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Guided Inquiry

A look at Kuhlthau's Information Search Process and Guided Inquiry, which derives from the ISP.

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Guided Inquiry

  1. 1. Kuhlthau’s Information Search Process and Guided Inquiry Johan Koren Murray State University LIB 601 Libraries and Learning Fall 2008
  2. 2. Carol Collier Kuhlthau <ul><li>Professor School of Communication, Information and Library Studies Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking Meaning: A Process Approach to Library and Information Services 1 st ed. 1993. 2 nd ed. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2004. </li></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  3. 3. An empirically-based theory <ul><li>A qualitative beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The initial study addressed the problem of understanding the user’s experience in the process of seeking information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The study was conducted in a large eastern [United States], suburban high school with a group of 25 academically capable high school seniors (1983). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The qualitative methods used were journals, search logs, short written statements, case study interviews and conceptual maps, and the teacher’s assessment of focus in the students’ papers. </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  4. 4. Grounded Theory <ul><li>A description of the search process was sought through the data collected from . . . students’ journals, search logs, and writings as well as the case study subjects’ interviews, timelines and flowcharts . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Six categories of characteristics were sought for each stage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task, thoughts, feelings, actions, strategies and mood. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common patterns in the experience of this small, specialized group were noted when they were articulated and could be documented. </li></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  5. 5. Pattern of 6 stages: Stage 1 <ul><li>Task initiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings of uncertainty and apprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing to select a topic within the assigned problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to understand the assignment and relate it to personal experience </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  6. 6. Stage 2 <ul><li>Topic selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimism once topic selected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apprehension if topic not selected quickly </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  7. 7. Stage 3 <ul><li>Exploration to gain a focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings of confusion grow with the discovery of the complexity of the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For some, a desire to abandon the topic and find another one </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  8. 8. Stage 4 <ul><li>Focus formulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings of relief: the turning point now reached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When focus not found, the student had difficulties throughout the assignment </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  9. 9. Stage 5 <ul><li>Collecting information on the focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of direction and feelings of confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased interest in the topic </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  10. 10. Stage 6 <ul><li>Conclusion of the search and start of the writing process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources found diminish in relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources found begin to be repetitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings that enough effort has been made to find sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time constraints </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  11. 11. Studies to verify <ul><li>Large-scale studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>147 participants from diverse backgrounds and abilities in 6 New Jersey high schools (1988) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>385 academic, public and school library users at 21 sites (1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal study (1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative: 25 from first study; survey at beginning of last year in high school and at last year of university, 5 years later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative: in-depth case studies of 4 of the above students during the 4 years of university study. </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  12. 12. Six stages of the final model: Stage 1 <ul><li>Task initiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential element: presence of an information need, generally from an imposed assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings: uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions: exploring information within parameters of the assignment/project </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  13. 13. Stage 2 <ul><li>Selection of a topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria for selecting a topic: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal interest, requirements of the assignment, information available and time allotted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings: optimism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts: vague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions: exploratory seeking </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  14. 14. Stage 3 <ul><li>Exploration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching from general to specific, though often without a clear plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings: confusion/frustration/doubt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts: still vague, but becoming clearer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions: exploratory seeking </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  15. 15. Stage 4 <ul><li>Formulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of a focus that provides direction for the collection of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings: clarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts: becoming increasingly clearer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions: searching becoming progressively more directed to selection of relevant sources </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  16. 16. Stage 5 <ul><li>Collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of a sense of ownership, personal interest in topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings: sense of direction/confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts: focused, with an increased interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions: seeking pertinent information; documenting and recording; developing outline for presentation </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  17. 17. Final stage: 6 <ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of information for communication to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings: satisfaction (or disappointment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts: interest, ownership of ideas/information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions: outlining, expansion, final searching </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  18. 18. Implication for mediation by librarians <ul><li>Know the appropriate zone of intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Zone of intervention”: that area in which an information user can do with advice and assistance what he or she cannot do alone or can do only with great difficulty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exact nature of zone and the nature of the help needed must be determined through a reference interview </li></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  19. 19. Extending the ISP <ul><li>Guided Inquiry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guided Inquiry is carefully planned, closely supervised targeted intervention of an instructional team of school librarians and teachers to guide students through curriculum based inquiry units that build deep knowledge and deep understanding of a curriculum topic, and gradually lead towards independent learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is Guided Inquiry? </li></ul></ul></ul>June 5, 2009 Information Search Process
  20. 20. Six principles of Guided Inquiry <ul><li>Students learn by being actively engaged and reflecting on that experience </li></ul><ul><li>Students learn by building on what they already know </li></ul><ul><li>Students develop higher order thinking through guidance at critical points in the learning process </li></ul>
  21. 21. Six principles <ul><li>Students have different ways of learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students have different ways and modes of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students learn through social interaction with others </li></ul><ul><li>Students’ development occurs in a sequence of stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children learn through instruction and experience in accord with their cognitive development </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Implementing Guided Inquiry <ul><li>Effective inquiry through the school library is guided and structured </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Inquiry revolves around mediation and intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>The Information Search Process provides a useful framework for understanding students’ journey of information seeking and use, and a basis for guiding and intervening to ensure learning is meaningful </li></ul>
  23. 23. Guided Inquiry Implementation (cont.) <ul><li>Effective inquiry through the school library is shared. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific interventions are determined by the stage of the search process, the affective, cognitive and behavioral needs of the learners, and the curriculum standards and goals to be achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Inquiry is an opportunity for the school to provide some comprehensive evidence of how the teaching and learning focus of the school library improves student learning outcomes </li></ul>
  24. 24. Learning Centered Model Third Space in Guided Inquiry Third Space first space ←←←←← ->->->->-> second space personal Merger curriculum student centered ←← learning centered ->-> teacher centered From: Kuhlthau, C. C., Maniotes, L. K., & Caspari, A. K. (2007). Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21 st Century. Westport, CN: Libraries Unlimited, p. 32.
  25. 25. Creating Third Space <ul><li>Interthinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neil Mercer (2000) refers to ‘interthinking’ occurring when people talk and develop ideas together. He proposes an Intermental Development Zone which we can imagine as the area between us when we talk together and combine our ideas. New knowledge is created. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dialogue and Reflection ,” ProDAIT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mercer, N. (2000). Words and Minds: how we use language to think together. London: Routledge. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Teaming philosophy <ul><li>Community of learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students who are comfortable conversing and listening freely in small groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community of guides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers who model personal connections and are comfortable with flexible team approaches to planning instructional experiences </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Community of learners <ul><li>Inquiry Circles (AKA Information Circles ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>select relevant non-fiction resources on a specific topic for the students or guide students to select their own resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>introduce roles by distributing the role description and modelling their job in action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organize students into goups of 4 or 5 for a designated block of time; switch roles at the end of the time block or as needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide students with folders to help keep information organized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taken from Info Tasks for Successful Learning by Carol Koechlin and Sandi Zwaan. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Roles—or jobs in inquiry circle