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Collaborative Action Research 2007


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Collaborative Action Research 2007

  1. 1. LIB604 Libraries in the School CurriculumSpring 2010<br />Collaborative Action Research<br />
  2. 2. What is it?<br />What is Collaborative Action Research?<br />a process in which participants systematically examine their own educational practice using the techniques of research, for the purpose of increasing learning of students, their teachers, and other interested parties.<br />Caro-Bruce. (2000). Action Researcher: Facilitator’s Handbook. National Council of Staff Development.<br />2<br />
  3. 3. How does it work?<br />Teamwork<br />According to Sagor (1992), collaborative action research involves “people who want to do something to improve their own situation” (p. 7) taking action. The focus of the research process is “teams of practitioners who have common interests” (p. 10) working together to investigate issues relevant to their interests. <br />Collaborative action research and school counselors.From: Professional School Counseling  |  Date: 10/1/2005  |  Author: Rowell, Lonnie L.<br />3<br />
  4. 4. But what is action research?<br />What is Action Research?<br />Action Research is a process in which participants examine their own educational practice systematically and carefully using the techniques of research.  <br />Heidi Watts, Antioch Graduate School <br />4<br />
  5. 5. Assumptions behind action research<br />teachers and principals work best on problems they have identified for themselves; <br />teachers and principals become more effective when encouraged to examine and assess their own work and then consider ways of working differently; <br />teachers and principals help each other by working collaboratively; <br />working with colleagues helps teachers and principals in their professional development. <br />What is Action Research? Heidi Watts, Antioch Graduate School<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Another definition<br />Action research<br />is the process through which teachers collaborate in evaluating their practice jointly; raise awareness of their personal theory; articulate a shared conception of values; try out new strategies to render the values expressed in their practice more consistent with the educational values they espouse; record their work in a form which is readily available to and understandable by other teachers; and thus develop a shared theory of teaching by researching practice.<br />John Elliott<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Why action?<br />The Meaning of “Action”<br />Traditionally, scientific research has been conducted by professional full-time researchers. They generally choose their topics based on their personal predilections or the preference of journal editors, and they publish reports of their work with the hope that someone will someday make use of it. But even if no one does, their work is usually complete upon publication of their report.<br />Action research, on the other hand, is conducted by people who want to do something to improve their own situation. When other people read about their work, notice it, or make use of it, that is simply icing on the cake. Action researchers undertake a study because they want to know whether they can do something in a better way.<br />Sagor, How to Conduct Collaborative Action Research, Chapter 2. Defining Collaborative Action Research<br />7<br />
  8. 8. A Related Concept<br />collaborative inquiry<br />Inquiry is the investigation of users and their context in order to understand their problem space, their goals, and associated design constraints, usually by observational methods, surveys, and interviews. Collaborative inquiry involves the users (or potential users) of an application in the investigation, relying on them as collaborators for their domain knowledge and appreciation of user needs.<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Why collaborative?<br />There are least two reasons for advocating CAR:<br />Firstly, . . . many teachers lack the necessary expertise to engage in action research.<br />Our second reason for advocating CAR is that collaboration provides an avenue for discussion. <br />Abdullah, K. I . and Hashim, A . Collaborative action researchAustralian Association for Research in Education 1996 – Singapore Joint ERA/AARE Conference <br />9<br />
  10. 10. Why Collaborative Inquiry?<br />Why do we suggest a collaborative approach?<br />The main reason is based on the old adage, “Two heads better than one.” Multiple perspectives from different people help make sense of the complex nature of teaching and learning. Additionally, research informs us it is a good characteristic of successful professional development. <br />10<br />
  11. 11. Five Phases of Action Research<br />Phase I - Problem Identification<br />Phase II - Plan of Action<br />Phase III - Data Collection<br />Phase IV - Analysis of Data<br />Phase V - Plan for Future Action<br />Adapted from the St. Louis Action Research Evaluation Committee <br />11<br />
  12. 12. Guidelines typically used in teacher action research<br />Identify a puzzlement/inquiry<br />Decide in a systematic way how to go about answering that question<br />Develop a timeline to carry out the project – one week, a month, a grading period or even a full academic year.<br />Decide how data will be collected and analyzed<br />Implement study – data collection and analysis<br />Report and share findings<br />Classroom Action ResearchAbstract of Classroom Action Research in Language Teaching, YudiJuniardi and John Pahamzah<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Sagor’s Five Step Process<br />Problem formulation<br />Data collection<br />Data analysis<br />Reporting of results<br />Action planning<br /><ul><li>How to Conduct Collaborative Action Research</li></ul>13<br />
  14. 14. Step one<br />Problem Formulation<br />This step, which is described in detail in Chapter 3, helps action researchers identify the issues that are of the greatest professional concern. Researchers identify what they already know about each issue, what they still need to know about it, and their understanding of the variables affecting the issue.<br />Sagor<br />Corresponds to Phases I and II of Five Phases of Action Research, because it involves both identifying the problem and creating a plan of what to do about it.<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Importance of the problem statement<br />“Is a puzzlement” (Rodgers and Hammerstein: The King and I)<br />The problem statement defines the puzzlement which guides the inquiry of the project. Problem statements often take the form of a central question that yields subquestions. <br />Seider, S. (2002, Fall). Syllabus, EDEL 591 Designing Action Research in Elementary/Early Childhood Education (no longer<br />See alsoGuidelines for Developing a Question<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Problem formulation<br />A key characteristic of action research<br />Action research involves puzzling, the identification of a &apos;problem&apos; where there is some doubt about how to proceed. It requires the ability to constantly ask questions (problem definition), in addition to the determination of patterns through the formal tools of systematic audit.<br />Research to Support Schools of Ambition: Annual Report 2007. 4. Summary and conclusions. 4.1 Learning Issues for Schools<br />16<br />
  17. 17. How do I choose a research question to study?<br />The question should be:<br />Focused on your practice<br />Focused on client/student impact<br />Within your control to influence<br />Something you feel passionate about<br />Something you’d like to change<br />Aligned with your professional growth  <br />Action Research Question Formation: 3. Question Characteristics<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Step Two<br />Data Collection<br />Commonly used data collection tools in action research projects include existing archival sources in schools (e.g., attendance reports, standardized test scores, lesson plans, curriculum documents), questionnaires, interviews, observation notes and protocols, videotapes, photographs, journals and diaries, and narratives (e.g., stories told by teachers, see Hartman, 1998).<br />Donato, R. (2003, December). Action Research<br />Hartman, D. K. (1998). Stories teachers tell. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook.<br />See alsoTechniques for Gathering Data<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Step Three<br />Data analysis<br />[Sagor] provides several suggestions, including identifying themes that appear repeatedly in the data, considering how much data support each theme, using a matrix to help see which themes emerge from which data sources, using quotes from participants in the study to represent the themes that emerged from the data, and forming new conclusions about the research question based on the data. The key lies in &quot;looking systematically at all the data collected to see what trends or patterns emerge and what conclusions, if any, can be drawn&quot;(p. 11). However, even if a theme does not come up frequently, the research team may still feel that it is noteworthy.<br />Jacobs, G. Review of Sagor.<br />See also A Process for Analyzing Your Data and Guidelines for Analyzing Your Data<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Step Four<br />Reporting Results<br />One of the nice things about reporting action research is the freedom you have in choosing how to present what you have learned. The professional research community has developed rules and conventions regarding scientific presentation (see, for example, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association) that, while enforcing some degree of rigor through standardization, may also stifle enthusiasm and creativity, both of which are hallmarks of collaborative action research. Since action research reports are developed by and for practitioners, the most important consideration should be to choose a method that will tell the story accurately and effectively. <br />Sagor, ch. 6.<br />20<br />
  21. 21. The Structure of an Action Research Report<br />Introduction<br />A description of the research process<br />An analysis of the data<br />An action plan <br />[AKA Action Planning, i.e. the plan you create in Step Five for what comes next as a result of what you’ve discovered]<br />Sagor, ch. 6<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Step Five<br />Action Planning<br />What is Action Planning?<br />Action planning is a process which will help you to focus your ideas and to decide what steps you need to take to achieve particular goals that you may have. It is a statement on paper of what you want to achieve over a given period of time. Preparing an action plan is a good way to help you to reach your objectives in life. <br />An effective action plan should give you a concrete timetable and set of clearly defined steps to help you to reach your objective, rather than aimlessly wondering what to do next. It helps you to focus your ideas and provides you with an answer to the question ‘‘What do I do to achieve my objective?’’<br />University of Kent &gt; Careers &gt; Employability Skills &gt; Action Planning<br />22<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />The Many Faces of Parent Involvement, p. 86<br />