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Teaching Children\'s L


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Teaching Children\'s L

  1. 1. Teaching Children’s Literature A Team Effort ELE 616 Readings and Research in Children’s Literature Fall 2008
  2. 2. Teaching Children’s Literature <ul><li>A subversive activity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. . . I think we should . . . take children’s literature seriously because it is sometimes subversive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The great subversive works of children’s literature suggest that there are other views of human life besides those of the shopping mall and the corporation. They mock current assumptions and express the imaginative, unconventional, noncommercial view of the world in its simplest and purest form. They appeal to the imaginative, questioning, rebellious child within all of us, renew our instinctive energy and act as a force for change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alison Lurie. A Child’s Garden of Subversion . New York Times Books section. February 25, 1990. (May require free registration in order to read). </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Why Teach Children’s Literature? <ul><li>“ Our purposes for teaching literature to students . . . are . . . tied to our notions of the role of schooling” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We have left behind models of literature teaching that result in simply interpreting the texts themselves to interpreting and re-interpreting ourselves and our worlds through reading. To turn to literature teaching as a means toward understanding difference, perhaps even to change attitudes toward others and to work toward social justice, is to reach toward transformative models of reading and schooling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theresa Rogers, Literary theory and children's literature: interpreting ourselves and our worlds Theory into Practice , v. 38 no3 (Summer 1999) p. 138-46   </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Challenge <ul><li>Theresa Rogers : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A final challenge in negotiating children’s responses to literature will be to capture the complexity of their lived experiences, their private and social performances, and their play with and resistance to the demands of particular ways of reading and particular kinds of stories. What kinds of classroom communities will we create in order to provide dialogic spaces in the institution of schooling, in which, drawing on literature as an art, we help children to know in new ways, read the world in new ways, and negotiate their responses in a postmodern world? </li></ul></ul>Literary theory and children’s literature: interpreting ourselves and our worlds Theory into Practice , v. 38 no3 (Summer 1999) p. 138-46  
  5. 5. Importance of free reading <ul><li>Stephen D Krashen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is now overwhelming research showing that free voluntary reading is the primary source of our reading ability, our writing style, much of our vocabulary and spelling knowledge, and our ability to handle complex grammatical constructions. It has also been confirmed that those who read more know more: They know more about history, literature, and even have more “practical knowledge” . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children's Literature: Very Good News and Very Bad News </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Pedagogical approaches 1 <ul><li>Teacher-centered approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The function of this curriculum is to transmit facts, skills, and values through mastering knowledge. . . . The teacher determines all teaching content and children are just the receivers of the knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The underlying concept of the teacher-centered approach is based on traditional pedagogy wherein knowledge is passed from teacher to children. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Pedagogical approaches 2 <ul><li>Child-Centered Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In comparison to the teacher-centered approach, [the child-centered approach] claim[s] that the importance of the curriculum is to develop children’s capacities and intelligence rather than transmitting knowledge and facts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child-centered approach is based on Dewey’s (1916, 1938, 1940) theories . . . this approach emphasizes nurturing children’s original thinking, connecting the learning to children’s individual needs, and giving children diverse experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each approach has strengths and weaknesses . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Katsuko Hara </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Reader Response in Teaching Literature <ul><li>Reader Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In classroom practice, reader response builds upon the transaction between reader and text to encourage students to identify explanations, form their own opinions, and create meanings based on their own individual experiences. As such, in a true reader-centered classroom, these explanations, opinions, and meanings constructed by students are invited, promoted, valued, and seen as beneficial. This personal connection between the reader and the text is the primary focus of reader response theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“A Horizon of Possibilities”: A Critical Framework for Transforming Multiethnic Literature Instruction by Arlette Ingram Willis Julia L. Johnson </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Literature in the content subjects <ul><li>Children’s Literature in Mathematics Instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the major elements of mathematics instruction emphasized in recent years has been to teach children problem solving skills. Literature is a marvelous tool for supporting problem solving learning. The books act as word problems, but they are word problems with some interest to children. A wonderful example of a book that can be used in this way is Pat Hutchins’ The Doorbell Rang . . . . Sharing cookies is a situation with which all school children can relate and it makes the division problem very real. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By Meghan Eddy See Also Concept Books , Counting Books and Mathematics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Multicultural literature <ul><li>Suggested teaching methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reader response groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response journals </li></ul></ul>From Judith Y. Singer and Sally A. Smith (2003). “ The Potential of Multicultural Literature: Changing Understanding of Self and Others .” Multicultural Perspectives 5 (2), 17-23.
  11. 11. A Collaborative Model <ul><li>What is Tall Tree? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Reader’s Digest Foundation Tall Tree Initiative has created an exciting new model for children’s library services in Westchester County, New York. That model is based on an unprecedented level of cooperation between local schools and the community’s public library. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Website no longer available! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What are the benefits? <ul><li>More effectiveness! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By working together, librarians and teachers can more effectively enhance student skills, and offer youngsters a world of reading and information experiences far richer than any institution could individually provide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- in just the second full year of Tall Tree learning activities, New Rochelle educators and librarians already credit Tall Tree with improving students' information skills, increasing library use and causing parental involvement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is Tall Tree? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Website no longer available! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Research Conclusions? <ul><li>Independent Reading and School Achievement : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common features of effective programs designed to promote reading in schools, homes, and libraries include access to varied material that appeals to all ages and tastes, active parent involvement, partnerships among community institutions, and collaboration among significant adults in students’ lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bernice E. Cullinan, New York University (2000) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Where are the media specialists? <ul><li>They should not be left out! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a similar partnership to Tall Tree in Oregon, “perceiving the public library as a threat to their own jobs, [the local media specialists] are reluctant to advertise services they consider to be duplicating or overriding their roles. This creates a dilemma for the public library-how can we provide students with necessary services without appearing to substitute, replicate or duplicate the teacher-librarian’s role?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public/School Library Planning Project, Fourth Quarterly Report </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Website no longer available! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Are media specialists useful? <ul><li>Libraries Called Key </li></ul>(2004, February/March). Reading Today , 21 (4), 1, 4.
  16. 16. English teachers think so, too! <ul><li>Resolution on Supporting School and Community Libraries 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational research demonstrates that the services of professional school librarians, well-funded collections, and rich digital resources enhance student achievement. These research studies show that, when classroom teachers collaborate with full-time, credentialed school librarians to design, implement, and assess instruction, student achievement increases significantly (see the Library Research Service Web site at ). </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. They got power! <ul><li>Information Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles and Responsibilities of the School Library Media Specialist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As teacher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As instructional partner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As information specialist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As program administrator </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. From: The Culture of Collaboration: Building Instructional Partnerships for Student Learning Dr Ross J Todd November 14-16, 2007
  19. 19. Are there definite results from school/library partnerships? <ul><li>The answer . . . is a resounding yes ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students in schools with well-planned library media programs and well documented collection development policies, and whose relationships with public libraries include book talks and summer reading programs averaged reading scores up to 15 points higher than those without such LM programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>October 7, 1998 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. You can prove it for yourself! <ul><li>Evidence-based practice </li></ul>
  21. 22. School Libraries Leading Learning: from Ross Todd’s Kentucky Address Fall 2006 School Libraries Work! <ul><li>Learning to Read </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational Role of School Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Reading to Learn </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Challenge! <ul><li>Being a team player </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It Takes a Village </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We smother learning when we sequester it from the community. We strengthen it when we bring students and adults together -- in whatever ways fit the situation best -- to keep company with each other, ask each other questions, and witness each other's hands and minds at work. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This article was also published in the November 2005 issue of Edutopia magazine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would this work for teaching children’s literature? </li></ul></ul>