Geographical sources


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Geographical sources

  1. 1. LIB 640 Information Sources and Services Summer 2012 Geographical Reference Sources
  2. 2. 2Goals of GeographicQuestions?
  3. 3. 3What kinds ofgeographical sourcesare there?
  4. 4. 4 What is a gazetteer?• gazetteer • A separately published dictionary of geographic names that gives the location of each entry (example: The Columbia Gazetteer of the World). Also, an index of the names of the places and geographic features shown on the maps contained in an atlas, usually printed in a separate section following the maps, with locations indicated by page number (or map number) and grid coordinates. Some gazetteers include information about major geographic features such as rivers, lakes, mountains, cities, etc.
  5. 5. 5Columbia Gazetteer of the World?
  6. 6. 6 A free online US gazetteer• U.S. Gazetteer: 2010, 2000, and 1990 • Download 2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer files for places, counties, county subdivisions, census tracts, and ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs). The vintage matches the 2010 Census data available from the Census Bureau. • You can also download Census 2000 U.S. Gazetteer files and 1990 Census U.S. Gazetteer files. “These files are available to the public „as is‟.”
  7. 7. 7A free world gazetteer
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10 Guidebooks• guidebook • A handbook that provides useful current information for travelers to a city, state, region, country, or other geographic area or for visitors to a museum, park, historical site, etc. (see this example).
  11. 11. 11Guidebook examples
  12. 12. 12 Atlases• What is an atlas? • A bound or boxed collection of maps, usually related in subject or theme, with an index of place names (gazetteer) usually printed at the end. • In most modern atlases, the maps are printed in uniform style and format, on a fairly consistent scale. An atlas may be issued as an independent publication or as accompanying material, with or without descriptive text, plates, charts, tables, etc. Some have a special focus (example: The Times Atlas of World Exploration); others are intended for a specific use (road atlases). • From ODLIS definition of atlas
  13. 13. por 13 Print vs. Online Atlases • Is the Print Atlas Dead Yet? • A recent article in The Chicago Tribune about how traditional maps have been vanishing from classrooms got me thinking about one of the staples of the print reference collection, the atlas. While print dictionaries and encyclopedias have crumbled under the onslaught of digitization, it has taken awhile for the atlas to be replaced by online sources, partly because of problems with imaging and display. This is changing, however, thanks to better scanning. • Tuesday, November 24, 2009 10:31 am Posted by: Rebecca Vnuk
  14. 14. 14Some online atlases
  15. 15. 15 Map Reading Skills• Map skills and higher-order thinking • The skills needed to read and interpret maps are a part of visual literacy — a set of skills and habits of mind necessary to “read” images. Visual literacy means not just decoding an image but comprehending it — grasping the image‟s intended meaning, evaluating it, and incorporating it into other knowledge. • Of course, students have to learn map conventions. But although understanding conventions is the first step towards literacy, it isn‟t literacy. Stopping there would be like teaching a child the sounds of the letters and then handing her a book. Just because she can decode the words on the page doesn‟t mean she can comprehend the book — and just because a child can decode a map doesn‟t mean he can comprehend it.
  16. 16. A source for map skills resources
  17. 17. A free map skills site17 Copyright 2009
  18. 18. A not-so-free map skills site /18 Copyright 2009
  19. 19. 19 What about GPS?• Caching In on GPS • Map trails, find treasure caches, and solve problems by using a Global Positing System (GPS) with your students. GPS technology is made possible by 24 U.S. military satellites orbiting Earth that transmit signals to a receiver. This data provides the location and the current time for each of the satellites. The receiver calculates its position based on where the satellites intersect. Data from at least three satellites is necessary to find a 2-D position and from four satellites for a 3-D location. • Joseph, L. C. (2006). Caching In on GPS. Multimedia & Internet@Schools, 13(6), 21-25. • See also Anderson, M. (2008). Geocaching for Fun and Learning. Multimedia & Internet@Schools, 15(2), 32-35. Copyright 2009
  20. 20. 20 Where to do it?•