Bronze Age in Greece (3.000-1.100 B.C.)Cycladic civilization in Cyclades Islands 3.000-1.450 B.C.Minoan civilization in Creta 3.000-1.450 B.C.Mycenaean civilization in mainland Greece 1.600-1.100 B.C.
Mycenaean and Submycenaean period in western Achaea 1.500 – 1.000 B.C.
Portesan important Mycenaeansettlement(17th -11th cent. B.C.)The settlementThe cemetery
There are four types of Mycenaean tombs all represented in the cemetery of Portes1. Curved chamber tombs2. Tholos tombs3. Built chamber tombs4. Cist graves
1.Chamber tombs : curved out of soft rocky hillsides. Themost common Mycenaean graves for ordinary people. Theywere part of an organized cemetery. Dromos: a downwards- Stomion: Chamber sloping ramp the entrance of many shapes After the burial stomion was built with drystone walling and dromos was filled with earth. A “sema” (stone or wooden mark) was often placed on the entrance.
The chamber of grave 29 with burial pitsChamber tomb 3
2. The tholos tombs: were built of stones only for rulers and their families. They had the same structure with chamber tombs. Dromos Stomion Chamber Each horizontal row of stones projected slightly from the lower one. As the height rose the diameter of rows decreased. By this way the roof was formed like a cone with curved sides.Differences from chamber tombs:1.Both dromos and burial chamber were built.2.Their chamber had always round shape.
Mycenae:The tomb of AgamemnonDromos and entrance (1.250 B.C.) Tholos tomb with reconstructed Two tholos tombs tholos near the palace of Pylos (15th cent. B.C.)
3. Built chamber tombs•They were subterranean with rectangular shape.•Their sides were built with flat stones in horizontal layers.•The roof was made of horizontal big slabs.•The entrance was in one of the short sides.•They had a short dromos.•After the burial stomion was closed with dry masonry anddromos was filled with soil.
Built chamber tomb in PortesReconstructed built chambertomb from Portes in the Museumof Patras
4. Cist graves•They were pits dug on the ground.•They were lined and covered usually with stoneslabs. ( cist: box shaped) Cist graves in Portes
Tumulus : an artificial earthen mound surrounded by a stone circle or by a built enclosureTumulus with built chamber tombs and cist graves in Portes
Voudeni: The Mycenaean settlement survived a few moredecades than any other settlement in Achaea until 1.000 B.C. The Mycenaean The cemetery settlement