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The Medialisation of Sight

  1. 1. Dr. Benjamin Jörissen http://joerissen.name benjamin@joerissen.name The Medialisation of Sight International Conference „Exploring the Senses – Emotions, Performativity, and Ritual“ Freie Universität Berlin, 9.12.2011 http://www.senses-ritual.uni-hd.de
  2. 2. „Medialisation“
  3. 3. „Medialisation“ Externalisation of sight (technological eye)
  4. 4. „Medialisation“ Externalisation of sight (technological eye)
  5. 5. „Medialisation“ Externalisation of sight (technological eye)
  6. 6. „Medialisation“ Externalisation of sight (technological eye)
  7. 7. „Medialisation“ Externalisation of sight (technological eye) Prosthetic extension (eye-camera)
  8. 8. Andreas Feininger, „The Photojournalist“, 1951 Externalisation of sight (technological eye) Prosthetic extension (eye-camera)
  9. 9. Andreas Feininger, „The Photojournalist“, 1951 Externalisation of sight (technological eye) Prosthetic extension (eye-camera)
  10. 10. „Medialisation“ Externalisation of sight (technological eye) Prosthetic extension (eye-camera) First- vs. second-order-mediality of sight
  11. 11. „Medialisation“ Externalisation of sight (technological eye) Prosthetic extension (eye-camera) First- vs. second-order-mediality of sight
  12. 12. structural aspects of „sight“
  13. 13. structural properties of sight distance, intermediation
  14. 14. structural properties of sight distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience
  15. 15. structural properties of sight distance, intermediation
  16. 16. structural properties of sight distance, intermediation
  17. 17. structural properties of sight distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience optics, optical flaws
  18. 18. structural properties of sight distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience optics, optical flaws spatial structure
  19. 19. structural properties of sight seeing, looking, gazing distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience optics, optical flaws spatial structure
  20. 20. structural properties of sight seeing, looking, gazing eye-hand-coordination distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience optics, optical flaws spatial structure
  21. 21. structural properties of sight seeing, looking, gazing eye-hand-coordination distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience optics, optical flaws spatial structure construction by means of memory + recognition
  22. 22. structural properties of sight seeing, looking, gazing eye-hand-coordination temporal structure distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience optics, optical flaws spatial structure construction by means of memory + recognition
  23. 23. structural properties of sight seeing, looking, gazing eye-hand-coordination using gazes als gestures temporal structure distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience optics, optical flaws spatial structure construction by means of memory + recognition
  24. 24. structural properties of sight seeing, looking, gazing eye-hand-coordination using gazes als gestures temporal structure distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience seeing my gaze being seen optics, optical flaws spatial structure construction by means of memory + recognition
  25. 25. structural properties of sight seeing, looking, gazing eye-hand-coordination using gazes als gestures temporal structure distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience seeing my gaze being seen optics, optical flaws seeing seeing/ spatial structure seeing being seen construction by means of memory + recognition
  26. 26. structural properties of sight experience distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience seeing my gaze being seen optics, optical flaws seeing seeing/ spatial structure seeing being seen construction by means of memory + recognition
  27. 27. structural properties of sight seeing, looking, gazing eye-hand-coordination using gazes als gestures temporal structure action
  28. 28. structural properties of sight seeing, looking, gazing eye-hand-coordination temporal structure somatic distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme self of visual experience optics, optical flaws spatial structure construction by means of memory + recognition
  29. 29. structural properties of sight using gazes als gestures world seeing my gaze being seen seeing seeing/ seeing being seen
  30. 30. structural properties of sight seeing, looking, gazing eye-hand-coordination using gazes als gestures temporal structure distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience seeing my gaze being seen optics, optical flaws seeing seeing/ spatial structure seeing being seen construction by means of memory + recognition
  31. 31. double chiasma seeing, looking, gazing action eye-hand-coordination using gazes als gestures temporal structure somatic self world distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience experience seeing my gaze being seen optics, optical flaws seeing seeing/ spatial structure seeing being seen construction by means of memory + recognition
  32. 32. mediality of sight seeing, looking, gazing action eye-hand-coordination using gazes als gestures temporal structure somatic self world distance, intermediation basic „inside/outside“–scheme of visual experience experience seeing my gaze being seen optics, optical flaws seeing seeing/ spatial structure seeing being seen construction by means of memory + recognition
  33. 33. mediality of sight self world seeing as gaze as action action gesture seeing as experience of experience experience being seen
  34. 34. mediality of sight self world seeing as gaze as action action gesture seeing as experience of experience experience being seen
  35. 35. mediality and medialisation
  36. 36. mediality of sight seeing as gaze as action gesture seeing as experience of experience being seen
  37. 37. cultural order(s) of sight mediality of sight seeing as gaze as action gesture seeing as experience of experience being seen
  38. 38. cultural order(s) of sight medialisation of sight? mediality of sight seeing as gaze as action gesture seeing as experience of experience being seen
  39. 39. „mediatisierte“ Sichtbarkeit, Anordnung, Form Sinn, Aufzeichnung „Mediatisierung“ (Ereignis) Medium { Medialität (struktural) Materialität (amedial)
  40. 40. „mediatisierte“ visibility, order, Form meaning Medium The dispositiv of mediality following Mersch 2002, S. 56 ff.
  41. 41. „mediatisierte“ visibility, order, Form meaning Medium { Mediality (structural) Materiality (non-medial) The dispositiv of mediality following Mersch 2002, S. 56 ff.
  42. 42. „mediated“ visibility, order, form meaning „Mediatisation“ (emergent event) Medium { Mediality (structural) Materiality (non-medial) The dispositiv of mediality following Mersch 2002, S. 56 ff.
  43. 43. action aisthesis, perception
  44. 44. action aisthesis, perception interpretation ➔ reconceptualisation ➔ coding
  45. 45. „medialisation of sight“ modes and examples
  46. 46. Disciplination of sight in Counterstrike-gaming
  47. 47. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Bt_imFIYQU
  48. 48. Self-exposure as a medialised care of the self
  49. 49. Quelle: mtv.com http://www.mtv.com/shows/i_want_a_famous_face-2/series.jhtml
  50. 50. Quelle: mtv.com
  51. 51. Quelle: mtv.com
  52. 52. Quelle: mtv.com
  53. 53. Quelle: mtv.com
  54. 54. Quelle: mtv.com
  55. 55. Quelle: mtv.com
  56. 56. Quelle: mtv.com
  57. 57. Quelle: mtv.com
  58. 58. Jennette Kate Winslet http://www.mtv.com/onair/i_want_a_famous_face/meet_the_patients/
  59. 59. The governementalisation of sight in online-networking-platforms
  60. 60. ?
  61. 61. ? ? ? ??
  62. 62. practices of self-governance within visual ,economies of recognition‘: The individual as its own „creative industry“ ? ? ? ??
  63. 63. Free-flowing viral subversions of visual hegemoniality in photoshop memes
  64. 64. „County mayor Li Ningyi and vice-mayor Tang Xiaobing are inspecting the newly constructed country road at Lihong Town.“ Source: http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/floating-chinese-government-officials
  65. 65. Source: http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/floating-chinese-government-officials
  66. 66. Source: http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/floating-chinese-government-officials
  67. 67. Source: http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/floating-chinese-government-officials
  68. 68. Source: http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/floating-chinese-government-officials
  69. 69. Source: http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/floating-chinese-government-officials
  70. 70. Source: http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/floating-chinese-government-officials
  71. 71. John Pike, the „pepper spraying cop“ Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/nov/23/pepper-spraying-cop-photoshop-justice
  72. 72. http://peppersprayingcop.tumblr.com/
  73. 73. http://peppersprayingcop.tumblr.com/
  74. 74. http://peppersprayingcop.tumblr.com/
  75. 75. http://peppersprayingcop.tumblr.com/
  76. 76. http://peppersprayingcop.tumblr.com/
  77. 77. http://peppersprayingcop.tumblr.com/
  78. 78. 1) Virally gaining public attention ➔ immediate loss of control 2) Creating visual difference (remix) 3) Decontextualisation of the image from its former context: a process of political (re-) approproation of the public view
  79. 79. Dr. Benjamin Jörissen http://joerissen.name benjamin@joerissen.name Thank you! Slides available at: www.joerissen.name

Editor's Notes

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  • Dziga Vertov: Man with a movie camera (1929)\nKinoglaz (cinematic eye)\n
  • 2001 - Space Odyssey (USA 1968)\n
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  • Andreas Feininger, „The Photojournalist“, 1951\n
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  • last feature implies sociality: recognition of self, perspective-taking\nparadigmatic: lacan, mirror stage\n
  • body ⇔ eyes ⇔ world\n
  • eyes open/closed – self/world\n
  • (Zeichnung aus: Ernst Mach: Antimetaphysische Vorbemerkungen. In: ders., Die Analyse der Empfindungen und das Verhältnis der Physischen zum Psychischen. --  2.,verm. Aufl. --  Jena : Fischer, 1900. Online: http://www.payer.de/fremd/mach.htm )\n\n\n
  • lense/liquid flares, mechanically induced perceptions, left/right-difference ⇒ experience of mediality\nbase-level reflexivity\n
  • point of view, field view, solution, perspective, angle, direction, obstacles\n
  • Seeign as an act: John Dewey: The reflex arc concept in psychology (1896); pragmatistic concept of experience\n
  • Leroi-Gourhan\n
  • pattern recognition (phylogenetic: retinal movement recognitions; ontogenetic: pattern/image recognition) - imagination\n(A point where mass media usually come in by providing cultural „standard schemes“ of meaning construction; which is a most simple form of a „medialisation“ of sight“).\n
  • G.H. Mead: Seeing als seeing the future of a practice;\nPhenomenology: Seeing als grounded in (former) experience (pre-experiences).\n
  • Social/cultural orders of the gaze\n
  • mutuality\n
  • 2nd order-observance-„feature“; reflexivity\nperspective-taking; sociality; subjectivity\n
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  • double chiasma\n
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  • double chiasm: self-world, action-experience (actio-passio)\n
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  • politics of seeing (Wulf 1997, 448)\n
  • The „medialisation of sight“ is a transformation of „ways of seeing“ by means of media structures (John Berger 1972)\n
  • Niklas Luhmann, Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft\n
  • Jede Änderung/Innovation auf dem Feld der Medialität (z.B. EInführung der Fotografie, Einführung des Films) ändert das Gesamt kultureller Gefüge; zudem sind intermediale und medienkonvergente Dynamiken einzubeziehen. + Mediatisierung ( = Konstitution) von Wahrnehmung ( + Kognition).\nD.h., jede Kultur ist immer schon auf historisch wechselnde Weise medial verfasst. -> Konstitutivität von Medialität. Kulturelle Praxen sind in Medialität, ihre Erscheinungsformen (und Materialitäten) eingelassen. Deswegen sind „Medien“ nur in Verkennung der Zusammenhänge als „Gegenstandsbereich“, etwa von Erziehung auf der Subjektseite (Erziehende, Erzogene), konzipierbar.\nDass man über Medialität in dieser Weise nachdenkt, ist nicht selbstverständlich (aufgrund des ständigen Entzugs der Medien). Medienerziehung ist älter als das Nachdenken über Medialität, zumal dieses Jahrzehnte gebraucht hat, um in den der pädagogischen Debatte um Medien Geltung zu finden (russ. Formalismus, Kanadische Schule, Neuformalismus).\n\n
  • Jede Änderung/Innovation auf dem Feld der Medialität (z.B. EInführung der Fotografie, Einführung des Films) ändert das Gesamt kultureller Gefüge; zudem sind intermediale und medienkonvergente Dynamiken einzubeziehen. + Mediatisierung ( = Konstitution) von Wahrnehmung ( + Kognition).\nD.h., jede Kultur ist immer schon auf historisch wechselnde Weise medial verfasst. -> Konstitutivität von Medialität. Kulturelle Praxen sind in Medialität, ihre Erscheinungsformen (und Materialitäten) eingelassen. Deswegen sind „Medien“ nur in Verkennung der Zusammenhänge als „Gegenstandsbereich“, etwa von Erziehung auf der Subjektseite (Erziehende, Erzogene), konzipierbar.\nDass man über Medialität in dieser Weise nachdenkt, ist nicht selbstverständlich (aufgrund des ständigen Entzugs der Medien). Medienerziehung ist älter als das Nachdenken über Medialität, zumal dieses Jahrzehnte gebraucht hat, um in den der pädagogischen Debatte um Medien Geltung zu finden (russ. Formalismus, Kanadische Schule, Neuformalismus).\n\n
  • Jede Änderung/Innovation auf dem Feld der Medialität (z.B. EInführung der Fotografie, Einführung des Films) ändert das Gesamt kultureller Gefüge; zudem sind intermediale und medienkonvergente Dynamiken einzubeziehen. + Mediatisierung ( = Konstitution) von Wahrnehmung ( + Kognition).\nD.h., jede Kultur ist immer schon auf historisch wechselnde Weise medial verfasst. -> Konstitutivität von Medialität. Kulturelle Praxen sind in Medialität, ihre Erscheinungsformen (und Materialitäten) eingelassen. Deswegen sind „Medien“ nur in Verkennung der Zusammenhänge als „Gegenstandsbereich“, etwa von Erziehung auf der Subjektseite (Erziehende, Erzogene), konzipierbar.\nDass man über Medialität in dieser Weise nachdenkt, ist nicht selbstverständlich (aufgrund des ständigen Entzugs der Medien). Medienerziehung ist älter als das Nachdenken über Medialität, zumal dieses Jahrzehnte gebraucht hat, um in den der pädagogischen Debatte um Medien Geltung zu finden (russ. Formalismus, Kanadische Schule, Neuformalismus).\n\n
  • nested mediality\nThe process of mediatisation (of making something visible) is now based upon a double, nested invisibility: the insivibility of sight is embedded in the invisibility of a media environment wherein sight happens.\n\n
  • In the realm of digital media, this process could also be understood like this.\nThe reconceptualisation of sight is an embedded transformation of its structural aspects.\nThis also bears the possibility of making sight visible (perceivable), i.e. of allowing sight to be reflected upon.\n
  • How complex media structures change the game (practices) of seeing, looking, gazing\n
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  • cf. Constanze Bausch/Benjamin Jörissen (2004): Erspielte Rituale. Kampf und Gemeinschaftsbildung auf LAN-Partys. In: Christoph Wulf e.a.: Bildung im Ritual. Schule, Familie, Jugend, Medien. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag, S. 303-357.\nThe meaning of the martial visuality of the game is defined by the gamers communities („clans“). \nThe Visuality of this game has been designed for gaming speed and playability, not for the purpose of visually realistic war scenes.\nPleasure in viewing blood „(frags“) and killing scenes is despised, because in order to achieve the goals of the group, the game has to be taken (and seen) from a distanced, strategic, thus rational perspective.\n
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  • „Dies ist die entscheidende Wende […]: Indem sie sich selbst in den öffentlichen Blick einbringen […], bringen sie auch den Modus der Sorge um sich direkt in die medienvermittelte Situation der gegenwärtigen Kultur.“ \n(Poster 2008, 224)\n
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  • Visuality/Visibility in the social web as an inverted panopticon.\n
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  • Prisoners can always be seen/guard can never be seen\n
  • Structural changes of the view: no mutuality (no control), persistence of being-seen (no control).\n
  • „user generated content“, social networking, pre-emptive adoption of the logics of market as a base for social relationships\n
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  • On June 16th, 2011, a photograph of three Chinese officials standing on a road was posted via China’s Huili County Government official website, accompanied by the caption: “County mayor Li Ningyi and vice-mayor Tang Xiaobing are inspecting the newly constructed country road at Lihong Town." \nOn June 26th, 2011, a Tianya Club[1] forum member posted the image with the title “Too fake: the propaganda photo for our county.“\n\n
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  • Officials posted an apology to the Chinese social networking site Weibo a day later. The officials further explained that the three county officials did visit the site, but none of the photographs taken during the inspection were suitably impressive for publication.\nNonetheless, after reports from the Guardian and the NY Times, the photoshop meme went on.\n
  • Similarly, John Pike, the infamous „pepper spraying cop“ who „treated“ students which participated in an „Occupy“ deminstration at the Univ. of California, soon became subject of a photoshop meme and got his own blog.\n\nThis case is not working against a „hegemonic view“, but it also demonstrates the power of „viral visibility“.\n\n
  • (He soon became ,iconic‘)\n
  • (He soon became ,iconic‘)\n
  • (He soon became ,iconic‘)\n
  • (He soon became ,iconic‘)\n
  • (He soon became ,iconic‘)\n
  • (He soon became ,iconic‘)\n
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