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InformationSeekingLIB 640 Information Sources and ServicesSummer 2013
What Is Information Seeking?• In the simplest terms, information seekinginvolves the search, retrieval, recognition,and a...
Question 1: Why seek for information?What is the motivation?3
4Why Seek? Theory 1ASK Hypothesis developed byNicholas Belkin (Rutgers)•“. . . Anomalous States-of-Knowledge(abbreviated ...
5Why Seek? Theory 2The Uncertainty Principledeveloped by CarolKulthau, Rutgers)• Uncertainty initiates theprocess of info...
6Why Seek? Theory 3The Gap that does not make sense (“Sense-making” hypothesis)• “. . . Dervin presents to us a pictureof...
An illustration of Dervin’s “Gap”7
Question 2: Who’s doing the seeking?Defining the seeker8
9Who Seeks? Theory 1Anomalous State of Knowledge(ASK) hypothesis (Belkin):• “. . . patrons in problematic situations.”• A...
10Who Seeks? Theory 2Kulthau’s Information Search Process:• People experience the ISP [Information SearchProcess] holisti...
11Who Seeks? Theory 3Sense-Making Hypothesis:• “. . . [a] patron [who] is seen as being lockedin a situation unable to mo...
Question 3: How do they seek?Methods of searching12
13How Do They Seek? Theory 1Belkin’s ASK:• “. . . users performing some activity feel thatthey have a knowledge gap that ...
14How Do They Seek? Theory 2Kuhlthau’s ISP:• “The critical component of theISP is the person‟s ownformulation of a focus ...
15How Do They Seek? Theory 3Dervin’s Sense-Making:• “ . . . the patron is seen as being locked in asituation unable to mo...
16Who, How, Why?“person-in-context”“active search for information”“stress/coping model”• Wilson, Tom and Christina Wals...
17Another Motivation to ConsiderSelf-Generated or Imposed?• internally motivated by personal contextOR• thought up by one...
18Process of SearchingKulthau’s ISP:• Carol C. Kuhlthau, Jannica Heinström and Ross J. Todd,“The „information search proc...
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Information Seeking

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Information Seeking

  1. 1. InformationSeekingLIB 640 Information Sources and ServicesSummer 2013
  2. 2. What Is Information Seeking?• In the simplest terms, information seekinginvolves the search, retrieval, recognition,and application of meaningful content. Thissearch may be explicit or implicit, theretrieval may be the result of specificstrategies or serendipity, the resultinginformation may be embraced or rejected,the entire experience may be carried throughto a logical conclusion or aborted inmidstream, and there may be a million otherpotential results.• Kingrey, K. P. (2002, Spring). Concepts of information seekingand their presence in the practical library literature.Library Philosophy and Practice, 4, 22What is information seeking?
  3. 3. Question 1: Why seek for information?What is the motivation?3
  4. 4. 4Why Seek? Theory 1ASK Hypothesis developed byNicholas Belkin (Rutgers)•“. . . Anomalous States-of-Knowledge(abbreviated to ASK). . . . Situationsin which the patrons‟ knowledge areincomplete or limited in some way, andthey need further information to get on,the patrons are seen to be in an anomalous state ofknowledge.”• Ammentorp, S. and Hummelshøj, M. (2001). Ask a librarian: Web-based reference question services: a model for development. Paperpresented at 11th NI&D Conference. Spring for information.Reykjavik, 30 May–1 June 2001. Retrieved 22. September, 2004.http://www.murraylib640.org/Ammentorp.docNicholas Belkin
  5. 5. 5Why Seek? Theory 2The Uncertainty Principledeveloped by CarolKulthau, Rutgers)• Uncertainty initiates theprocess of informationseeking• Kuhlthau, C. C. (2004, May).ISP PresentationRetrieved June 14, 2007.http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~kuhlthau/recent_presentations/loex/loex_presentation.pptCarol Kuhlthau
  6. 6. 6Why Seek? Theory 3The Gap that does not make sense (“Sense-making” hypothesis)• “. . . Dervin presents to us a pictureof a man walking along a road,when he comes upon an impassablehole in the ground. In this situation,he is obviously facing a gap. Whatis he to do now?”• Kari, J. (1998, November). Making sense of sense-making:From metatheory to substantive theory in the context ofparanormal information seeking. Paper presented at Nordis-Net workshop (Meta)theoretical stands in studying library andinformation institutions: individual, organizational and societalaspects, November 12–15 1998, Oslo, Norway. RetrievedSeptember 22, 2004.See also Dervin‟s Sense-Making Methodology SiteBrenda Dervin
  7. 7. An illustration of Dervin’s “Gap”7
  8. 8. Question 2: Who’s doing the seeking?Defining the seeker8
  9. 9. 9Who Seeks? Theory 1Anomalous State of Knowledge(ASK) hypothesis (Belkin):• “. . . patrons in problematic situations.”• Ammentorp, S. and Hummelshøj, M. Ask aLibrarian: Web-Based Reference QuestionServices: A Model for Development.”Marianne HummelshøjSteen Ammentorp
  10. 10. 10Who Seeks? Theory 2Kulthau’s Information Search Process:• People experience the ISP [Information SearchProcess] holistically with an interplay ofthoughts, feelings, and actions.• Kuhlthau, Carol C. “An Overview of the InformationSearch Process.” Retrieved June 14, 2007.http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~kuhlthau/information_search_process.htmCarol Kuhlthau
  11. 11. 11Who Seeks? Theory 3Sense-Making Hypothesis:• “. . . [a] patron [who] is seen as being lockedin a situation unable to move further becauseof some kind of gap in his knowledge.”• Ammentorp and Hummelshøj, Ask a librarian:web-based reference question services: A modelfor development.Brenda Dervin
  12. 12. Question 3: How do they seek?Methods of searching12
  13. 13. 13How Do They Seek? Theory 1Belkin’s ASK:• “. . . users performing some activity feel thatthey have a knowledge gap that cannot befilled directly, and consequently they engageinto an information seeking process. . .”• Brajnik, G. (1999, June). Information seeking asexplorative learning. Retrieved Sept. 7th, 2003.http://www.bcs.org/upload/pdf/ewic_mi99_paper2.pdfGiorgio BrajnikAssistant Professor inComputer Science, Universityof Udine, Italy
  14. 14. 14How Do They Seek? Theory 2Kuhlthau’s ISP:• “The critical component of theISP is the person‟s ownformulation of a focus thatinvolves gaining a personalperspective of the topic or subjectwhile using a variety of sources of information.In other words, users are constructing theirown understandings through inquiry.”• Kuhlthau, C. “Research Interests.” Last Updated January2012. Retrieved June 10, 2012.• http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~kuhlthau/research_interests.htm
  15. 15. 15How Do They Seek? Theory 3Dervin’s Sense-Making:• “ . . . the patron is seen as being locked in asituation unable to move further becauseof some kind of gap in his knowledge.However the patron tries to bridge this gapby asking questions and using the answersto closing the gap, making new sense. AsBelkin, Dervin sees the nature of theinformation need as something situationalchanging as the patrons tries to bridge thegap.”• Ammentorp and Hummelshøj, “Ask a Librarian: Web-Based Reference Question Services: A Model forDevelopment.”
  16. 16. 16Who, How, Why?“person-in-context”“active search for information”“stress/coping model”• Wilson, Tom and Christina Walsh. “Arevised general model of informationbehaviour” ch. 7 of “InformationBehaviour: An Inter-DisciplinaryPerspective.” British Library Researchand Innovation Report 10. A report to theBritish Library Research & InnovationCentre on a review of the literature.Retrieved Sept. 8th, 2003.http://informationr.net/tdw/publ/infbehav/Professor TomWilsonBiographyResearchCats
  17. 17. 17Another Motivation to ConsiderSelf-Generated or Imposed?• internally motivated by personal contextOR• thought up by one person then given tosomeone else to resolve• Gross, M. (2001, January). Imposedinformation seeking in public libraries andschool library media centers: a commonbehaviour? Information Research, 6, 2.Retrieved Sept. 8th, 2003.http://informationr.net/ir/6-2/paper100.html
  18. 18. 18Process of SearchingKulthau’s ISP:• Carol C. Kuhlthau, Jannica Heinström and Ross J. Todd,“The „information search process‟ revisited: is the modelstill useful?” Information Research VOL. 13 NO. 4,DECEMBER, 2008.

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