LIB 630 Organizing and Managing Library Collections Spring 2013Diving into MARC What’s MARC got to do with it?
2Who’s MARC, anyway?Artist or author? Franz Marc Blue Horses I 1911 Nope—none of them!
3 Not a person, huh? What does the acronym “MARC” mean?MARC is the acronym for MAchine-Readable Cataloging. It defines a data format that emerged from a Library of Congress-led initiative that began thirty years ago. It provides the mechanism by which computers exchange, use, and interpret bibliographic information, and its data elements make up the foundation of most library catalogs used today. MARC became USMARC in the 1980s and MARC 21 in the late 1990s. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Network Development and MARC Standards Office Library of Congress Library of Congress
4 Machine-Readable? Machine-Readable:―Machine-readable‖ means that one particular type of machine, a computer, can read and interpret the data in the cataloging record. Understanding MARC Bibliographic: Machine- Readable Cataloging Part I: What Does MARC Mean?
5 Why Machine-Readable? Why can’t a computer just read a catalog card?Because the computer can’t interpret the words on the card—it doesn’t know an author from a title!The MARC record contains a guide to its data, or little ―signposts,‖ before each piece of bibliographic information that triggers the appropriate response from the computer.
6 Signposts? Fields, subfields and punctuation(yes, that again!)The place provided for each item of bibliographic information (author, title, call number, etc.) is called a ―field.‖There are two kinds of fields: Fixed fields (these have a fixed number of characters, i.e. letters, numbers, spaces or signs, like punctuation). In the MARC record, they are contained in the Leader and the 008 field. Variable fields (these have a varied number of characters) More to come!
7 What does a MARC record look like? Do you see anything you can recognize? What about the title and statement of responsibility? Do you see the / symbol? Statement of responsibility TitleSection of MARC file for Standard Cataloging for School and Public Libraries Downloaded from Library of Congress catalog
8 What does it all mean? The basic divisions of the MARC 21 bibliographic record are:0xx Control information, identification and classification number etc.1xx Main entries (author name, meeting name, uniform title)2xx Titles and title paragraph (title, edition, imprint)3xx Physical description4xx Series statements Don’t these sound familiar?5xx Notes6xx Subjects access fields7xx Added entries (author name, meeting name, uniform title)8xx Series added entries9xx Reserved for local implementation Fields
9 Fixed fields (Fixed, because they’re always of the same length)Fixed fields use codes to convey certain standard information about the work. In the MARC record, they are contained in the Leader and the 008 field. Leader Fields: provide information like type of record or bibliographic level 008 Fields: contain codes for publication status, dates, place of publication/country, etc. GUIDE TO MARC FIELDS
10 Variable fields (Variable, because their length varies!)Variable fields contain the descriptive information about a work. They may also provide access points that can be used to search for, find, and identify a bibliographic record in the catalog. Access points can be names, alternate titles, subject headings, and/or call numbers. Variable fields make up the bulk of the record. Online systems have a certain character called an ―end of field‖ symbol which tells the computer when to end the variable field. GUIDE TO MARC FIELDS
11 Elements of a field 1 FIELDS are marked by TAGSA tag: Each field is associated with a 3-digit number called a ―tag.‖ A tag identifies the field -- the kind of data -- that follows. Even though a printout or screen display may show the tag immediately followed by indicators (making it appear to be a 4- or 5-digit number), the tag is always the first 3 digits. Two common tags are: 100 tag marks a personal name main entry (author) 245 tag marks the title information (which includes the title, other title information, and the statement of responsibility) MARC Terms and Their Definitions Part III of Understanding MARC Bibliographic: Machine-Readable Cataloging
12 Elements of a field 2 Some fields are further defined by INDICATORSIndicators do just that—they ―indicate‖ to the computer that it must do something. The indicators are the next two characters after the tag in variable fields.Each indicator value is a number from 0 to 9. (Although the rules say it can be a letter, letters are uncommon.) Even though two indicators together may look like a 2-digit number, they really are two single-digit numbers. Indicators: 1 indicates a separate title Tag for title information entry is required ; 4 says “skip first 4 characters and file under “emperor’s” 245 14 $a The emperors new clothes / $c adapted from Hans Christian Andersen and illustrated by Janet Stevens.
13 Elements of a field 3 Subfields:Most of the fields in a MARC record contain several pieces of information. … Each of these pieces is called a Subfield and there are various ways to set these apart and to let the computer know where specific pieces of information can be found. Some of the possible subfields in the 245 field mentioned are title, subtitle, statement of responsibility, and format (also called medium).Tag Indicators, indicating 1: separate title entry; and 4: skip 4 characters Delimiters and subfield codes245 14$aThe school library media manager /$cBlanche Woolls.
14 Delimiters? Subfield codes? What’s a delimiter?A delimiter is a character used to separate subfields. Different software programs use different characters to represent the delimiter on the screen or on printouts.The most common delimiter characters are $ or | Subfield code?Subfield codes are one lowercase letter (occasionally a number) preceded by a delimiter. Each subfield code indicates what type of data follows it.Example: 300 ## $a 675 p. : $b ill. ; $c 24 cm Field 300 is Physical description. There are no defined indicators (##) $a=pagination $b illustrations $c size of item
15 Important fields to be aware of020 International Standard Book Number -- (ISBN) (R, or Repeatable i.e. there can be more than one 020 field) Indicators undefined [entered as ##]. Subfields used most often: $a -- International Standard Book Number $c -- Terms of availability (often a price) $z -- Cancelled/invalid ISBN (R) Example: 020 ## $a 0877547637 The computer is programmed to recognize that field 020 means the standard number and that $a in this field stands for ISBN, so it will display or print that out as ISBN:0877547637
16 A typical 2xx level entry The 245 tag: Title and statement of responsibility 245 14$aThe school library media manager /$cBlanche Woolls.Notice the / ? Remember what that means?That’s right, it’s the ISBD punctuation that says what follows is whoever’s responsible for the item!Then what comes before it is the title—right?The $a is the MARC sign (called a delimiter) for the title subfieldThe $c delimiter indicates the author subfieldThe 14 isn’t fourteen, it’s 2 indicators: 1 to show that a title added entry is needed, 4 to tell the computer to skip 4 spaces when alphabetizing, i.e. skip ―The‖ and the space (4 characters: t,h,e,space) that follow and start at ―school‖
17 Two more 245 examples245 00$aLibrary evaluation :$ba casebook and can-doguide /$cDanny P. Wallace, Connie Van Fleet, editors.Library evaluation : a casebook and can-do guide /Danny P. Wallace, Connie Van Fleet, editors.245 00$aWorld Book millennium 2000$h[computerfile].World Book millenium 2000 [computer file]. Notice here that the GMD [General Material Designation] is included, since that’s part of the title and statement of responsibility area, and this isn’t a book
18 082 - Dewey Decimal Classification NumberR i.e. repeatable—there can be several numbers First indicator: (Usually called Indicator 1) Indicates which edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification schedules was used Abridged edition – indicator 0 Full edition– indicator 1. Second indicator: (Usually called Indicator 2) Indicates whether the Dewey Classification number was assigned by the Library of Congress or by another library or vendor. LC: 0 Other: 4 Subfields: $a Classification no. (R) $b item no. (NR) $z edition no. (NR)
19 100 Main entry -- Personal name -- (primary author)(NR [not repeatable]; there can be only one main entry) Indicator 1: Type of personal name entry element 0 -- Forename 1 -- Surname (this is the most common form) 3 -- Family name Indicator 2 undefined. Indicator 2 became obsolete in 1990. Older records may display 0 or 1 Subfields used most often: $a -- Personal name $b -- Numeration $c -- Titles and other words associated with a name (R) $q -- Fuller form of name $d -- Dates associated with a name (generally, year of birth) Example: 100 1# $a Gregory, Ruth W. $q (Ruth Wilhelme), $d 1910-
20 What does “main entry” mean? main entryThe entry in a library catalog that provides the fullest description of a bibliographic item, by which the work is to be uniformly identified and cited. In AACR2, the main entry is the primary access point. In the card catalog, it includes all the secondary headings under which the item is cataloged (called added entries). For most items, main entry is under name of author. When there is no author, main entry is under title.
21 245 Title Statement (NR)Indicator 1: Title added entry (i.e. Should the title be indexed as a title added entry?) 0 -- No title added entry (indicates a title main entry; i.e. no author is given 1 -- Title added entry (the proper indicator when an author is given in field 1XX; the most common situation)Indicator 2: Nonfiling characters 0-9 --Number of nonfiling characters present, including spaces; usually set at zero, except when the title begins with an article; e.g., for The robe, the second indicator would be set to 4. The letters T, h, e, and the space following them are then ignored in alphabetizing titles. The record will be automatically filed under "r" -- for Robe.Subfields used most often: $a --Title proper $h --Medium (often used for non-book media) $p --Name of part/section of a work (R) $b --Reminder of title (subtitles, etc.) $c -- Remainder of title page transcription / Statement of responsibility
22 260 Publication, distribution, etc. (Imprint) (R)Indicator 1: Sequence of publishing statements # -- No information providedIndicator 2: Undefined, therefore #Subfields used most often: $a -- Place of publication, distribution, etc. (R) $b -- Name of publisher, distributor, etc. (R) $c -- Date of publication, distribution, etc. (R) Example: 260 ## $a New York : $b Chelsea House, $c 1986.
23 300 Physical description (R)Indicators undefined: ##Subfields used most often: $a -- Extent (number of pages) (R) $b -- Other physical details (usually illustration information) $c -- Dimensions (cm.) (R) $e -- Accompanying material (for example, "teachers guide" or "manual") Example: 300 ## $a 139 p. : $b ill. ; $c 24 cm.
24 Where can I find more details about fields and tags? Tag of the Month from FollettNeed help understanding MARC tags? Turn to Tag of the Month. This helpful resource features a new topic every month, including a description of the tags uses and working examples. Youll find Tag of the Month only at Follett Software.The Tag of the Month page also features links to other helpful cataloging resources, including the online version of Understanding MARC Bibliographic: Machine-Readable Cataloging, the definitive book on MARC, co-authored by the Library of Congress and Follett Software.
25 Will I have to create a MARC record? Highly unlikely!If you do the original cataloging with cataloging software, then the computer will be programmed to automatically create the MARC record, for export to another program, orYou can subscribe to a MARC creation service from your vendor, e.g. Follett through Alliance Plus™ and Alliance A/V™For copy cataloging, you can download from another source and import to your software
26 How can I import? You can download MARC records for free1. Go to http://catalog.loc.gov in your browser and then click on Basic Search.2. Conduct your search.3. If only one item is found, you will see the single record display. Otherwise select the appropriate title from the list.4. Click on the Full Record tab and examine the record.5. You can then click the MARC Tags tab and see the MARC record. Continued on next slide!
27 Importing Marc part deux6. If the cataloging record meets with your approval, scroll down to the bottom of the screen. You will see the following box:7. Click on the drop-down menu and select one of the MARC alternatives. Then click on the Press to SAVE or PRINT button.8. The file will either download automatically or you’ll be asked to open or save it.9. The file will have a .mrc extension, but it is a text file and can be opened with Notepad if you need to.
28 Importing MARC Part the Third10. Open your cataloging/circulation software11. Import according to the software instructions (they’re all different, of course!) See, for example:
30MARC Record (selected tags) Library of Congress shows delimiters as | rather than $ Tag 010 is LC control number Tag 020 is ISBN Tag 040 is Cataloging Source i.e. who did the cataloging Tag 050 is LC classification Tag 082 gives Dewey classification number Subfield |2 (or $2) shows that number could be extended to 025.322 Tags in the 500s are Notes Tag 650 marks subject headings
31 Does MARC have a home?The Network Development and MARC Standards Office plans and develops library and information network standards at the Library of Congress. It is the maintenance agency for several national standards, including the MARC 21 formats.To contact it, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.The MARC Standards webpage has links to extensive documentation on MARC 21, including the concise formats, code and field lists, information about MARC 21 development, and additional documentation to help users with the MARC 21 format. Some of the documentation is available in translation.
32 What about RDA and FRBR?Training material from Library Congress
33 See also:MARC isn’t Dead, but it is a Dead EndMARC, not dead yet?We know that MARCisn’t dead; thecommunicationsformat, along with itsAACR2 companionrules for describingbibliographicresources, are deeplyand daily ingrained inour systems andprocesses. For the samereasons, I think it is fairto say that MARC isn’tdying.Posted on October 29, 2010
34 Will MARC die? MARC Must DieWhen MARC was created, the Beatles were a hot new group and those of us alive at the time wore really embarrassing clothes and hairstyles. . . . The very nature of the MARC (machine-readable cataloging) record is, to some degree, an anachronism. It was developed in an age when memory, storage, and processing power were all rare and expensive commodities. Now they are ubiquitous and cheap.With the advent of the web, XML, portable computing, and other technological advances, libraries can become flexible, responsive organizations that serve their users in exciting new ways. Or not. If libraries cling to outdated standards, they will find it increasingly difficult to serve their clients as they expect and deserve.