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New electronics slides

1. 1. 1
2. 2. Basic Parameters  Current: Uniform flow of electrons through a circuit is called current.  Ampere is unit of Current . Its denoted by I  Voltage : Potential Difference between two points or Pressure required push the electrons from one point to another.  Measured in terms of Volts . Denoted by V 2
3. 3. Basic Parameters  Resistance : Opposition to flow of electrons in Circuit/Conductor.  Measured in terms Ohms. Its denoted by R  Impedance : Opposition to flow of Electron in a AC circuit .  Denoted by Z 3
4. 4. Ohms Laws Def : At constant temperature, Potential Difference between the two points in directly proportional to current flowing through it . 4
5. 5. Basic Components  Circuits : Combination of Active & Passive Components connected in required fashion to get meaningful result.  PASSIVE COMP: Comp. which doesn't have any internal capacity to change energy format from one form to another.  Types : Resistor, Capacitor, Inductors 5
6. 6. Passive Components  RESISTOR CAPACITOR INDUCTOR 6
7. 7. Resistor & Types Def : A discrete components which oppose the flow of current . Unit is Ohms Wattage is a power dissipation capacity of Resistor. Types: • Fixed Resistor • Variable Resistor Schematic Diagram 7
8. 8. Fixed Types  Def : With irresprective any parameter changing the value resistor remains constant or fixed.  Colour code Resistor Fusable Resistor 8
9. 9. Fixed types WIRE WOUND RESISTOR 1/8 1/4 1/2 1 2 Resistor Network 5 9
10. 10. Resistor Family Tree RESISTORS LEADED SMT CARBON FILM +/-5% GENERAL PURPOSE METAL FILM THICK FILM METAL OXIDE FILM +/-1% HIGHER PERFORMANCE WIREWOUND HIGH POWER >2W HIGH POWER +/-1% +/-5% GENERAL PURPOSE THIN FILM <+/-1% SPECIAL 10
11. 11. Resistor Family Tree RESISTORS LEADED CARBON FILM METAL FILM    Mature Market Flat Pricing Declining Qty’s SMT Higher cost  Lower volumes   Performance applic driven THICK FILM METAL OXIDE FILM WIRE WOUND THIN FILM Lowest cost  Largest Qty’s  Increasing LT & Pricing for larger sizes (>0805) 11 
12. 12. Application of Fixed Types  Feed Back Circuits  Tuner Circuits  Voltage Divider Circutis  Phase Shift Circuits  Tank Circuits  Filter Circuits 12
13. 13. Resistor colour Code Technique 13
14. 14. Variable Resistor & its types Def: If the value of the resistor can be varied within the given limit, then it is known as variable resistor 14
15. 15. Types of variable resistor Preset Rotatory Potentiometer Cermat Sliding Potentiometers Trimpot Rheostat 15
16. 16. Testing Procedure 16
17. 17. Testing procedure of variable Resistor  Before testing the VR know the value of resistor, select suitable range in Multimeter.  Connect the one probe to variable terminal and another to fixed terminal .  Turn the knob of VR in clock wise & Anti clock wise direction .  Observe the value in MM. 17
18. 18. Application of VR  Volume Controller cum On-Off switch in Radio  Tuner Circuits   18
19. 19. Introduction to Capacitor 19
20. 20. Capacitor  Def : Its two terminal device, consisting of two parallel plate separated by dielectric material which has capacity to store energy in the form charges.  Measured in terms of : Farads  Also indicated by volts  Schematic Symbol : 20
21. 21. Description of Capacitor  It Block DC , Pass AC.  Di-electric used are Glass, Paper, Plastic, Mica, Ceramic, Electrolyte, etc.,  Storage capacity of the capacitor depends on area of the plate, distance between them & type of dielectric used.  Voltage rating indicate the maximum voltage which can be applicable. (VDC)  µ =10-6 f, n = 10-9 f, P=10-12f 21
22. 22. Capacitor Family Tree CAPACITORS ELECTROSTATIC CERAMIC FILM ELECTROLYTIC ALUMINUM TANTALUM • Non polarized • Polarized • AC or DC operation • DC operation • Lower Capacitance • Higher Capacitance 22
23. 23. Markets CAPACITORS ELECTROLYTIC ELECTROSTATIC CERAMIC FILM Biggest market  Lowest Cost  1206 Long LT  0603 & 0402 good choices  Better performance at higher cost  SMT longer LT  ALUMINUM TANTALUM Large Cap at low cost  SMT increasing LT  Price flat on TH  Large Cap in Small Sizes  Long LT  Price Increases on C/ D/ E sizes  23
24. 24. Fixed Capacitors  Def : With irresprective any parameter changing the value capacitor remains constant or fixed.  Types : Polarized & Non-Polarized. Polarized Capacitor : In which capacitor is either charged in +ve or -ve direction . Schematic Symbol: 24
25. 25. Polarized Capacitor Axial Electrolytic Capacitor Radial Electrolytic Capacitor Surface Mount Electrolytic Capacitor 25
26. 26. Polarized Capacitor CAN Capacitor Tantalum Capacitor SMD Tantalum Capacitor Application : Power Supply Circuits, Timer, Coupling Capacitor 26
27. 27. Non-Polarized Caps  Def: which can be charged in only direction or doesn’t have any polarities.  Schematic Symbol:  Types : Ceramic Capacitor 27
28. 28. Conversion tables Dielectric Y5F Cap Value 102 = 1000pF Cap Tolerance C = +/-.25pF K = +/-10% D = +/-.5pF M = +/-20% F = +/-1% Z = +80%/-20% G = +/-2% Dielectric J = +/-5% Y5P Voltage 1KV = 1000VDC Cap Value 103 = 0.01uF Voltage 1KV = 1000VDC Example shown P/N: NCD102K1KVY5F Example shown P/N: NCD103K1KVY5PTR 28
29. 29. Metalized Polyester Film Capacitor Metalized Polypropylene Capacitor Transparent Polymer Film Capacitor High Voltage Film Capacitor 29
30. 30. High Voltage Ceramic Capacitor Multi Layer Ceramic Capacitor Application : Phase Shift Ckt, Noise Filter, Snubber, Motor Stators, Signal Processing 30
31. 31. TRIMMER Variable Capacitor GANG Capacitor APPLICATION : Impedance Matching in Radio , Tuned Ckt, TV Tuners , Oscillators 31
32. 32. Introduction to Inductors 32
33. 33. Inductors DEF: is a passive electrical component that can store energy in a magnetic field created by the electric current passing through it. L Schematic Symbol Measured in HENRY Practically available value will be in terms Micro Henry & Milli Henry. Like capacitors, inductors temporarily store energy. Types of Inductance : Self Inductance & Mutual Inductance 33
34. 34. Behavior & Description • Inductors store energy in a magnetic field, not an electric field. • It Pass DC , Block AC. Along with Henry inductance is abbreviated in terms of Current also. • It’s a coil of wire which can be wound on air or on a Magnetic material. • The number of factors affecting inductance value are : Number of coil turns Diameter of coil. Spacing between turns. Size of the wire used. Type of material inside the coil 34
35. 35. Types of Inductor  Fixed Types: With irrespective any parameter changing, value of inductor remains constant or fixed. Ferrite core Air wound inductor toroidal inductor SMT Inductors 35
37. 37. Variable Inductors  DEF : if the value of the inductor can be varied within the specified limit, then its Variable Inductor. Adjustable Air-Wound Inductor Variable Inductor 37
38. 38. Variable Inductor APPLICATION Tuner CKT Impedance matching Adjustable Inductor 38
39. 39. Transformer  Def: it static devices works on the principle of mutual inductance, which transfer the signal from primary winding to secondary winding Schematic Symbol 39
40. 40. Description & Types  Works on the principle of Mutual Inductance.  Basic Type: Step -Down & Step – Up.  Def : If the secondary windings in greater than primary winding, then is know as Step – Up.  Area of application: R&D Lab, Transmission station.  Def : If the secondary winding is lesser than Primary winding, then it is know as Step-Down.  Area of Application: House Hold Appliance, Labs , Adapter, Mobile Chargers. 40
41. 41. Types of Transformer  Isolation Transformer  Pulse Transformer  Auto Transformer or Variac  Current & Voltage transformer  Leakage Transformer  Intermediate Frequency Transformers. 41
42. 42. Testing Procedure  Two Types of Testing Procedures : a) Cold Check b) Hot Check  Cold check : By using ohmmeter in MM , check the resistance of the Primary & Secondary winding by Connecting the probes of MM to both sides of coil .  Note down the reading  For step down: Secondary resistance will be lesser than Primary  For Step Up: Secondary resistance will be more than Primary 42
43. 43. Introduction to Active Components 43
44. 44.  Def: If a components have inner capacity to change energy format from one form to another, then it is known as Active Components  Its actions can be controlled & it require external source to work  All Semi- Conductor Devices like Diode , Transistors, IC 44
45. 45. Diodes  It’s a two terminal & layer devices formed using P-type & N-types SC, which can conduct in only direction. Its consists of terminal like anode & cathode. Other Diode : • PN Junction Diode • Switching / Signal Diode • Zener Diode • Photo Diode • LED • Schottky Diode • Studs 45
46. 46. Types of diode  PN Junction or  Rectifier Diode  Zener Diode : 46
47. 47.  Signal Diode :  LED : 47
48. 48.  Stud :  SMD Diode : 48
49. 49. Bridge Rectifier 49
50. 50. Testing Procedure • Step 1 : Connect the MM +ve terminal of to anode & -ve terminal to cathode, then diode moves into Forward Bias. • MM will show the value between 0.40 to 0.65. • Step 2 : Connect the MM, - ve terminal to anode & +ve terminal to cathode , then diode move into Reverse Bias. • MM will show the value 0.L • If any one of the condition fails, Diode is faulty 50
51. 51. Transistor  DEF: It’s a three terminal & two junctions devices which transfer signal from low resistance to high resistance region.  Emitter, Base, Collector C NPN B E PNP C B E Schematic Symbol 51
52. 52. Types of transistor  Transistor are Classified into three main groups :  Low Power Commonly used : BC 547, 549, 2n 3904,2n3906, BC 337, BC 639, BEL 188 , 187, BF 194 52
53. 53.  Medium Power : E C B  Commonly Used: Sk 100, BEL 100, CD 100, BD 115, BD 139, BD140, 2N2222, 2N2955, HC100,BC109, 53
54. 54.  High Power : B C E Commonly Used : BUX 84, 2N3055, MJE 13005, KSE 13007,13008, TIP 120,121,122, 2N 2955, TIP 42, 2N 6543, 2N 3773, 2N5685 54
55. 55. Testing Procedure 55
56. 56. Applications  Amplifier  Oscillator  Switching Ckt  Comparator  Series Regulator Ckt  Sensors & Photo Transistor 56
57. 57. Field Effect Transistor N – Channel FET P – Channel FET • It four terminal devices consisting of Drain, Source & Gate(G1 & G2) • Space between the Drain & Source is know as Channel. • It a Current Controlled devices . • It has more advantage than transistor . • Commonly available FET: BFW10,11, 2SK2155,2SK241,2SK3955, BF245c, 57
58. 58. Testing Procedure  Select Diode Operation in MM.  On Condition: Connect +ve terminal to gate & -ve to source. MM should show OL  Verifying On: Connect +ve terminal to Drain & -Ve terminal to Source. MM should show short circuit.  OFF condition: Connect +ve terminal to source & -ve terminal to gate .MM should indicate OL  Verifying Off Condition: Connect +ve terminal to Drain & -ve terminal to Source .MM Should indicate OL  Reverse the MM polarity & check, then MM should indicate resistance value. 58
59. 59. Characteristic & Application  Consume Less Power  High Input Impedance  Low Source to Drain Resistance  Constance current Source Application:  Amplifiers  Analog Switch  Oscillators  Comparators  Sensors 59
60. 60. Uni Junction Transistor  Def : Simply two layer Junction devices works on the principles of Avalanche break Down Schematic Symbol Equivalent circuit Commonly available UJT : 2N2646,2N2642,2N491,2N4871,2N4870, 60
61. 61. Testing Procedure Forward Bias condition Reverse Bias condition 61
62. 62. Application  Relaxation Oscillator  Switching Transistor  Saw tooth Generator 62
63. 63. Integrated Chips  Def : An integrated circuit (IC) is a miniature ,low cost electronic circuit consisting of active and passive components fabricated together on a single crystal of silicon. Schematic Symbol 63
64. 64. Advantages  Miniaturization and hence increased equipment density.  Cost reduction due to batch processing.  Increased system reliability due to the elimination of soldered joints.  Improved functional performance.  Matched devices.  Increased operating speeds.  Reduction in power consumption 64
65. 65. Types  Metal Packages : SIP PACKAGE 65
66. 66. Types Dip Package Flat Quad Package 66
67. 67. Types Micro processors PLCC 67
68. 68. IC Regulator  Def : A higher end regulator which gives a Fixed/Constant voltage output for varying Input voltage. Types of regulator :  +ve regulator  -ve regulator  Variable regulator 68
69. 69. Types  +ve Regulator : Always Identified with 7800 series.  Pin 1 = Input  Pin 2 = GND  Pin 3 = Output  Commonly available : 7805,7809,7812,7815, 7818, 7824. 69
70. 70. Types -ve regulator : Always identified with 79 Series Pin 1 = Ground Pin 2 = Input Pin 3 = Output Commonly available: 7905,7912,7915,7918,7924 70
71. 71. Types  Variable Regulator : Always identified with LM series  Area of Application : Power Supply section, DC Adapter, Chopper Circuits. 71
72. 72. T H A N K Y O U 72