EDCI 803 Final Presentation (paper submitted)


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This is the paper submitted to Dr. Kim based upon my interview with Dr. Russell Blackbird at Haskell Indian Nations University. Dr. Blackbird is a K-State graduate and he is the Dean of Education. His teacher preparation program is culturally relevant for the prospective elementary teacher candidates who graduate from HINU.

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EDCI 803 Final Presentation (paper submitted)

  1. 1. Running Head: HINU Teacher Education Haskell Indian Nations University Teacher Education Curriculum: An Interview with Dr. Russell Blackbird by Joelyn K. Foy 785-537-9084 (landline) or 785-764-2129 (cell) Jo is a Ph.D. student in Curriculum & Instruction at Kansas State University. She has taught one year of Biology (I and II) in the Kansas City Kansas Public Schools, two fall semesters of DED 051 (Math Review) for the PILOTS program at K-State, and subbed three class periods for Elementary Algebra at Cloud County Community College, Junction City. Jo assisted Dr. Larry Scharmann in the supervision of secondary science and math student teachers for 7 regular semesters ending in May 2009. She wants to teach at least two years of secondary math before moving into high education. Her burning research question is: Can we get students involved with teachers in adjusting curriculum for ethnic minority students? Alternatively, how does Kansas State University perform within the interventions (PILOTS, studio courses, multicultural initiatives) for entering ethnic minority students? Kansas State University July 26, 2009
  2. 2. HINU Teacher Education 2 Abstract Dr. Russell L. Blackbird, Dean of Education, School of Education, Haskell Indian Nations University explains how curriculum for the elementary teacher education program is developed, implemented and evaluated. The teacher education program is holistic (Eisner), socially reconstructive (Counts) and student-driven (Dewey). Dr. Blackbird stresses that their program has a cultural emphasis because the purpose of their program is to provide elementary school students for reservation schools. Subject matter and society are focal points of the curriculum, where the individual is de-emphasized as tribal culture and sovereignty are explicitly valued and taught. Only about 30% of Haskell’s professional education graduates take teaching positions in reservation schools. Therefore, the teacher education curriculum must include the same subject and professional standards as any other accredited teacher education program in Kansas. Their motto is: We prepare highly qualified educators to teach all children. This paper provides a unique, first-hand view of teacher education for the 21st century from an ethnic minority perspective.
  3. 3. HINU Teacher Education 3 Curriculum development, implementation and evaluation with a cultural perspective is very important in the School of Education at Haskell Indian Nations University (HINU) in Lawrence, Kansas. Dr. Russell Blackbird, an Omaha of Nebraska tribal member, spent the last four years designing and improving the teacher education program resulting in accreditation by the Kansas Department of Education (KSDE) for kindergarten through sixth grade (K-6). The School of Education at HINU aims to “prepare highly qualified teachers of all children”, but their hope is that their professional education graduates will return to reservation schools (R. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009). Everything in their curriculum supports that hope. Like many professional educators, Dr. Blackbird started his career as an elementary school teacher. He served as a professional educator for 31 years in the Lawrence Public Schools ending his career as the principal of South Junior High for 10 years. Dr. Blackbird retired in 2005. When Dr. Blackbird conducted his Ph.D. research he found that Native American children learn better from Native American teachers (Blackbird, 2004). Therefore, when he was called to replace the former Dean of the School of Education, he accepted the role as something he was not only prepared to do, but as a role for which he has a lot of passion. As an educator in the Lawrence Public Schools, I often recruited for Lawrence Public Schools for ethnic minority teachers. I visited most of the state universities and colleges in Kansas and in the Midwest. When I would go, I would rarely find a teacher candidate who was an ethnic minority. So my concern began to be, “there are no Native teachers for Native children,” yet I found that Native children learn best from Native teachers. That was very much a concern of mine. And I wanted to understand the reasons why Native students were not going into teacher education. When this job became available it
  4. 4. HINU Teacher Education 4 was just like, this is what I was researching, this is what I wanted to do … so this has been a very exciting venture for me. (R. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009) As they say, “the proof is in the pudding”, and in 2008 the HINU School of Education was certified by KSDE and NCATE (National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education) for K-6 (R. L. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009). This means that HINU has met the national and state guidelines and professional standards for teacher licensure at the elementary level. This paper will review and analyze Dr. Blackbird’s remarks from a videotaped interview in his office on July 16, 2009. A brief history of Native American education will provide a context for understanding the significance of HINU as a preparatory program for Native elementary classroom teachers. The analysis will consist of comparing and contrasting concepts of curriculum development presented in EDCI 803 at Kansas State University through the textbook materials and online discussions with the somewhat unique needs and circumstances of the School of Education at Haskell Indian Nations University. The review and analysis will focus primarily on the teacher education curriculum which Dr. Blackbird oversees, but some comments also pertain to how HINU graduates are prepared for the K-6 environment in both Native and non-Native schools. Professional educators in the 21st century will find in this review and analysis a unique opportunity to view curriculum development from a non-White, ethnic minority perspective.
  5. 5. HINU Teacher Education 5 A Brief Review of Native American Education Today, Native American children have three choices. They can attend a reservation school (if it exists) administered by the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE), they can attend a public school (either on the reservation or off the reservation) administered by state education departments and local school districts or they can attend a boarding school administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). There are no boarding schools left in Kansas today; the closest boarding schools are Riverside Indian School, Anadarko, Oklahoma and Flandreau Indian School, Flandreau, South Dakota although there are additional boarding schools in the southwest (Dr. Russell Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009). From the Diversity Summit talk by Wilma Mankiller on April 3, 2009 at Kansas State University, if the parents attended a boarding school, it is more likely that their children will attend a boarding school. But the boarding schools have a sordid history. From the time that Europeans began to settle in what would become the United States there were various initiatives to assimilate Native American people into Northern European or White culture and society. Perhaps the most organized effort at assimilation came in the form of boarding schools. Wilma Mankiller (1993) notes that it wasn’t until 1878 that “boarding schools were established for Native American children off reservation lands. Students were punished for speaking their native languages and practicing their own religious beliefs” (p. 285). The Carlisle Indian School, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, was established by an army officer, Richard Henry Pratt (Urban & Wagoner, 2004, p. 167). Pratt’s motto was: “Kill the Indian in him and save the man” (p. 168). Native American children did not go quietly from their tribal communities to the boarding schools; resistance took the form of “open defiance, running away, passive disobedience, and torching buildings” (Urban & Wagoner, 2004, p. 169). By 1905, “twenty-five
  6. 6. HINU Teacher Education 6 off-reservation boarding schools were founded” (p. 168). Some of the practices of the boarding schools included: “students were forbidden to speak their language”; “students had no privacy”; “students were expected to spy on one another and were pitted against each other by administrators and teachers”; students were taught that the “Indian way of life was savage and inferior to the White way”; students were told that “Indian people who retained their culture were stupid, dirty, and backwards”; and student education was “focused on learning manual skills such as cooking and cleaning for girls and milking cows and carpentry for boys” (Porterfield, 2003). Fortunately, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) put an end to the abuses common in the early boarding schools. Legislation in the twentieth century restructured the BIA such that it began to serve a role more conducive to Native Americans retaining their culture and tribal sovereignty. “The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 introduced the teaching of Indian history and culture in BIA schools” (Bureau of Indian Education, 2009). In 2006 the entity within the Bureau of Indian Affairs that administered tribal schools was renamed the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE). “In school year 2007-2008, the 184 Bureau-funded elementary and secondary schools, located on 64 reservations in 23 states, served approximately 48,000 Indian students. Of these, 59 are BIE- operated and 125 are tribally operated under BIE contracts or grants” (Bureau of Indian Education, 2009). “The BIE directly operates two post secondary institutions: the Haskell Indian Nations University (HINU) in Lawrence, Kansas, and Southwest Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) in Albuquerque, New Mexico” (Bureau of Indian Education, 2009). Contrary to the mission of Pratt at Carlisle, the BIE mission is to “…provide quality education opportunities from early childhood through life in accordance with the tribes’ needs to cultural and economic well being in keeping with the
  7. 7. HINU Teacher Education 7 wide diversity of Indian tribes and Alaska Native villages as distinct cultural and governmental entities. The Bureau considers the whole person (spiritual, mental, physical and cultural aspects).” (Indian Affairs – About Us, 2009) The BIE takes a holistic approach to the Native American child and his/her place within the tribe and within tribal communities. Haskell Indian Nations University started as a boarding school in 1884 with 22 children. It was called the United States Indian Industrial Training School. Within ten years, a teacher education program was added and in the early years of the 20th century, Haskell ruled in athletics. The last high school class was graduated in 1965, which is why you will run into graduates of the boarding school days still living in Lawrence. From junior college status in 1970, Haskell was approved as a four-year university in 1992.i It is one of only several Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs) that offers four-year degrees in the country. Definition of the Teacher Education Curriculum How is the teacher education program different from other universities? Teacher education programs are accredited through KSDE and NCATE, so all teacher education programs in Kansas have the same requirements. However, at HINU all of the students are Native American, which is quite different from other teacher education programs in Kansas. Native teachers have life experiences being Native and what they have gone through and so they understand where these students are coming from … their lifestyles, the culture … which is very rich and how at times it conflicts with White society and how they have
  8. 8. HINU Teacher Education 8 to intermesh with the standards of any state education department. (R. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009) The emphasis at HINU on maintaining tribal sovereignty and culture is infused into every course. There are over 300 tribal nations represented at HINU. Students are expected to write their lesson plans and assessments from a cultural perspective. When Eisner (2002) describes the three curricula that all schools teach (explicit, implicit or hidden, and null), he explains that the culture of the school is part of the implicit curriculum. “Thus, the implicit curriculum of the school is what it teaches because of the kind of place it is” (p. 97). At HINU the emphasis on tribal sovereignty and retaining tribal culture is not hidden; that cultural mandate is part of the explicit curriculum at HINU. This characteristic is unique to HINU’s teacher education program. How is it different to serve the Native K-6 population? Dr. Blackbird makes a strong point for HINU preparing elementary teachers for reservation schools. Dr. Blackbird found from his Ph.D. research that Native American students learn better from Native American teachers (Blackbird, 2004). When HINU graduates go to teach in reservation schools, they must take into account the needs and perspectives of the tribe they are serving. Therefore, one of Dr. Blackbird’s courses (Governance and Organizations) focuses on culture, and how it influences education in reservation schools. For example, there are some tribes that are really moving toward language immersion or cultural immersion … where teachers must be fluent in the tribal language. Science, social studies, math are all taught in the tribal language. (R. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009)
  9. 9. HINU Teacher Education 9 In addition, students in the professional education program at HINU come from many different high schools. Some are bilingual (that is, English plus their tribal language), some of them are not; and a few students learn English for the first time when they come to college (R. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009). The professional conversations among HINU students and between Dr. Blackbird and students promote cultural sensitivity and understanding. “We need to provide opportunities for youngsters and adolescents to engage in challenging kinds of conversation, and we need to help them learn how to do so” (Eisner, 2009, p. 329). Through the quality of conversation in classrooms, the teacher education program at HINU is tackling one of the deeper problems of schooling. Do Haskell graduates face different challenges with non-Native K-6 populations? Dr. Blackbird stresses that although HINU’s emphasis is on providing elementary school teachers for the reservation schools, many of their students (approximately 70%) take teaching positions in non-Native schools. In addition, HINU students do their student teaching in the Lawrence Public Schools. Dr. Blackbird strives to prepare his student teachers for the dysconscious racism that they will experience as an ethnic minority teacher in the classroom. A year did not go by that I did not experience racism … so I prepare our students by sharing how I handled it. My cultural beliefs come out at that time. It reflects how my tribal elders raised me. They begin to understand that they may not be accepted by all of the parents or the children where they are student teaching. (R. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009) Dr. Blackbird (personal communication, July 16, 2009) explains within the context of the Governance and Organizations course that if you are an ethnic minority in this country, you are going to experience racism. However, there are ways to deal with racism in appropriate ways,
  10. 10. HINU Teacher Education 10 and he strives to share with his students some of the ways that have been successful for him over the years. Issues of and Challenges to the Teacher Education Curriculum The greatest challenge to the teacher education curriculum at HINU is the non-Native attitude toward maintaining tribal sovereignty and culture. Dr. Blackbird stresses how important it is for Native peoples to maintain their culture. Sometimes I think it is difficult for the state department to really understand how important it is for our students to teach courses from the Native perspective for the cultural enrichment … of the curriculum … is so important for our Native students because tribal sovereignty, retaining our culture, is so important to us as a people and sometimes it is hard to demonstrate that to the state department … that is what we want to do and still meet the content standards and the professional standards that the state department requires us to meet. (R. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009) As a thought experiment, it is helpful to imagine if the shoe were on the other foot. What if the Native KSDE and NCATE representatives were coming to Kansas State University with content and professional standards that reinforce a Native American point of view, but the White faculty and students felt it was terribly important to maintain a Northern European cultural perspective. Dr. Blackbird stresses that in 2008 they were able to meet the state and national standards for accreditation (R. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009). Despite a certain amount of dysconscious racism on the part of the all-White accreditation committee(s), the School of Education at HINU is able now to graduate and certify highly qualified teachers of all children.
  11. 11. HINU Teacher Education 11 Curriculum Implementation and Evaluation Who is involved in planning and developing the teacher education curriculum? The curriculum implementation perspective that most exemplifies HINU’s School of Education is the process perspective. Although Dr. Blackbird did not use this term, his description fits well with the adaptation or mutual adaptation approach (Marsh & Willis, 2007, p. 224). “We look at the assessments that are in place. At the end of the school year we look at the data and we decide what needs to change” (R. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009). Dr. Blackbird and his faculty are involved in curriculum evaluation and development. Who decides when/how the teacher education curriculum is changed? Dr. Blackbird (personal communication, July 16, 2009) reserves the last three weeks in May of each year to review, analyze, and evaluate the curriculum. Faculty and students are involved. Students complete exit interviews to help with this process. Although NCATE and KSDE prescribe standards, it is the faculty and students who decide whether the HINU curriculum is meeting the need. Together adjustments are planned, and those adjustments are implemented in the fall semester. How are the changes implemented? The faculty implements the changes decided upon in May in the fall semester. This cycle of teaching, evaluating and analyzing, adjusting and teaching has been successful for four years under Dr. Blackbird’s guidance (personal communication, July 16, 2009). Accreditation is the outcome of this successful cycle of curriculum implementation and evaluation.
  12. 12. HINU Teacher Education 12 Curriculum Approaches within the Teacher Education Curriculum What curriculum approaches are taught? This question applies not only to how the School of Education teaches, but also to how graduates are taught to view curriculum in their own classroom. It is clear from Dr. Blackbird’s other responses that a holistic approach to curriculum is not only being taught to teacher education students, but is being utilized within the teacher education curriculum. In addition, subjects that might be considered a part of the null curriculum are taught explicitly (Eisner, 2002). We have four areas that we focus on … we call it health and wellness … a lot of that is emphasized in that course. It is a course that is offered each semester in their junior and senior year. There is a little bit of spirituality; some physical as a knowledge base and then the cultural piece is there. (R. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009) In addition, the teacher education program has some aspects of Dewey’s progressive educationii and of Counts’ social reconstructionismiii. But there is a twist. From the time of the boarding schools Native American children were expected to conform to White assimilation standards. Since the 1970’s and the revitalization of the American Indian Movement, Native American people have been embracing their cultural ties more insistently (Wittstock & Salinas, n.d.). Social reconstruction for a Cherokee child in Oklahoma might, then, consist of learning the Cherokee syllabary for the first time. Using Sleeter and Stillman’s (2009) terminology, the teacher education curriculum at HINU and the methods of curriculum development in the elementary classroom taught, reflect an integrated code where the curriculum contents are weakly classified and knowledge is constructed rather than an accumulated set of facts and concepts. Education then becomes something that
  13. 13. HINU Teacher Education 13 strengthens the tribal culture rather than leading to greater assimilation into a dominant White culture that is rapidly approaching minority status. What are the focal points of the teacher education curriculum? When the focal points of subject matter, society and the individual were described to Dr. Blackbird, he responded quickly with “well, the standards determine the subject matter” (R. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009). Subject matter focus is consistent with Ralph W. Tyler’s rational-linear approach to curriculum (Marsh & Willis, 2007, p. 73). However, the teacher education curriculum at HINU also incorporates Elliott Eisner’s more open-ended process (p. 87). Society is strongly emphasized as well. … we look at society simply because we prepare our students for what they may face if they do not go to a Native community and then again what they face when they go back to their Native community or a Native community that is not their tribe, not their culture. So we prepare them from that perspective. Especially … a lot of that comes out in my Governance and Organizations class when I talk about if you go into public schools, this is what you’re going to face … understanding their values versus Native values … and be successful as an educator. Those kinds of things are important. So it is a little bit of both [subject matter and society] that we do. (R. Blackbird, personal communication, July 16, 2009) Cultural emphasis in the teacher education curriculum at HINU relates strongly to the societal focal point. In tribal communities the individual takes a backseat. It is the responsibility of the individual to work for the good of the entire tribe or clan. Our program is a cohort system. We encourage a lot of cooperation. Cooperative learning is kind of the best strategy through which they learn. But the cohort model that
  14. 14. HINU Teacher Education 14 we have here gives the students a way to work together as a group, as they go through the program. For those tribes that have clans, this is how they survived because each clan had a responsibility. Each clan depended on each other for their survival. In a cohort model they encourage each other, they study together, they become very close. When one person is lagging behind, they will say to each other, “you need to pick it up because Dr. Blackbird will dismiss you’. … If you are in the program and there is no way I’m going to hire you … you will be counseled out of the program … I’m really dedicated to developing quality teachers for our Native people and for all children. This is diametrically opposed to White culture where, no matter what, the individual is rewarded for outstanding performanceiv. Eisner (2002) describes the tension between compliance and competitiveness as a part of the implicit curriculum (p. 91). In the HINU teacher education program cooperation is explicitly included in the curriculum. Cooperation is validated by Dr. Blackbird’s support and personal value for each student. Conclusions Dr. Blackbird’s approach to curriculum development, implementation, and evaluation plus his professional education experience in the Lawrence Public Schools make him the ideal leader for the School of Education at Haskell Indian Nations University. As an Omaha of Nebraska tribal member, he has direct experience with the important influences of tribal culture for Native students. With 300 nations represented on the HINU campus, Dr. Blackbird leads his teacher education students through discussions and methods courses that capitalize on the need for Native tribal communities to maintain their sovereignty. Dr. Blackbird’s curriculum is holistic, socially reconstructive, and student-driven; showing the influences of Eisner, Counts
  15. 15. HINU Teacher Education 15 and Dewey. At the same time the teacher education program at HINU is providing teachers for non-Native schools who are prepared for multicultural and globally aware classrooms in any state in the Union. Students apply what they learn in the classroom to their lives outside the classroom; they become not only the visionaries, the enactment of the vision. Dr. Blackbird’s leadership and success provide 21st century professional educators with a unique view of curriculum development from an ethnic minority perspective.
  16. 16. HINU Teacher Education 16 Works Cited Blackbird, R. L. (2004). Understanding the reasons why Native American students are not entering the teaching profession. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65(04), 1323A. (AAT 3132156) Retrieved July 25, 2009 from the ProQuest database. Bureau of Indian Education (BIE). (2009). Retrieved July 25, 2009 from http://www.doi.gov/bia/bie.html. Counts, G. (2009). Dare the School Build a New Social Order?. In Flinders, David J. and Thornton, Stephen J. (eds). The curriculum studies reader. (pp. 45-51). New York: Routledge. Dewey, J. (1915/1902/1990). School and Society & The Child and the Curriculum. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Dewey, J. (2009). My Pedagogic Creed. In Flinders, David J. and Thornton, Stephen J. (eds). The curriculum studies reader. (pp. 34-41). New York: Routledge. Eisner, E. (2002). The Three Curricula That All Schools Teach. In The educational imagination: on the design and evaluation of school programs (3rd ed.). Merrill Prentice Hall. Eisner, E. W. (2009). What Does it Mean to Say a School is doing Well?. In Flinders, David J. and Thornton, Stephen J. (eds). The curriculum studies reader. (pp. 327-335). New York: Routledge. Indian Affairs – About Us. (2009). Retrieved July 30, 2009 from http://www.doi.gov/bia/about_us.html. Mankiller, W. (1993). Mankiller: a chief and her people. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.
  17. 17. HINU Teacher Education 17 Marsh, C. & Willis, G. (2007). 4th Ed. Curriculum: alternative approaches, ongoing issues. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall. Porterfield, K. M. (2003). American Indian boarding schools. Retrieved July 25, 2009 from http://www.kporterfield.com/aicttw/articles/boardingschool.html. School History. (2008). About Haskell. Retrieved July 25, 2009 from http://www.haskell.edu/about.html. Sleeter, C. & Stillman, J. (2009). Standardizing Knowledge in a Multicultural Society. In Flinders, David J. and Thornton, Stephen J. (eds). The curriculum studies reader. (pp. 303-317). New York: Routledge. Urban, W. J. & Wagoner, J. L. (2004). American education: a history (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Wittstock, L. W. & Salinas, E. J. (n.d.). A Brief History of the American Indian Movement. Retrieved July 27, 2009 from http://www.aimovement.org/ggc/history.html.
  18. 18. HINU Teacher Education 18 Other Sources American Indian Higher Education Consortium. (2009). Retrieved July 30, 2009 from http://www.aihec.org/index.cfml. American Indian Science and Engineering Society. (2009). Retrieved July 30, 2009 from http://www.aises.org/. Flandreau Indian School. (n.d.). Welcome to Flandreau Indian School!. Retrieved July 25, 2009 from http://www.fis.bia.edu/. Riverside Indian School. (2008). Welcome to the RIS website!. Retrieved July 25, 2009 from http://www.ris.bia.edu/. Wellbriety Journey for Forgiveness. (2009). Haskell Indian Nations University—Lawrence, KS, June 5, 2009: Seasons of Sacrifice, Survival, Change and Celebration. Retrieved July 25, 2009 from http://www.whitebison.org/wellbriety-journey/News090606-haskell- indian-nations.htm. White House Initiative on Tribal Colleges and Universities. (2009). Retrieved July 30, 2009 from http://www.ed.gov/about/inits/list/whtc/edlite-index.html.
  19. 19. HINU Teacher Education 19 Footnotes i Source: http://www.haskell.edu/about.html ii Dewey, 1990, p. 75, Chapter 3: Waste in Education From the standpoint of the child, the great waste in the school comes from his inability to utilize the experiences he gets outside the school in any complete and free way within the school itself; while, on the other hand, he is unable to apply in daily life what he is learning at school. That is the isolation of the school – its isolation from life. Dewey, 2009, p. 34, Chapter 3: My Pedagogic Creed, Article One – What Education Is: . . . all education proceeds by the participation of the individual in the social consciousness of the race. This process begins unconsciously almost at birth, and is continually shaping the individual’s powers, saturating his consciousness, forming his habits, training his ideas, and arousing his feelings and emotions. Through this unconscious education, the individual gradually comes to share in the intellectual and moral resources which humanity has succeeded in getting together. He becomes an inheritor of the funded capital of civilization. The most formal and technical education in the world cannot safely depart from this general process. It can only organize it or differentiate it in some particular direction. iii Counts, 2009, p. 46, Chapter 5, Dare the School Build a New Social Order? Education as a force for social regeneration must march hand in hand with the living and creative forces of the social order. In their own lives teachers must bridge the gap between school and society and play some part in the fashioning of those great common purposes which should bind the two together.
  20. 20. HINU Teacher Education 20 Counts, 2009, p. 48 If the schools are to be really effective, they must become centers for the building, and not merely for the contemplation, of our civilization. This does not mean that we should endeavor to promote particular reforms through the educational system. We should, however, give to our children a vision of the possibilities which lie ahead and endeavor to enlist their loyalties and enthusiasms in the realization of the vision. Also our social institutions and practices, all of them, should be critically examined in the light of such a vision. iv McIntosh, 2009, p. 388, Chapter 32, Gender Perspectives on Educating for Global Citizenship What is rewarded in them [white males], however, is solo risk-taking and individualism, and if they are white males, a go-it-alone and ‘damn-the-torpedoes’ kind of bravery without a balanced regard for, or awareness of, the outcomes for other people of one’s behaviors.