www.flickr.com/photos/28634332@N05/5038531149/<br />
  2. 2. UX helps you to get out of the building<br />Photo by Bottleleaf http://www.flickr.com/photos/bottleleaf/2258627441/<br />
  3. 3. (Some) research methods (yeah we have a lot)<br />Quantitative<br />Qualitative<br />Contextual inquiry<br />Mental models<br />Interviews<br />Diary studies<br />Surveys<br />Interviews<br />Generative<br />Usability testing<br />Moderated card sort<br />Wizard of Oz<br />Automated card sort<br />Surveys<br />Automated studies<br />Analytics<br />A/B Testing<br />Multi-variant testing<br />Evaluative<br />Adapted from figures by Janice Fraser, Nate Bolt, Christian Rohrer<br />
  4. 4. Non-leading interviews are a conversation<br />Photo byDave Gilbert http://www.flickr.com/photos/eye2eye/50892860/<br />
  5. 5. Non-leading interviews<br /><ul><li> Are generative
  6. 6. Focus on people’s behaviours and goals
  7. 7. Capture their way of thinking and vocabulary
  8. 8. Are about listening to stories
  9. 9. Can be conducted in-person or remotely
  10. 10. Should be done with people who haveimmediate experience</li></ul>Mental Models byIndi Young<br />
  11. 11. Planning the interview<br />Photo byangelamaphonehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/angelamaphone/2663422833//<br />
  12. 12. Define your goals<br /><ul><li> Who do you need to talk to?
  13. 13. What do you need to observe?
  14. 14. What do you hope to find out?
  15. 15. What’s your hypothesis?</li></ul>Also, make sure you identify your own bias and beliefs!<br />
  16. 16. What topics shall the interview cover?<br />Dieting<br />Buying food<br />Exercise<br />Preparing food<br />Eating out<br />Busy lifestyle<br />Struggles<br />
  17. 17. Prompts rather than set questions<br />Day-in-a-life (today, yesterday)<br />Decide what to eat<br />Last time on a diet<br />How active (want vs. do)<br />Preparing food for oneself<br />Preparing food for family/friends<br />
  18. 18. Have a ‘softball question’ ready<br />Please tell me a little bit about your cooking this week.<br />Could you tell me about the last dish you prepared yourself?<br />
  19. 19. During the interview<br />Photo by Anders Zakrisson http://www.flickr.com/photos/anders-zakrisson/4982281184/<br />
  20. 20. Photo byJitter Buffer http://www.flickr.com/photos/ph0t0s/5984587230/ <br />We are so used to being interrupted that we have developed highly effective interruption defense mechanisms. <br />
  21. 21. Photo byEd Yourdon http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/2574628438/<br />Really listening lets you understand someone, or a situation, on several different levels. <br />
  22. 22. Active listening<br />Receive<br />Appreciate<br />Summarise<br />Ask<br />From Julian Treasure’s TED talk ‘5 ways to listen better’<br />
  23. 23. Ask open questions – don’t lead<br />YAY<br /><ul><li> Who
  24. 24. What
  25. 25. When
  26. 26. Where
  27. 27. Why
  28. 28. How</li></ul>NAY<br /><ul><li> Did
  29. 29. Have
  30. 30. Are
  31. 31. Were
  32. 32. Will</li></ul>Were you trying to do A or B?<br />What were you trying to do?<br />
  33. 33. How to keep people talking<br />Can you tell me the story about that?<br />What else can you tell me about…<br />Help me understand better<br />What do you mean by…<br />Tell me more…<br />
  34. 34. Echoing and rephrasing<br />This is confusing...<br />Confusing...<br />Yes, confusing. I wasn't sure whether...<br />Example from ‘Storytelling for User Experience’ by Whitney Quesenbery & Kevin Brooks<br />
  35. 35. Echoing and rephrasing<br />…and so I decided to click on that link to go to the next page.<br />Okay, so let me get this straight: first, you saw the link, and...what, again?<br />I saw the link, and I thought to myself....(paraphrases self)<br />Example from ‘Remote Research’ by Nate Bolt & Tony Tulathimutte<br />
  36. 36. Conversational disequilibrium<br />I wanted to download that application, but the instructions were so confusing… (trails off and stops talking)<br />The instructions were confusing?<br />And you expected…<br />Confusing?...Because….<br />So then you…<br />Mmmm hmmm.<br />Example from ‘Storytelling for User Experience’ by Whitney Quesenbery & Kevin Brooks<br />
  37. 37. How to deal with difficult people<br />Photo by David Anderson http://www.flickr.com/photos/venndiagram/4667350842/<br />
  38. 38. The quiet one<br /><ul><li> So, tell me what you're trying to do here
  39. 39. What are you trying to get done right now?
  40. 40. How does this (part/page) compare with what you were expecting?
  41. 41. If the user falls quiet repeatedly: And by the way, if you could just let me know what's going through your head as you’re doing this...</li></ul>Example from ‘Remote Research’ by Nate Bolt & Tony Tulathimutte<br />
  42. 42. The bored one<br /><ul><li> I noticed that you just hesitated a bit before clicking on that button. Can you tell me why?
  43. 43. Why don't we back up a bit? I was curious about what drew your attention to the tab you just clicked on?
  44. 44. Before we move on from here, I wanted to ask you about this part a bit more. What do you think about the range of choices they give you here? Is anything missing?</li></ul>Example from ‘Remote Research’ by Nate Bolt & Tony Tulathimutte<br />
  45. 45. The chatty one<br /><ul><li> That's really interesting, thanks for telling me about that. To come back to....
  46. 46. Can I interrupt you? Sorry, I was actually curious if you could...</li></ul>Example from ‘Remote Research’ by Nate Bolt & Tony Tulathimutte<br />
  47. 47. Do’s and don’ts<br />Photo by Hilde Skjølberg http://www.flickr.com/photos/hebe/3004800079/<br />
  48. 48. Do<br />Be the learner, not the expert<br />Ask naïve questions<br />Ask for specific stories<br />Allow people time to think<br />Listen!<br />Take notes or record<br />Take photos or collect artefacts<br />Photo by Tomas Hellberg http://www.flickr.com/photos/tomhe/35312882/<br />
  49. 49. Don’t<br />Be an interrogator<br />Ask questions that sound like blame, or argumentative<br />Ask for solutions<br />Try to solve problems during the interview<br />Ask what features people want<br />Ask people to imagine theoretical situations<br />Photo by G Meyer http://www.flickr.com/photos/kainet/144703613/<br />
  50. 50. Have fun!<br />Photo by Ed Stevenson http://www.flickr.com/photos/estevenson/2641282945/<br />
  51. 51. Resources<br />Mental Models by Indi Young<br />Storytelling for User Experience by Whitney Quesenbery & Kevin Brooks<br />Remote Research by Nate Bolt & Tony Tulathimutte<br />Undercover User Experience by Cennydd Bowles<br />Designing for the Digital Age by Kim Goodwin<br />LUXrresources and materials by Janice Fraser (http://www.slideshare.net/clevergirl/) and Lane Halley (http://www.slideshare.net/LaneHalley/)<br />User Interview Techniques - Guidelines for Obtaining Better Results by Michael Hawley in User Experience, Volume 8, Issue 3, 3rd Quarter 2009<br />How to ask ‘why’ without asking ‘why by Karl Sabino (http://www.thinkflowinteractive.com/2009/09/01/how-to-ask-why/)<br />Articles on User Interface Engineering (http://www.uie.com/browse/usability_testing/)<br />
  52. 52. Thank you<br />Janice Fraser, Lane Halley & Josh Seiden from LUXr for sharing their materials under a CC license<br />Flow Interactive alumni friends for sharing their advice<br />Graham Uff for feedback<br />And big thanks to everybody who made Lean UX Machine Tel Aviv happen!<br />

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