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Critical Reading


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A presentation on critical reading

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Critical Reading

  2. 2. OBJECTIVES A. Explain critical reading as looking for ways of thinking; B. Identify claim of fact, policy, and value explicitly or implicitly made in a written text.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY Write five (5) characteristics of a critical reader. 1. ___________________________ 2. ___________________________ 3. ___________________________ 4. ___________________________ 5. ___________________________
  4. 4. CRITICAL READING When you read something and you evaluate claims, seek definitions, judge information, demand proof, and question assumptions, you are thinking critically. Reading critically means you are thinking critically.
  5. 5. CRITICAL READING By reading critically, you find out the author’s views on something, ask questions, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the author’s argument, and decide to agree or disagree with it. To arrive at a sufficient interpretation of a text, you need to become a critical and active reader.
  6. 6. Policies and Achievements of the Government and Regeneration of the Filipino by President Manuel L. Quezon [Delivered before the faculties and student bodies of public and private schools, colleges, and universities, at the José Rizal Memorial Field, August 19, 1938] Note: An excerpt of it will be used for this lesson.
  7. 7. National strength can only be built on character. A nation is nothing more nor less than its citizenry. It is the people that make up the nation and, therefore, it cannot be stronger than its component parts. Their weakness is its failings, their strength its power. Show me a people composed of vigorous, sturdy individuals, of men and women healthy in mind and body; courteous, brave, industrious, self-reliant; purposeful in thought as well as in action; imbued with sound patriotism and a profound sense of righteousness; with high social ideals and a strong moral fiber; and I will show you a great nation, a nation that will not be submerged, a nation that will emerge victorious from the trials and bitter strifes of a distracted world, a nation that will live forever, sharing the common task of advancing the welfare and promoting the happiness of mankind.
  8. 8. We are engaged in the epic task of building our nation, to live and flourish, not for a day but for all time. We must find the flaws, if there be any, in our concept of individual and community life, as well as in our character, and proceed at once to remedy them.
  9. 9. I have an abiding faith in our people. I know that they have all the faculties needed to become a powerful and enlightened nation. The Filipino is not inferior to any man of any race. His physical, intellectual, and moral qualities are as excellent as those of the proudest stock of mankind. But some of these qualities, I am constrained to admit, have become dormant in recent years. If we compare our individual and civic traits with those that adorned our forefathers, we will find, I fear, that we, the Filipinos of today, have lost much of the moral strength and power for growth of our ancestors. They were strong-willed, earnest, adventurous people. They had traditions potent in influence in their lives, individually and collectively. They had the courage to be pioneers, to brave the seas, clear the forest and erect towns and cities upon the wilderness. They led a life of toil and communal service. Each one considered himself an active part of the body politic. But those traditions are either lost or forgotten. They exist only as a hazy- mist in our distant past. We must revive them, for we need the anchorage of these traditions to guide and sustain us in the proper discharge of our political and social obligations.
  10. 10. The Filipino of today is soft, easy-going. His tendency is towards parasitism. He is uninclined to sustained strenuous effort! He lacks earnestness. Face-saving is the dominant note in the confused symphony of his existence. His sense of righteousness is often dulled by the desire of personal gain. His norm of conduct is generally prompted by expediency rather than by principle. He shows a failing in that superb courage which impels action because it is right, even at the cost of self-sacrifice. His greatest fear is not to do wrong, but of being caught doing wrong. He is frivolous in his view of life. His conception of virtue is many times conventional. He takes his religion lightly. He thinks that lip-service and profession are equivalent to deep and abiding faith. He is inconstant; he lacks perseverance; the first obstacles baffle him, and he easily admits defeat. The patriotism of many Filipinos of today is skin-deep, incapable of inspiring heroic deeds. There are those who are apt to compromise with ethical principles and to regard truth as not incompatible with misrepresentation or self-deceit.
  11. 11. This appraisal of the character of our people today may sound too severe. You will realize that I would be happier if I could only shower praise upon my countrymen. But my responsibility as head of this Nation compels me to face and state facts, however disagreeable they may be to me or to our people, for it is only thus that we can remedy existing evils that threaten to destroy the vitality and vigor of the race. Because I have not lost faith that there is, within us, all the spiritual and moral forces needed for the building of a great nation, I am ruthless in pointing out our present shortcomings. Our task—it is a heroic task—is to awaken and apply these faculties so that our people should become what of right they should be: morally strong, virile, hard-working, refined, enterprising, persevering, public-spirited.
  12. 12. I want our people to grow and be like the molave, strong and resilient, rising on the hillside, unafraid of the raging flood, the lightning or the storm, confident of sits own strength. If we have the will to survive and the will to achieve social efficiency, we can not delay this task of spiritual regeneration. Let us begin to mold the typical Filipino.
  13. 13. To insure the accomplishment of this task of national spiritual reconstruction, we shall formulate and adopt a social code—a code of ethics and personal conduct—a written Bushido—that can be explained in the schools, preached from the pulpits, and taught in the streets and plazas, and in the remotest corners of our land. We shall indoctrinate every man, woman, and child in its precepts. By every means and power at my command, I shall strive to enforce its principles and to require that they be so universally and constantly observed, that our children may breathe it in the air and feel it in their very flesh. Every Filipino is a part and an objective of this great national movement, the success of which depends upon his own success in building up his character and developing his faculties.
  14. 14. This undertaking—the regeneration of the Filipino— constitutes the paramount interest of my administration. My most cherished ambition is to see it realized. It is the greatest prize that I can crave for my life. I call upon all the teachers, the ministers of every faith, the political and social leaders, and particularly upon you the young men and young women to be at the vanguard of this crusade.
  15. 15. We have attained our freedom, but our spirit is still bound by the shackles forged from the frailties of our nature. We owe it to ourselves and our posterity to strike them down. Other peoples of the world are straining themselves to attain higher levels of progress and national security. We shall not lag behind. The Filipino people are on the march, towards their destiny, to conquer their place in the sun!
  16. 16. VOCABULARY CHECK UP Match the underlined word in the first column with its meaning in the second column.
  17. 17. TECHNIQUES TO DEVELOP CRITICAL READING SKILLS 1. Keeping a reading journal In a reading journal, you are writing your feelings and ideas in reaction to your reading assignment. This process allows you to develop your impressions of the text and connect them to your personal experiences. This allows you to better relate to the essay and understand the author’s ideas.
  18. 18. TECHNIQUES TO DEVELOP CRITICAL READING SKILLS 2. Annotating the text Annotating the text simply means making notes on your copy of the reading. This includes highlighting or underlining important passages and writing notes, comments, questions, and reactions on the margins. By doing this, you are entering into a dialogue with the author and not just passively reading the text
  19. 19. TECHNIQUES TO DEVELOP CRITICAL READING SKILLS 3. Outlining the text By locating the thesis statement, claims, and evidence, and then plotting these into an outline, you can see how the writer structures, sequences, and connects his/her ideas. This way you will be able to better evaluate the quality of the writing.
  20. 20. TECHNIQUES TO DEVELOP CRITICAL READING SKILLS 4. Summarizing the text A summary consists of getting the main points of the essay and important supporting details. Summarizing is a useful skill because you can better understand the reading if you can recognize and differentiate major and minor points in the text.
  21. 21. TECHNIQUES TO DEVELOP CRITICAL READING SKILLS 5. Questioning the text Questioning the text involves asking specific questions on points that you are skeptical about. These may be topics that do not meet your expectations or agree with your personal views. Alternately, you should also take note of things that you found impressive.
  22. 22. SKILLS NEEDED IN CRITICAL READING 1. Identifying and Analyzing Claims a. Determining Explicit and Implicit Information Critical reading also means that you are able to distinguish the information that is clearly stated (explicit) in the text from ideas that are suggested (implicit)
  23. 23. SKILLS NEEDED IN CRITICAL READING 2. Defining Claims Whenever you read something, you find yourself looking for the writer’s point or position regarding the chosen topic. That point is also known as the claim, or the central argument or thesis statement of the text. This claim is what the writer tries to prove in the text by providing details, explanations, and other types of evidence.
  24. 24. SKILLS NEEDED IN CRITICAL READING 2. Defining Claims Characteristics of good claims: A claim should be argumentative and debatable. A claim should be specific and focused. A claim should be interesting and engaging. A claim should be logical.
  25. 25. SKILLS NEEDED IN CRITICAL READING 3. Distinguishing Between the Types of Claim Types of claims: a. Claims of facts state a quantifiable assertion, or a measurable topic. They assert that something has existed, exists, or will exist based on data. They usually answer a “what” question.  Is this issue related to a possible cause or effect?  Is this statement true or false? How can its truthfulness be verified?  Is this claim controversial or debatable?
  26. 26. Types of claims: b. Claims of value assert something that can be qualified. They consist of arguments about moral, philosophical, or aesthetic topics. These types of topics try to prove that some values are more or less desirable compared to others. They make judgments, based on certain standards, on whether something is right or wrong, good or bad, or something similar. They attempt to explain how problems, situations, or issues ought to be valued.  Which claims endorse what is good or right?  What qualities should be considered good? Why?  Which of these qualities are more important and why?
  27. 27. Types of claims: c. Claims of policy posit that specific actions should be chosen as solutions to a particular problem. They begin with “should”, “ought to”, or “must”. They defend actionable plans, usually answer “how” questions.  Does the claim suggest a specific remedy to solve the problem?  Is the policy clearly defined?  How does the policy solve the problem?
  28. 28. SKILLS NEEDED IN CRITICAL READING 4. Identifying the Context of Text Development Being a critical reader involves understanding that text are always developed with a certain context. Context is the social, cultural, political, historical, and other related circumstances that surround the text and form the terms from which it can be better understood and evaluated. In discovering a reading’s context, you may ask the following questions:  When was the work written?  What were the circumstances that produced it?  What issues does it deal with?
  29. 29. SKILLS NEEDED IN CRITICAL READING 4. Identifying the Context of Text Development Another important technique in analyzing the context of a text’s development is defining its intertextual link to another text. Intertextuality is the modeling of a text’s meaning by another text. It is defined as the connections between language, images, characters, themes, or subjects depending on their similarities in language, genre, or discourse.
  30. 30. CRITICAL READING AS REASONING 1. Identifying Assertions Assertions are declarative sentences that claim something is true about something else. It is a sentence that is either true or false.  The sampaguita’s roots are used for medicinal purposes, such as an anesthetic and a sedative.  The sampaguita belongs to the genus Jasminum of the family Oleaceae.  The popularity of sampaguita flowers is most evident in places of worship.  Sampaguitas are the most beautiful and most fragrant of all flowers.
  31. 31. CRITICAL READING AS REASONING 1. Identifying Assertions Common Types of Assertions (according to the degree of certainty): a. Fact. This is a statement that can be proven objectively by direct experience, testimonies of witnesses, verified observations, or the results of research. The sampaguita’s roots are used for medicinal purposes, such as an anesthetic and a sedative.
  32. 32. CRITICAL READING AS REASONING 1. Identifying Assertions Common Types of Assertions (according to the degree of certainty): b. Convention. It is a way in which something is done, similar to traditions and norms. Conventions depend on historical precedent, laws, rules, usage, and customs. The sampaguita belongs to the genus Jasminum of the family Oleaceae.
  33. 33. CRITICAL READING AS REASONING 1. Identifying Assertions Common Types of Assertions (according to the degree of certainty): c. Opinion. It is based on facts, but is difficult to objectively verify because of the uncertainty of producing satisfactory proofs of soundness. The popularity of sampaguita flowers is most evident in places of worship.
  34. 34. CRITICAL READING AS REASONING 1. Identifying Assertions Common Types of Assertions (according to the degree of certainty): d. Preference. It is based on personal choice; therefore, they are subjective and cannot be objectively proven or logically attacked. Sampaguitas are the most beautiful and most fragrant of all flowers.
  35. 35. CRITICAL READING AS REASONING 2. Formulating Counterclaims Counterclaims are claims made to rebut a previous claim. They provide a contrasting perspective to the main argument. What are the major points on which you and the author can disagree? What is their strongest argument? What are the merits of their views? What are the weaknesses of their argument? Which lines from the text best support the counterclaim you have formulated?
  36. 36. CRITICAL READING AS REASONING 3. Determining Textual Evidence Evidence is defined as the details given by the author to support his/her claim. It can include facts and statistics, opinions from experts, and personal anecdotes. What questions can you ask about the claims? Which details in the text answer your questions? What are the most important details in the paragraph? What are some claims that do not seem to have support? What are some details that you find questionable? Are the sources reliable?
  37. 37. CRITICAL READING AS REASONING 3. Determining Textual Evidence Characteristics of Good Evidence: unified relevant to the central point specific and concrete accurate representative or typical
  38. 38. Reading and Writing Skills Marella Therese A. Tiongson Maxine Rafaella C. Rodriguez