JOFRED M. MARTINEZ, RNCHAPTER 3
Kant’s Ethics (Immanuel Kant) sometimes called deontologism for its emphasison duty or obligation others regard it as a ...
Immanuel Kant
ACT DONE IN ACCORD WITH DUTY AND ACTDONE FROM A SENSE OF DUTYa. Act done in accord with dutyb. Act done from a sense of duty
Categorical Imperative• Kant’s categorical imperative mandates an actionwithout any conditions whatsoever, and withoutrega...
Formulations of Categorical Imperative1. Act only on that maxim which you can at the sametime will to become a universal l...
Types of Duties1. PerfectOne which we must always observe, irrespective oftime and place.2. ImperfectOne which we must obs...
Autonomous Self-Regulating Will• Autonomy means governing, regulating, restrainingoneself, including one’s own choices or ...
Medical Context• First, it is always wrong to lie, no matter what theconsequences may be.• Second, we must always treat pe...
Medical Context4. Fourthly, Kant’s distinction between perfect andimperfect duties suggests that some rights shouldbe reco...
Difficulties1. Kant’s principles have no clear way of resolvingissues of conflicting duties2. The categorical imperative f...
Difficulties3. Kant’s ethics presents problem in connection withthe notion that we have a duty to treat others asrational ...
William David Ross• Though influenced by rule utilitarianism, Ross hasrejected precept that an action is validated as righ...
William David Ross
Rules and Moral PrinciplesAbsolute rules are often insensitive to theconsequences of an act; at times, not only are theyin...
Rightness and GoodnessNeither can be explained or replaced by otherproperties, when it is said that an act is right,rightn...
Actual Duty and Prima Facie Duty• Actual duty – is one’s real duty in a given situation --- it is the action one ought to ...
What to do in such a situation according to Ross arethe following:1. Learn and discern the facts in the case2. Consider th...
Seven Types Of Prima Facie Duties1. Duty of fidelity2. Duty of reparation3. Duty of gratitude4. Duty of justice5. Duty of ...
Duty of FidelityWe should be faithful to our duties, obligations,vows, or pledges; this likewise refers to one’sloyalty to...
Duty of ReparationA duty to make amends for injury that we haveinflicted on others.An act of making amends, righting the w...
Duty of GratitudeA duty to appreciate and recognize the servicesothers have done for us, which may be either afavor, kindn...
Duty of JusticeStresses the proper distribution of socialbenefits and burdens. Not only should we enjoysocial benefits wit...
Duty of BeneficenceEnjoins us not only to bring about what is goodfor others but also to help them better theirconditions ...
Duty of Self-ImprovementA duty to improve and develop oneself withrespect to virtue, intelligence, and happinessIt should ...
Duty of NonmaleficenceDuty to avoid inflicting evil, injury or harm uponothers as we would avoid doing so to ouselves ---w...
Medical ContextIt encourages us to show discernment andsensitivity with regard to the unique aspects of varyingsituations ...
Medical ContextThe list of prima facie duties may serve asmoral guidelines for health care professionals,including researc...
DifficultiesContrary to what Ross seems to suggest, it ispractically impossible for all individuals to be able todiscern t...
Three Aspects of the Theory of Justicea. Every individual is inviolable---the larger sum ofadvantages which is supposedly ...
John Rawls
Three Aspects of the Theory of Justiceb. An erroneous theory is tolerable in the absence ofa good oneAs much as possible, ...
Three Aspects of the Theory of Justicec. Individual liberties should be restricted in order tomaintain equality of opportu...
Three Aspects of the Theory of Justicec. Individual liberties should be restricted in order tomaintain equality of opportu...
Principles of Justicea. Equal access to the basic human rights andprinciples --- this principle defines and securesequal l...
Principles of Justiceb. Fair equality of opportunity and the equaldistribution of socio-economic inequalitiesAs much as th...
Justice in Human Relationsa. fairness in our dealings with othersb. fidelityc. respect for personsd. beneficencee. natural...
Medical ContextRawls recommends the legitimacy of paternalismwhich others should act or decide in our behalfwhenever we ar...
Medical ContextRawls justifies the allocation of social resources forthe training of medical personnel by the benefits tha...
Medical ContextRawls also introduced the concept of an order ofpriority, with regard to equal access to health care,within...
DifficultiesIn Rawls account of a hypothetical communityunder the veil of ignorance, he does not permit thepeople in the o...
DifficultiesDespite his objection against utilitarianism, Rawls’sconcept of justice (“liberties of individuals should bere...
St. Thomas AquinasSo called precisely because there exists a naturalmoral law which is manifested by the natural light ofh...
St. Thomas Aquinas
Voice of Right Reason or Voice of ConscienceThe moral law is the dictate of the voice of reason– “the good must be done, a...
“Thus, whenever I am faced with a particular act,the voice of reason serves as my natural guide inmaking moral decision. S...
Man’s Threefold Natural Inclination1. Self-preservation – urges us to care for our health,not to kill ouselves or put ours...
Determinants of Moral Action1. The ObjectWhat the will intends directly and primarily is theobject of the moral act; it ma...
Determinants of Moral Action2. The CircumstancesThere are conditions which, when superaddedto the nature of the moral act,...
Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances1. Who?This circumstance has something to do with thespecial quality, prest...
Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances2. What?This circumstance refers to the quantity orquality of the moral obj...
Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances3. Where?This circumstance denotes the place where theact occurs
Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances4. By what means?This refers to the means used in carrying outthe act.
Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances5. Why?The end or purpose is considered as acircumstance affecting the good...
Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances6. How?This circumstance indicates the manner inwhich the action is done.
Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances7. When?This circumstance refers to the time elementinvolved in the perform...
Determinants of Moral Action3. The End or PurposeThe end or purpose may be taken either as acircumstance or as the end of ...
The principle applies to a situation in which a goodeffect and an evil effect will result from a good causeWe may have a g...
An individual has the right to cut off, mutilate orremove any defective or worn out non-functioning partof his body; to di...
Principle of StewardshipDeclares that human life comes from God, and noindividual is the master of his/her own body.Humans...
Principle of Inviolability of LifeStates that life is God’s and has been loaned to us,hence it is inviolable and sacred.It...
Principle of Sexuality and ProcreationTwofold Purpose of Sexual Uniona. the procreation and nurturing of childrenb. the ex...
Bioethics Schools of Thought
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Bioethics Schools of Thought

  1. 1. JOFRED M. MARTINEZ, RNCHAPTER 3
  2. 2. Kant’s Ethics (Immanuel Kant) sometimes called deontologism for its emphasison duty or obligation others regard it as a form of intuitionismprecisely because of its claim that morality isexclusively within the human personality; whatis morally right or wrong is solely a matter ofintent, motive and will
  3. 3. Immanuel Kant
  4. 4. ACT DONE IN ACCORD WITH DUTY AND ACTDONE FROM A SENSE OF DUTYa. Act done in accord with dutyb. Act done from a sense of duty
  5. 5. Categorical Imperative• Kant’s categorical imperative mandates an actionwithout any conditions whatsoever, and withoutregard to the consequences that such an actionmay yield• It is a command or maxim that enjoins a person todo such and such an act without qualification; it thuslays down a universal rule which will ensure that theperson is acting from a sense of duty
  6. 6. Formulations of Categorical Imperative1. Act only on that maxim which you can at the sametime will to become a universal law (Paton 1948).2. Always act so as to treat humanity, either yourselfor others, as an end and never as only a means,All cases in which one acts inhumanly againstanother man are ways in which others are treatedas only a means are morally wrong
  7. 7. Types of Duties1. PerfectOne which we must always observe, irrespective oftime and place.2. ImperfectOne which we must observe only on someoccassions.
  8. 8. Autonomous Self-Regulating Will• Autonomy means governing, regulating, restrainingoneself, including one’s own choices or courses ofaction, in accord with moral principles which areone’s own and which are binding on everyone
  9. 9. Medical Context• First, it is always wrong to lie, no matter what theconsequences may be.• Second, we must always treat people as ends andnot only as means• Third, an action is right and legitimate insofar as itsatisfies the categorical imperative
  10. 10. Medical Context4. Fourthly, Kant’s distinction between perfect andimperfect duties suggests that some rights shouldbe recognized ----- in a doctor-patient relationship,for example, the physician has an imperfect duty toaccept one as a patient - that is, how hedischarges his duty is his own decision, his ownprerogative, his own right
  11. 11. Difficulties1. Kant’s principles have no clear way of resolvingissues of conflicting duties2. The categorical imperative fails to establish dutiesin cases involving maxims that cannot be willed tobecome a universal law of subjective reasons
  12. 12. Difficulties3. Kant’s ethics presents problem in connection withthe notion that we have a duty to treat others asrational beings or persons – this problem is aserious one with regard to the moral issue ofabortiona. Is a fetus that is developing in its mother’s womb– be itdeformed or not, considered a person?b. Is an infant born with serious physical deformities arational being?
  13. 13. William David Ross• Though influenced by rule utilitarianism, Ross hasrejected precept that an action is validated as rightby its consequences• The outcomes of an act -- however beneficial andpleasant they may be for many individuals -- maynot determine its rightness
  14. 14. William David Ross
  15. 15. Rules and Moral PrinciplesAbsolute rules are often insensitive to theconsequences of an act; at times, not only are theyin conflict with one another but they are alsoinflexible that they become irrelevant to ever-changing situations.
  16. 16. Rightness and GoodnessNeither can be explained or replaced by otherproperties, when it is said that an act is right,rightness is the moral property of that act – but it isnot identical with the act per se, a right act canoriginate from a morally bad motive.
  17. 17. Actual Duty and Prima Facie Duty• Actual duty – is one’s real duty in a given situation --- it is the action one ought to choose from amongany other actions• Prima facie duty – is one that directs or commandswhat ought to perform when other relevant factorsare not taken into account
  18. 18. What to do in such a situation according to Ross arethe following:1. Learn and discern the facts in the case2. Consider the possible consequences of ouractions3. Reflect on our prima facie duties4. Decide on the best course of action under thecircumstances
  19. 19. Seven Types Of Prima Facie Duties1. Duty of fidelity2. Duty of reparation3. Duty of gratitude4. Duty of justice5. Duty of beneficence6. Duty of self-improvement7. Duty of nonmaleficence
  20. 20. Duty of FidelityWe should be faithful to our duties, obligations,vows, or pledges; this likewise refers to one’sloyalty to a worthy cause, telling the truth as thesituation demands it, keeping actual and implicitpromises, and not representing fiction as truth.
  21. 21. Duty of ReparationA duty to make amends for injury that we haveinflicted on others.An act of making amends, righting the wrongswe have done to others.Also known as the duty of compensation.
  22. 22. Duty of GratitudeA duty to appreciate and recognize the servicesothers have done for us, which may be either afavor, kindness, good fortune, a great help, orsaving one’s life
  23. 23. Duty of JusticeStresses the proper distribution of socialbenefits and burdens. Not only should we enjoysocial benefits with others, but we should alsoequally share with them the burdens of social living.
  24. 24. Duty of BeneficenceEnjoins us not only to bring about what is goodfor others but also to help them better theirconditions with respect to virtue, intelligence, orcomfortRequires the provision of benefits and balancingof benefits and harm for all people concerned in agiven circumstance
  25. 25. Duty of Self-ImprovementA duty to improve and develop oneself withrespect to virtue, intelligence, and happinessIt should go hand-in-hand with other duties, forunless one performs or carries out one’s duty tooneself, the fulfillment of one’s other duties wouldbe less effective.
  26. 26. Duty of NonmaleficenceDuty to avoid inflicting evil, injury or harm uponothers as we would avoid doing so to ouselves ---we ought to prevent evil or harm, whichencompasses pain, suffering, disability and death.
  27. 27. Medical ContextIt encourages us to show discernment andsensitivity with regard to the unique aspects of varyingsituations before making a decision.It urges us to be judicious, prudent, and flexible inthe light of the facts at hand then explore thepossibilities of our decisions --- our moral guideshould be not what is useful, but what is right.
  28. 28. Medical ContextThe list of prima facie duties may serve asmoral guidelines for health care professionals,including researchers--- such a list prompts healthpersonnel responsible for patient care to reflect onthese duties and to choose the one that best appliesto a particular situation
  29. 29. DifficultiesContrary to what Ross seems to suggest, it ispractically impossible for all individuals to be able todiscern the same moral principles and prima faciedutiesOne’s perception of what is right and wrong, aswell as of one’s duties, is the by-product of one’seducation, training and experience
  30. 30. Three Aspects of the Theory of Justicea. Every individual is inviolable---the larger sum ofadvantages which is supposedly to be enjoyed bythe many should not outweigh the sacrifices orinconveniences to be imposed on a few.
  31. 31. John Rawls
  32. 32. Three Aspects of the Theory of Justiceb. An erroneous theory is tolerable in the absence ofa good oneAs much as possible, when given twoerroneous laws, one should choose the better andthe less erroneous one.An act of injustice, for instance, can be toleratedif and only if it is necessary to avoid an evengreater act of injustice.
  33. 33. Three Aspects of the Theory of Justicec. Individual liberties should be restricted in order tomaintain equality of opportunity.Liberties of equal citizenship are of paramountimportance in a just societyIndividual rights are not subject to politicalbargaining or compromise
  34. 34. Three Aspects of the Theory of Justicec. Individual liberties should be restricted in order tomaintain equality of opportunity.Liberties of equal citizenship are of paramountimportance in a just societyIndividual rights are not subject to politicalbargaining or compromise
  35. 35. Principles of Justicea. Equal access to the basic human rights andprinciples --- this principle defines and securesequal liberties of citizenshipOur basic rights and liberties include the right tovote and to be eligible for public office, freedom ofspeech and peaceable assembly.
  36. 36. Principles of Justiceb. Fair equality of opportunity and the equaldistribution of socio-economic inequalitiesAs much as the availability of resources willallow, everyone should be given an opportunity forself-development or to receive medical treatment.
  37. 37. Justice in Human Relationsa. fairness in our dealings with othersb. fidelityc. respect for personsd. beneficencee. natural duties – the duty of justice, the duty ofhelping others in need or in jeopardy, the dutynot to harm or injure others, and the duty tokeep our promises
  38. 38. Medical ContextRawls recommends the legitimacy of paternalismwhich others should act or decide in our behalfwhenever we are unable to make decision by and forourselves --- for instance, should we become mentallyincompetent.
  39. 39. Medical ContextRawls justifies the allocation of social resources forthe training of medical personnel by the benefits that itwill yield to society in general --- likewise, hesanctions the voluntary consent of an individual tobecome a research subject, by virtue of his basic rightto decide on what risks he is willing to take with hisown life
  40. 40. Medical ContextRawls also introduced the concept of an order ofpriority, with regard to equal access to health care,within the context of the principles of equal opportunityand equal distribution of socio-medical resources.
  41. 41. DifficultiesIn Rawls account of a hypothetical communityunder the veil of ignorance, he does not permit thepeople in the original position to know their goals,plans, interests, and purposes, but only their self-respect, wealth and rationality
  42. 42. DifficultiesDespite his objection against utilitarianism, Rawls’sconcept of justice (“liberties of individuals should berestricted, provided that such restrictions are for thebenefit of everyone”) refers to the utility principle orprinciple of the greatest number.
  43. 43. St. Thomas AquinasSo called precisely because there exists a naturalmoral law which is manifested by the natural light ofhuman reason, demanding the preservation of thenatural order and forbidding its violationIn Aquinas’s view, the source of the moral law isreason itself. Reason directs us towards the good asthe goal of our action, and that good is discoverablewithin our nature
  44. 44. St. Thomas Aquinas
  45. 45. Voice of Right Reason or Voice of ConscienceThe moral law is the dictate of the voice of reason– “the good must be done, and evil, avoided”.How are we to determine whether we are actingrightly or wrongly?If we follow the voice of reason we are actingrightly, we are acting wrongly if we act against it
  46. 46. “Thus, whenever I am faced with a particular act,the voice of reason serves as my natural guide inmaking moral decision. Similarly, I know I am doingthe right thing if and when I follow the voice of myconscience; otherwise , I feel a sense of guilt, self-reproach, or remorse. This explains why someThomists say we cannot run away from ourconscience, as Judas Iscariot allegedly tried when hebetrayed Jesus”
  47. 47. Man’s Threefold Natural Inclination1. Self-preservation – urges us to care for our health,not to kill ouselves or put ourselves in danger2. Just dealings with others – reason by nature leadsus to treat others with the same dignity andrespect that we accord ourselves3. Propagation of our species – we are naturallyinclined to perpetuate our species which is viewedas a natural good
  48. 48. Determinants of Moral Action1. The ObjectWhat the will intends directly and primarily is theobject of the moral act; it may be either a thing (forexample, money), or an action (such as surgicaloperation).
  49. 49. Determinants of Moral Action2. The CircumstancesThere are conditions which, when superaddedto the nature of the moral act, will affect itsmorality, they are called the circumstances.“Will affect its morality” means that a givencircumstance or a set of circumstances will eithermitigate or aggravate the goodness or badness ofa particular act.
  50. 50. Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances1. Who?This circumstance has something to do with thespecial quality, prestige, rank or excellence of theperson involved in the moral act.
  51. 51. Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances2. What?This circumstance refers to the quantity orquality of the moral object.
  52. 52. Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances3. Where?This circumstance denotes the place where theact occurs
  53. 53. Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances4. By what means?This refers to the means used in carrying outthe act.
  54. 54. Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances5. Why?The end or purpose is considered as acircumstance affecting the goodness or badness ofthe actionIf the act itself is bad and is still carried out witha bad purpose, the said act becomes much worse
  55. 55. Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances6. How?This circumstance indicates the manner inwhich the action is done.
  56. 56. Determinants of Moral ActionSeven Circumstances7. When?This circumstance refers to the time elementinvolved in the performance of the action, not onlywith regard to quantity but to quality as well.
  57. 57. Determinants of Moral Action3. The End or PurposeThe end or purpose may be taken either as acircumstance or as the end of the agent, for it is anintegral part of every moral act in either sense.A good act with a moral motive makes the moralaction bad,likewise, we may not employ an evilmeans in order to attain a good end.
  58. 58. The principle applies to a situation in which a goodeffect and an evil effect will result from a good causeWe may have a good action which will yield twoeffects, a good one and an evil one, how are we tosolve this question?
  59. 59. An individual has the right to cut off, mutilate orremove any defective or worn out non-functioning partof his body; to dispose of his organs or to destroy theircapacity to function “only insofar as the general well-being of the whole body requires it.
  60. 60. Principle of StewardshipDeclares that human life comes from God, and noindividual is the master of his/her own body.Humans are only mere stewards or caretakers ,with the responsibility of protecting and cultivatingspiritual and bodily functions.
  61. 61. Principle of Inviolability of LifeStates that life is God’s and has been loaned to us,hence it is inviolable and sacred.It is only God who has complete control anddominion over life, our duty is to take care of it untilGod takes it back from us.
  62. 62. Principle of Sexuality and ProcreationTwofold Purpose of Sexual Uniona. the procreation and nurturing of childrenb. the expression of loving union and companionship

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