Papyrus Summer 2006

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Papyrus Summer 2006

  1. 1. I N T E R N AT I O N A L A S S O C I AT I O N O F M U S E U M FA C I L I T Y A D M I N I S T R AT O R SVOLUME 7NUMBER 2 PAPYRUS SUMMER 2006The 16th Annual IAMFA ConferenceLos Angeles, California—September 17–20, 2006You won’t want to miss the 16th Annual IAMFA Conference mention the IAMFA conference to get the special rate. Youthis fall in Los Angeles. This year’s event features a number may also book your room online at www.fairmont.com.of different venues, a great guest program, and presentations Internet users must use the promotional code GRMUS1that we’re sure members will find very interesting. Please to make their requests. The hotel will extend the programvisit www.iamfa.org if you have not yet registered for this rate (3) days prior and (3) after conference dates, basedyear’s conference. on availability. Events begin on Sunday, September 17 at 7:30 a.m. with Following registration on Sunday evening, we will strollthe customary one-day benchmarking meeting, held each a few blocks down the beach to the Santa Monica Pier,year in advance of the conference itself. Please remember where we will have dinner at the Bubba Gump Shrimpthat attendance at this Sunday-morning meeting is limited to Company. The restaurant is right on the beach, so we willthe 44 member institutions which participated in the 2006 begin with a great meal, and a California sunset—a greatIAMFA benchmarking exercise. The benchmarking meeting way to kick off this year’s conference.will be held at the Fairmont Miramar hotel. After dinner, there are several entertainment options: live Registration will take place on Sunday afternoon from music and dancing at the pier, and amusement park rides3:00 to 5:00 p.m. at the Fairmont Miramar, our official such as the pier roller coaster, carousel or the pier ferrisaccommodation for the conference. For a sneak preview of wheel. It’s also a short walk to the Third Street Promenade,this spectacular hotel, visit www.fairmont.com/santamonica. where you can shop, or just relax and take in the oceanIf you have not already reserved your accommodations, and beach experience. Sunday night will be very informal,please remember to contact the hotel directly by phone at allowing everyone an opportunity to have a great time(800) 441-1414 or (310) 576-7777 to book your room, and along the beach. continued on page 2 INSIDE THIS ISSUE Message from the President . . . . . . . . . 5 Air Tightness Strategies—The British Library Additional Storage Program Construction Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Apprenticing in Facilities Management . . 11 IAMFA Benchmarking Exercise 2006 . . . 12 The Donald W. Reynolds Center for American Art and Portraiture Opens . . . 14 Getty Center Becomes First Facility in the U.S. to be Rated “Green” . . . . . . 16 Regional Chapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 The Canadian War Museum— River Water for Sanitary Use . . . . . . . . . 21 Letter from the Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Bubba Gump Shrimp Company on Santa Monica Beach.
  2. 2. The 16th Annual IAMFA Conference — continued from page 1 On Monday morning, the three-day one of the region’s most popular areasIAMFA conference begins. Members to spend an evening.will depart by bus for a short ride On Tuesday morning, membersup the Pacific Coast Highway to the will leave the hotel for the Los Angelesre-imagined Getty Villa in Malibu. The County Museum of Art (LACMA), locatedVilla—a Roman-style villa modeled after on Wilshire Boulevard’s “Miracle Mile”,the Villa dei Papiri at Herculaneum— between downtown Los Angeles andis situated above the coastline and offers Beverly Hills. Members will hear presen-unique views of the Pacific Ocean and tations on the physical Transformation Santa Monica Pier.the Santa Monica Mountains. The villa expansion at LACMA, as well as pre-opened in 1974, and was home to the sentations on a new Asset ManagementJ. Paul Getty Museum until 1997, when more information on the Villa, please System at the Smithsonian. We willit closed for a major renovation, six visit www.getty.edu. also have our IAMFA Annual Businessmonths prior to the opening of the As always, this year’s conference Meeting on Tuesday morning, a tourGetty Center in Los Angeles. The Villa includes a great guest program, so don’t of LACMA’s encyclopedic collection,reopened in January 2006 with a new miss this opportunity to bring along and updates from our three IAMFAmission as an educational center and someone special—kids will have a great subcommittee leaders. More on themuseum dedicated to the study of the time, too! On Monday, guests will spend Los Angeles County Museum of Artarts and cultures of ancient Greece, the day at Universal Studios in Holly- can be found at www.lacma.org.Rome, and Etruria. wood. Universal Studios is the place to After lunch, members will head Monday’s agenda includes several experience the Hollywood scene, tour across the street to the Petersenpresentations on topics including the movie lots, and take amusement rides, Automotive Museum: a unique andrenovation of the Getty Villa, the com- each with a different movie theme. Find captivating museum that we are for-missioning of the J. Paul Getty Museum out more about Universal Studios at tunate to be able to include on ourbuilding, emergency preparedness, and www.universalstudios.com. agenda. This new twist on a typicalfire protection strategies for historic At the conclusion of this first day, museum experience gives IAMFAmuseums. A summary of the annual members and guests have a free even- members an opportunity to enjoy abenchmarking exercise will also be ing. There are many choices for dinner slice of automotive history beforepresented on Monday. The day’s activi- and evening entertainment within walk- returning to the hotel. For more infor-ties also include an opportunity to ing distance of the hotel. This would mation on the Petersen Automotivetour the Villa’s gardens, its exhibition be a good opportunity to spend some Museum, please visit their website atgalleries, and “back of house”. For time on the Third Street Promenade: www.petersen.org.The Getty Villa in Malibu California. The Los Angeles County Museum of Art.2
  3. 3. Meanwhile, guests will begin Tuesday renowned architect Frank Gehry.with a bus trip along the coast, through Many of our members saw another ofthe Santa Monica Mountains to the Gehry’s creations at last year’s IAMFARonald Reagan Presidential Library in conference in Bilbao: the GuggenheimSimi Valley (www.reaganlibrary.net). Museum. The Walt Disney ConcertMany people remember seeing glimpses hall (www.wdch.laphil.com) is the newof the library two years ago, during home of the Los Angeles Philharmonicthe funeral of former President Ronald Orchestra. It is considered one of theReagan. Last fall, the Reagan Library most acoustically sophisticated concertcompleted an expansion project, includ- halls in the world, providing both visualing a new pavilion that houses President The Dandeana, Marina Del Rey. and aural intimacy for an unparalleledReagan’s retired Air Force One aircraft. musical experience.Guests will tour both the Reagan Library A tour of the Japanese Americanand Pavilion. and motorized yachts are moored. National Museum (JANM) is also plan- Following their visit to the Reagan With great food and California wine, ned. The Japanese American NationalLibrary, guests will travel the Pacific you will not want to miss this event. Museum (www.janm.org) is the onlyCoast Highway for lunch at Duke’s For more information, please visit museum in the United States dedicatedCanoe Club. Located on the beach in www.FantaSeaYachts.com. to the experience of Americans ofMalibu, Duke’s is about as close as you On Wednesday, members and their Japanese ancestry. The museum, locatedcan get to the experience of having guests will visit cultural institutions in in historic and culturally rich Littlelunch and riding a surfboard, without downtown Los Angeles. The Museum Tokyo, occupies a beautifully restoredactually getting into the water! After of Contemporary Art (MOCA), will play former Buddhist temple with a stunninglunch, guests will return to the hotel host to the final day of conference new pavilion building. Coincidentally,about an hour ahead of IAMFA mem- activities. MOCA is home to one of it is adjacent to MOCA’s Geffenbers. This is another opportunity for the country’s finest collections of post- Contemporary building. The Geffenshopping and relaxing, before both 1940 American and European art. It also is an early renovation of an existingmembers and guests depart for Marina features special traveling exhibitions warehouse space, also designed bydel Rey and our Tuesday evening featuring the art of our time. Our visit Frank Gehry, and was first occupiedHarbor Dinner Cruise. to MOCA will provide a direct link to during the construction of MOCA in At 6:00 p.m., we will board the yacht the exciting world of contemporary art; the early 1990s.Dandeana for a sunset dinner cruise, learn more at www.moca.org. Our group will return to the hotelfeaturing a spectacular harbor tour of Members and guests will also have mid-afternoon on Wednesday, in timethe world’s largest, manmade marina, an opportunity to visit the Walt Disney to dress in cocktail attire for the closingwhere more than 5,000 sailing vessels Concert Hall, designed by world- conference gala on Wednesday evening continued on page 4 MARISSA ROTHThe Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Simi Valley, California. MOCA Grand Avenue. 3
  4. 4. The 16th Annual IAMFA Conference — ¡ continued from page 3 IAMFA 2006 IN LOS ANGELES at the Getty Center. Buses will leave the The Los Angeles Chapter welcomes you! hotel promptly at 5:00 p.m. The Getty September 17–20, 2006 Center is home to the Getty Conserva- tion Institute, the Getty Foundation, the INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MUSEUM FACILITY ADMINISTRATORS J. Paul Getty Museum, and the Getty Research Institute. Ⅺ YES! Sign me up to attend the 2006 IAMFA Annual Conference in We will enter the Getty’s Central Los Angeles, California, USA Garden, proceeding to the Courtyard for cocktails prior to dinner and the Name: ___________________________________________________________________________ closing event. The galleries in the West Title: ____________________________________________________________________________ Pavilion will remain open for viewing prior to dinner in the Rotunda, giving Institution:_______________________________________________________________________ our group an opportunity to see master- Address: _________________________________________________________________________ pieces such as Van Gogh’s Irises and Monet’s Wheatstacks. The Getty Center City: _________________________________________ Postal/Zip Code: _________________ is situated on a 110-acre site in the foot- hills of the Santa Monica Mountains in State/Province/County: ______________________ Country: _________________________ Los Angeles. The Getty Center itself Phone: ________________________________ Fax: ____________________________________ covers 24 acres of the 110-acre site; the rest is landscaped or left in its natural E-mail: ________________________________ @ ______________________________________ state. An adjoining 600 acres preserves If your address/contact information has changed in the past year, please check box Ⅺ the natural character of the area. On a Special dietary, access, or other requirements: __________________________________ clear day, you can see the snow-capped peaks at Big Bear Mountain, the Pacific __________________________________________________________________________________ Ocean and the entire Los Angeles Basin. ALL FEES ARE PAYABLE IN U.S. DOLLARS More information on the Getty Center Please visit http://www.iamfa.org/ on the 2006 conference page to register is available at www.getty.edu. for the conference using a credit card. We look forward to welcoming all Ⅺ Member conference fee: $500 (after Aug 20, add $50) IAMFA members in Los Angeles this fall for the 16th Annual IAMFA Conference. Ⅺ Non-member conference fee: $600 (after Aug 20, add $50) The conference planning committee is Ⅺ Sign me up as a new member: $150 eager to see everyone at the beach on Ⅺ Guest program fee: $300 (after Aug 20, add $50) September 17! Ⅺ Guest under 12: $150 Ⅺ One-day attendance fee: $200 per day Ⅺ MON Ⅺ TUE Ⅺ WEDJOHN STEPHENS ©J. PAUL GETTY TRUST You may also complete this form, and send a hard copy along with a check to: International Association of Museum Facility Administrators (IAMFA) P.O. Box 277 Groton, MA 01450 USA SUGGESTED ACCOMMODATION We have reserved a limited number of hotel rooms at The Fairmont Miramar Hotel for the period of Saturday, September 16 through Wednesday, September 20. The conference rate is $229 per night per room plus 14.05% tax, single or double occupancy, with an additional charge of $25 each for a third or fourth adult per night, with a maximum of four people per room. There is no extra charge for children up to, and including, the age of 18 years who share a room with their parents. Early hotel registration is strongly recommended during this busy season in Los Angeles. The block of rooms will be held until August 1, 2006. To contact the Fairmont Miramar Hotel directly, please call 1-800-441-1414 or (310) 576-7777. Ask for Reservations and make sure to mention the IAMFA conference to get the special rate. Reservations can also be made by Internet at www.fairmont.com. Internet users must use the promotional code GRMUS1 to submit requests. The hotel will extend the program rate (3) days prior and (3) after conference dates, based on availability. Aerial view of the Getty Center. Please check the IAMFA website for updates at: www.iamfa.org 4
  5. 5. Message from the President Guy Larocque, President of IAMFAFuture IAMFA Conferences but note that a conference in their cityThe 2006 Annual IAMFA Conference would also garner support from other IAMFA Board of Directors local chapter members.in Los Angeles is just a month away as The advantage of naming the loca- PresidentI write this article. Somehow, it seems tions for our upcoming conferences, Guy Larocquethat the Bilbao conference wasn’t that Canadian Museum of Civilization and of course, is that it allows those locallong ago. It was such a memorable Canadian War Museum chapter members plenty of time to startexperience, and such a great opportu- Gatineau, Canada organizing their venues. There are cul-nity for our members to network and guy.larocque@civilization.ca tural institutions to target for hostingshare knowledge about our professional the sessions, the session topics and V.P., Administrationfield. But time has passed, and IAMFA speakers to select, hotel rooms to book, Richard Kowalczykbusiness has been moving along. meals to plan, transportation to orga- Smithsonian Institution During the last Board of Directors nize, and of course the ever popular Washington, D.C., USAconference call in mid-June, the ques- guest program to put together. These kowalczykr@nasm.si.edution of where to hold future IAMFA con- activities constitute the expenditureferences was discussed. This question side of the equation. Then there is V.P., Regional Affairshad been raised and debated before at the question of revenues to pay for John de Lucypast conferences, but a consensus was the conference. The number of partici- The British Libraryalways difficult to achieve. The Board pants is not always easy to forecast, London, U.K.agreed that, in the interests of providing but past trends give an indication of john.delucy@bl.ukas much lead-time as possible to facili- what to expect. The most difficult tasktate the planning of future conferences, Treasurer involves finding sponsors and gettingit was time to put the debate to rest Jim Moisson their commitments for financial or in- Harvard University Art Museumsand to decide on a list of host cities kind donations. Truly, the annual con- Cambridge, MA, USAfrom 2007 until 2010. I am pleased ference organizers are the heroes of james_moisson@harvard.eduto announce the locations for future our Association and they deserve ourIAMFA conferences as follows: recognition and support. Secretary and Papyrus Editor 2007 Ottawa, Canada I know that I am personally looking Daniel H. Davies forward to getting started with the plan- Smithsonian Institution 2008 London, U.K. ning and organizing of the 2007 annual Washington, D.C., USA conference in Ottawa. There are new ddavies@si.edu 2009 Washington, D.C. museums to see, and old acquaintances 2010 Auckland, New Zealand to renew for our members, and hope- Chairman — Conference 2006 fully we will even have new members Joseph E. May Coming up with this list was the easy J. Paul Getty Trust attending from Montreal and Toronto. Los Angeles, CA, USApart. The cities mentioned above have Until then, I look forward to seeing you jmay@getty.edubeen discussed before, as have others all again in Los Angeles at the 2006such as Chicago and New York, but IAMFA Conference this September.IAMFA members from the above-noted For additional contact information, please visit our website atcities have not only expressed a serious Guy Larocque, P.Eng. www.iamfa.orgdesire to host an IAMFA conference, President, IAMFA 5
  6. 6. Air Tightness Strategies—The British Library Additional Storage Program Construction Project by John de Lucy and Julian TaylorAs part of the construction project for the British Library’s team had made significant efforts to understand existingadditional storage facility, the Construction Project Team reduced-oxygen installations in Europe. The architect’s designdeveloped an air-tightness risk mitigation strategy. The team, in turn, based their air leakage requirements on spe-decision to adopt a reduced-oxygen fire prevention model cifications from the leading European installer of reduced-for the building required an unusually strict air-tightness oxygen systems. Site visits were made, and risk assessmentsspecification, in order to avoid high running costs for the carried out, in order to meet this tough specification.reduced-oxygen plant. The biggest challenge was identified as onsite workman- The Employer’s Requirements Document (ERD) issued ship. Assuming that the pre-contract design had enoughto prospective building contractors mandates an Air Leakage detail to enable the building contractor to build in air-Index (ALI) value of 0.5 cubic meters per hour per square tightness, the quality of the day-to-day installation of themeter of building. This value must also be maintained over PAROC wall panels and the standing seam roof were vitalthe 70-year design life of the building, and has a lesser impact to achieving an ALI of 0.5. The single largest challenge toon the internal environment target ranges for humidity and achieving this value is quality of workmanship.temperature (key to meeting the fundamentals of BritishStandard 5454:2000.) Quantifying the Risk Air tightness thus became a key deliverable relative tosustainable design, and one of the Library’s key drivers as If air-leakage testing revealed that the ALI value for the build-set out in the Project Brief. ing was 1.0 (twice as leaky as a value of 0.5), the Library would face estimated additional energy costs of £10,000 (approx. $20,000) per annum for the life of the building.Defining the RiskIt was recognized early in the design process that achievingthe required ALI value of 0.5 for the storage building was a Risk Mitigation Strategysignificant—but not unique—challenge. Overall Approach ALI values of 0.5 have been achieved in the U.K. before, If the building did not meet the 0.5 ALI value once construc-although usually on cold-store buildings with fewer pene- tion was complete, there would be limited ways of improvingtrations of the building envelope than the British Library’s the air-leakage rate. Although not impossible, it wouldadditional storage facility. The air-tightness consultant knew certainly be very difficult to access wall/roof junctions andthat 0.5 had been achieved in continental Europe on build- other potential leakage areas once the automation systemings comparable to ours, and the Library’s construction project and racking was installed. The experience of a clothingRoof and wall construction.6
  7. 7. Infracor, Marl (2004) Klingel, Pforzheim (04/05)1. Highbay warehouse 2. Annex building Highbay Warehouse • Roof 5.000 m2 • Roof 3100 m2 • Roof 6.900 m2 • Facade 10.900 m2 • Facade 580 m2 • Facade 6.550 m2 • 115m x 43m x 32m • 85m x 70m x 13m • 93m x 73m x 28mretailer in Germany (who had to retrospectively reseal a Risk Mitigation in the Pre-Contract Design andlarge warehouse at great effort and expense) has helped Contract Documentsfocus the Library’s strategy. Ensuring that the air-tightness target can be achieved is The Library’s risk mitigation strategy is therefore focused integral to the pre-Contract Design, both in terms of designalmost wholly on design development, as well as the moni- detailing, and feasibility of the overall design package.toring and testing of workmanship prior to the completion The building’s designers considered the air-tightnessof construction. In addition, the building contract is structured requirement in every aspect of the building and buildingin such a way that failure becomes prohibitively expensive services design, once the Library had chosen the reduced-for the building contractor. oxygen model for fire prevention. They went through a series It is recognized that, over time, the air-tightness of the of design iterations, including a comprehensive assessmentPAROC panels will deteriorate. Following discussions with of building construction details by their appointed air-our architects and PAROC, overcladding the building with tightness consultant.new PAROC panels has been kept as an option for 25 years Each of the key performance specifications in theinto the life of the building. Employer’s Requirements Document (ERD) have been Mitigating the risk of not achieving an ALI of 0.5 at build- shaped by the air-tightness requirement. It has had a bear-ing handover has been embedded in all key construction ing on choice of materials and components for the wallsproject processes and control documents, including: and roof; design drawings show a higher level of detail for all floor/wall/roof junctions, and seams between wall panels• a Develop and Construct procurement process; and roof sections; Class D ducting has been specified, rather• a building contractor personnel and subcontractor than the more conventional but potentially leakier Class C; selection process; and, the steel structure of the building has been assessed• a Procurement Evaluation methodology; to ensure that wind deflection of the main members does• onsite management, monitoring, and reporting procedures; not cause the wall panels to gape, causing air leaks. These are only a few examples of how the building’s design has• the Building Contract Employer’s Requirements been defined by the requirement for air tightness. (Performance Specifications); The contract model for construction is “Develop and• contractually binding testing and handover/acceptance Construct”. It is usual practice under a Develop and Construct specifications; contract that the building design is not fully detailed when• pre-contract design drawings; it is passed to the building contractor, following awarding of the contract. However, during the development of the pre-• Conditions of Contract; and contract design, because of the serious impact of not achieving• tender evaluation criteria. the air-tightness target, the architects developed areas of continued on page 8 7
  8. 8. Air Tightness Strategies — continued from page 7the design much farther than would normally be expected. • The building contractor must appoint its own air-They further refined the design detailing in mid-2005, having tightness consultant (this has already happened duringbrought air-tightness specialists onboard to help ensure that the procurement process).the pre-contract design offered the best chance of success. • The building contractor’s air-tightness consultant willCurrent Air-Tightness Testing Plans and Acceptance carry out design reviews with the employer’s own air-Criteria tightness consultant, the main building contractor, clad-The entire design development and testing regime for the ding installers, mechanical and electrical equipmentbuilding has been structured to provide the Library with a installers and steelwork fabricators.tough and enforceable risk management capability with • The building contractor’s air-tightness consultant willrespect to air tightness. carry out a number of onsite audits to ensure the as-built The Library has established an unusually rigorous testing details are as specified, and will produce reports withregime, designed to capture potential workmanship issues photographs and drawings.before formal testing commences. For example, it is outsidenormal practice for cladding installers or air-tightness con- • The architect’s air-tightness consultant and selectedsultants to build a 16-square-metre (172-square-foot) test rig specialists (e.g., cladding manufacturer) will also carryof wall panels for offsite testing. However, the Library’s team out onsite audits and assume supervisory roles duringhas insisted upon this as a risk-mitigation measure, to help construction.ensure that the workmanship on seam seals between panels • The building contractor’s air-tightness consultant is boundis practiced and proven before onsite installation commences. to carry out a number of component tests to British The Employer’s Requirements Document (ERD) issued to Standard, to assess the air leakage of various interfacesbidders includes the Library’s contractually binding perfor- and joints between building components. It is expectedmance specifications. These include extensive references that the component test rig will measure approximatelyto the desired Air Leakage Index value of 0.5. (All clauses 12 x 12 feet. Tests will be carried out on the sample panel,relating to air leakage and testing have been reviewed and then a number of times onsite.approved by the air-tightness consultant.) • Two air-tightness tests will be carried out: one beforePerformance Specifications Volume 1: Architectural installation of the racking system (following completionNBS Specification of the building envelope and prior to handover to theSection 40 (British Standard 5454: Project Specific Require- automation contractor), and one following final completionments) details onsite and offsite monitoring and testing of the envelope (after installation of racking). The architect’srequirements that are contractually binding (an extract can air-tightness consultant will monitor these tests onsite.be found at the end of this article). Key elements include: continued on page 10Blower-Door-Test8
  9. 9. Extract from Performance Specifications, Volume 1: Architectural NBS SpecificationBritish Library PROJECT SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS—BS5454: The Contractor’s Air-Tightness consultant shall carry out aBoston Spa—7-Aisle Scheme number of component tests to BS EN 12114:2000, to assess the air leakage of various interfaces and joints between building40. AIR TIGHTNESS components. It is expected that the component test rig willThe contractor shall appoint an Air-Tightness Consultant who measure approximately 12 x 12 feet, and the samples shall beis a member of the Air Tightness Test Measurement Association tested to a pressure differential of 600 pascals, with resultsto carry out the works detailed below. The company shall hold extrapolated to 50 pascals. The tests shall be carried out on aISO 9001 and UKAS accreditations for similar works and hold sample panel, then a number of times onsite. The Employer’sProfessional Indemnity Insurance. Air-Tightness Consultant shall be present during the setting upThe Contractor’s Air-Tightness Consultant shall put forward a of the test equipment and during the test itself. The report of thelist of similar contracts worked on with air-leakage requirements findings shall be submitted to the Employer and the retainedless than 1.0 m3 per hour per m2 at 50 pascals, in terms of design team. Prior to the air-tightness test, the specialist companycarrying out the following: shall work out the envelope area as set out in CIBSE TM23. • developing air sealing specifications in terms of materials Two Air-Tightness Tests shall be carried out in line with to use; CIBSE TM23: one before the installation of the racking system • air tightness design reviews and developing robust details; (following completion of the envelope to the agreed stage) and one following the final completion of the envelope (after • site audits; the racking installation). The air-tightness tests shall be carried • component tests to measure the air permeability of out in line with CIBSE TM23. The Employer’s Air-Tightness sections of joint, louvres, etc.; Consultant shall be present during the tests. • final air tests and their involvement with both specifying and carrying out air-sealing works to be carried out; The air-tightness test result shall be expressed in terms of an air-leakage index in m3/h/m2, and shall not exceed 0.5 m3/h/m2 • final air leakage tests; and, at a reference pressure differential of 50 pascals. The results of • identification of carrying out remedial works. the air-tightness testing (and any subsequent testing) shall beThe Contractor’s Air-Tightness Consultant shall carry out design presented in a comprehensive report and submitted to thereviews with the Employer’s Retained Air-Tightness Consultant, Employer and the Employer’s retained consultants.the Main Building Contractor, Cladding Installers, Mechanical The following conditions shall be met whilst carrying outand Electrical Equipment Installers and Steelwork Fabricators the tests:to resolve the following issues: • The external envelope shall be complete when the final • developing air-sealing specifications in terms of materials test is carried out. to use, compatibility, adhesion, movement, fire rating, longevity, maintenance etc.; • Raised floors and suspended ceilings shall have sufficient • developing robust details; panels removed by the contractor to allow the free flow of air through them. • assessing operational issues with automatic doors, etc.; • resolving air tightness issues with structural requirements • Internal doors shall be wedged open. —thermal movement, wind loading, thermal component • All doors, windows and fixed vents shall be closed tests to measure the air permeability of sections of joint, throughout the tests. louvres, etc.; • Mechanical ventilation systems shall be temporarily sealed. • final air tests and their involvement with both specifying • Smoke extracts and lift shaft vents shall not be sealed. and carrying out air-sealing works to be carried out; • Drains and water traps shall be filled with water. • final air leakage testing requirements; • future repair and maintenance issues; If the building’s air-leakage rate is greater than 0.5 m3/h/m2, • overcladding, crash damage, reduction in air tightness; the contractor shall arrange for appropriate remedial action to be taken which could include: • design life, lifecycle issues; and, • risk issues. • A full site audit of the airtight envelope, whilst the building is being de-pressurized.The Contractor’s Air-Tightness Consultant shall carry out anumber of site audits to ensure the as-built details are as • A localized smoke leakage test.specified, and shall produce reports with photographs and • A full-scale smoke leakage test.drawings, identifying the size, scale and position of defects. In • A thermographic survey.addition to this, the Employer’s Air-Tightness Consultant andselected specialists (e.g., Cladding Manufacturer) will also carry Further air-leakage tests shall be carried out until the air leakageout site audits and assume supervisory roles during construction. rate is less than 0.5 m3/h/m2 at 50 pascals. The Employer’s Air-If deemed appropriate, the Employer’s representatives may have Tightness Consultant shall be present during all further air-a full-time onsite presence during some periods of construction. leakage tests, and the resultant data provided to the Employer. 9
  10. 10. Air Tightness Strategies — continued from page 8• The contract and specifications state that the air-tightness The procurement evaluation team pressed building test result must be expressed in terms of an air leakage contractors on their choice of roofing and wall cladding index in m3/h/m2 and must not exceed 0.5 m3/h/m2 at a sub-contractors, designers, and project managers, to help reference pressure differential of 50 pascals. The results determine the seriousness with which bidders understood of air-tightness testing (and any subsequent testing) will the need for best-practices workmanship on design details be presented in a comprehensive report and submitted relating directly to air-tightness. The architect’s air-tightness to the Library. consultant was involved in interviewing the contractors• If the building air-leakage rate is greater than 0.5 m3/h/m2, and their air-tightness consultants, and was also part of the the building contractor is contractually obliged to arrange scoring team. for appropriate remedial action. Further air-leakage tests Under a Develop and Construct contract, the successful will then be carried out until the air-leakage rate is less bidder takes on all contractual responsibility for the building than 0.5 m3/h/m2. design and its successful construction. All written and verbal communication with the bidders has emphasized this con-Performance Specifications Volume 3b: Structural tractual liability, and procurement meetings were used toSteelwork reinforce the message that contractors had to be certainPermissible Deflections and Movement — All requirements that they could manage the air-tightness risk during designin this section are aimed at minimizing the chance of wind development and construction.deflection, which may cause wall panels to gape, thus Early in the procurement process, a meeting focusingleaking air. specifically on air tightness was held with the bidding con- tractors. This was used to draw the bidders’ attention toPerformance Specifications Volume 4: Mechanical those clauses in the draft contract (and design specificationBuilding Services and drawings) relating to air tightness. Their attention wasThis includes extensive clauses related to testing and oper- also drawn to the testing and handover requirements laidational handover. Cross-referenced to Vol.1 (Architecture). out in the contract.Some of the most pertinent clauses include: There were continuous and thorough discussions with all• “As mechanical services form part of the repository and bidders about how they would approach design, installation, penetrate the external walls, mechanical services shall and testing. Bidders were asked to explain how they planned act together with the building fabric to ensure that the to ensure that any potential issues with workmanship were maximum specified air leakage is not exceeded.” identified at the earliest possible opportunity and rectified.• The Ductwork Material section requires that, “The air The Invitation to Tender for the building contract is explicit tightness of the manufactured seam shall comply with in asking the building contractor to make proposals which the specified air leakage tests.” will further mitigate the risk of poor-quality workmanship.• The testing specification details for the Air Handling Both shortlisted bidders have made proposals to further Units relates this requirement to broader air-leakage extend the Library’s monitoring and testing proposals, as testing required by the ERD. defined in the ERD. Both shortlisted contractors have shown a sound appre- Finally, air tightness must be proven during the two- ciation of all the challenges posed by the air-tightness regime,week fault-free period. and have subsequently responded with their own design Throughout the testing process, the Library will benefit suggestions as enhanced risk mitigations. One has pro-from expert monitoring by the architect’s air-tightness con- posed a revised roof design which they feel is more likelysultant, the building contractor’s air-tightness consultant, and to be installed carefully enough to meet the air-tightnessthe project management team. All will share their progress targets. The other has chosen a German cladding and roofwith the Library through a formalized reporting process. subcontractor which has built and tested buildings (some larger than ours) with an Air Leakage Index value betterRisk Mitigation in the Building Contractor Procurement than the 0.5 value required by our design.ProcessAll members of the Library’s tender evaluation teams haveclearly expressed the challenges faced by potential building John DeLucy is the Head of Estates and Facilities at thecontractors with respect to air tightness. British Library in London, England. Potential bidders’ understanding of these design challenges(as demonstrated in their formal tender submissions and Julian Taylor is the Project Sponsor for this project, andat formal interviews) was a key element in the Library’s was responsible for coordinating the British Library usertender evaluation process. requirements and contractor input.10
  11. 11. Apprenticing in Facilities Management by Kate Hickman SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTIONAs a child, I dreamed about Management program greenexploring the rainforest in search with envy!of the next cure for cancer. In In April, I finished my juniormy early teens, my dream became year in the Facilities Managementrunning the 400-meter dash in Program at Brigham Youngthe Olympics. As I transitioned University. This program in-from high school to college, work- cludes courses on project man-ing at the Smithsonian Institution agement, asset management,became my dream. technology, scheduling, and I have always loved museums, other facility-related courses.art, history, and architecture. I In addition to facilities courses,started drawing floor plans when each student is required to takeI was nine years old. When I nearly 30 hours of constructionvisited Washington, D.C. at the management courses and com-age of eleven, I was awed by plete a business minor. Thesethe number and stature of the courses have prepared me wellmuseums. I stood for what for my summer internship withseemed to be hours in front the Smithsonian Institution. Oneof works by Claude Monet, course teaches various methodsstaring closely at the blobs of in construction estimates, usingcolor before slowly stepping Microsoft’s Excel program. Thisback to see the colors blend. course is a great benefit to meThis experience in Washington, as I continue to use my skills toD.C. left me with a special create spreadsheets for the engi-interest in museums that neers and office staff. Brighamcontinues to inspire me today. Young University is one of the The chance to set up an top schools in Facilities Man-internship with Dan Davies agement in North America. Inof the Smithsonian Institution October 2005, we were rewardedcame in October 2005. I had an Smithsonian intern Kate Hickman in front of the newly the IFMA Student Chapter of the opened Donald W. Reynolds Center for American Artopportunity to meet Mr. Davies Year Award. We have student and Portraiture.in Philadelphia at an Inter- chapters for IFMA, the Asso-national Facility Management ciation of Higher EducationAssociation (IFMA) convention. I was eager for the oppor- Facilities Officers (APPA), the International Association oftunity. I love my internship. It is a very unique time for the Assembly Managers (IAAM), and the American Society ofGallery Place Zone of the Office of Facilities Management Healthcare Engineering (ASHE).and Reliability. The Patent Office Building reopened on As I travel to and from the Smithsonian Institution eachJuly 1, 2006, after nearly six years of renovation, with a day, I sometimes have to pinch myself as I still cannotnew name: The Donald W. Reynolds Center for American believe that I am here. Every time I walk past the DonaldArt and Portraiture. As an intern, I have a great opportunity W. Reynolds Center for American Art and Portraiture, Ito watch the transition from construction management to catch myself beaming from ear to ear. For now, the feelingfacilities management. can be compared to being a kid in a candy store: I am an From being on nearly twenty feet of scaffolding, cleaning intern at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.bas-relief, to organizing a move, to playing a role in a bench-marking study, I have learned a great deal. I have also had Kate Hickman is a facilities management intern atan opportunity to shadow Mr. Davies as he attends to his the Donald W. Reynolds Center for American Art anddaily tasks, attends various meetings, and puts out the Portraiture, part of the Smithsonian Institution. This fall,inevitable facilities-management fires. These experiences, she begins her senior year of studies at Brigham Youngalong with many others, make others from my Facilities University in Salt Lake City, Utah. 11
  12. 12. IAMFA Benchmarking Exercise 2006 by Kate HickmanNearly 40 institutions from around the Exploratorium — San Francisco, CA,world took part in this year’s IAMFA U.S.A. — Jennifer Frago, Andy Hirshfieldbenchmarking exercise. This annual — Offers many interactive sites online, including the exploration of the sciencestudy is an excellent way for our mem- in different sports.bers to share best practices and assessinstitutional performance, and has Freer Gallery of Art — Washington, DC,become a popular IAMFA initiative. The U.S.A. — Robert Evans — Throughfollowing institutions and individuals September 4, 2006 the Gallery willtook part in this year’s exercise, and feature the exhibition, Facing East: British Museumwill be meeting the day before our Portraits from Asia.Annual Conference in Los Angeles of over eight million postage and Getty Center — Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A.to discuss the results. review stamps, but 47 million patent — James Bullock, John Donohoe, Oren specifications. Gray, Joseph May, Gary McKean, MichaelArt Institute of Chicago — Chicago, IL, Rogers, Will Spencer — The Getty CenterU.S.A. — Thomas Barnes, William Caddick British Museum — London, England — website offers Getty Bookmarks. These— The Art Institute of Chicago is anx- Stephen Gill — The Museum exists to bookmarks allow visitors to collectiously awaiting the completion of their illuminate the histories of cultures, information on their favorite worksnew building named the Modern Wing. for the benefit of present and future of art at the Getty Center. generations.Anacostia Museum and Center for Hirshhorn Museum & Sculpture GardenAfrican American History and Culture — Washington, DC, U.S.A. — Fletcher—Washington, D.C., U.S.A. — Maurice Brooklyn Museum of Arts and Sciences — New York City, NY, U.S.A. — Frantz Johnston — One of the current exhibits,Evans — Their current exhibition, Zobop by Jim Lambie, is an artworkReclaiming Midwives, is on display Vincent — On display in their visible storage is the Spacelander Bicycle comprised of striped taped floor pieces.through August 6, 2006. (Benjamin J. Bowden), designed in 1946 and manufactured circa 1960. Library of Congress (3 sites) —Asian Art Museum — San Francisco, CA, Washington, DC, U.S.A. — JosephU.S.A. — Gordon Bailey, Brenda Cobb- Neal Graham.Williams — The Asian Art Museumturned 40 this year. Congratulations! Metropolitan Museum of Art — New York, NY, U.S.A. — Thomas ScallyAuckland Art Gallery — Auckland, — Part of the website features anNew Zealand — Patricia Morgan — Log interactive timeline of art history,on to this interactive site to put together including highlights and special topics.jigsaw puzzles of major pieces of art:http://www.aucklandartgallery.govt.nz/ Museum of Contemporary Art —activities/puzzle/default.asp Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A. — Randal Murphy Canadian Museum of Civilization — Since 1979, the Museum has beenBritish Library — London, England — committed to the collection, presen-John de Lucy, Harry Wanless — The tation, and interpretation of work Canadian Museum of CivilizationBritish Library boasts of its collection produced since 1940 in all media, and Corporation — Ottawa-Gatineau,which not only includes a collection to preserving that work for future Canada — Chan Hung Do, Guy Larocque, Christian Pagé — The Canadian Museum generations. of Civilization is celebrating its 150th anniversary this year; the Canadian War Museum opened its new site in May 2005, celebrating its 125th anniversary and the 60th anniversary of the end of the Second World War. Canadian Museum of Nature — Ottawa, Canada — Lucie Lanctot — Currently featuring an exhibition on the courtship rituals of animals of various sizes andAuckland Art Gallery shapes. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden112
  13. 13. Love and War 1935–1945 is on display until October 8, 2006. National Library of Scotland — Edinburgh, Scotland — Jack Plumb — Has material in over 490 languages in 13 million printed items; 100,000 manuscripts. National Museum of American History, Behring Center — Washington, DC, U.S.A. — Kelvin Lawson — Closing its Smithsonian Institution Building,Museum of Contemporary Art doors in September 2006 for two years "The Castle"1 of renovation.Museum Support Centre (SmithsonianInstitution) — Washington, DC, U.S.A. National Museum of Australia — Smithsonian Institution Building —— Wayne Field. Canberra, Australia. Washington, DC, U.S.A. — Richard Day — This is the Smithsonian Institution’sMuseum Victoria — Melbourne, Australia first building, popularly known as National Museum of Natural History —— Kim Reason — Currently featuring the “The Castle”. Washington, DC, U.S.A. — Andy Dietzexhibition, Commonwealth Photographic — Their current exhibition, WondrousAwards: an exhibit of photographs high- Smithsonian Quadrangle — Washington, Cold: An Antarctic Journey, offers alighting the best of the Commonwealth DC, U.S.A. — Richard Day — Includes glimpse of the majestic continent ofPhotographic Awards since 2000. the Smithsonian Institution’s Freer Antarctica of scientists and explorers. Gallery of Art, the Sackler, and theNational Air and Space Museum — Ripley Center.Washington, DC, U.S.A. — Dave Samec— Features historic artifacts on display, Stephen F. Udvar-Hazy Center —including the Wright Brothers’ Wright Washington, DC, U.S.A. — Dave Samec1903 Flyer and the Spirit of St. Louis. — The newly restored space shuttle Enterprise is the centerpiece of theNational Gallery — London, England — James S. McDonnell Space Hangar.Frank Brown, Peter Fotheringham —New addition to the “Rebels and Textile Museum — Washington, DC,Martyrs” series is Gustave Courbet’s U.S.A.self portrait The Desperate Man. Winterthur Museum — Winterthur, DE, National Museum of Natural History1National Gallery of Australia — U.S.A.— John Castle — BeautifulCanberra, Australia. American country estate in Delaware National Museum of the American with many wonderful features,National Gallery of Canada — Ottawa, Indian — Washington, DC, U.S.A. — including a 60-acre garden andCanada — Ed Richard — Current fea- Dave Samec. surrounding landscape.ture exhibition is Emily Carr: NewPerspectives. National Museum of the American Indian, Cultural Resources Center —National Gallery of Victoria — Washington, DC, U.S.A. — Maurice Evans.Melbourne, Australia — Tony vanNoordenburg — The exhibition Picasso: National Zoological Park — Washington, DC, U.S.A. — Stephen Hodsdon — This zoo features giant pandas including a cub, Tai Shan whose first birthday was July 9, 2006. Renwick Gallery — Washington, D.C., U.S.A. — Daniel Davies, Andy Smith — Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum1 The permanent collection includes Larry Fuente’s Game Fish which is comprised of game pieces and small toys. PHOTO CREDITS: 1COURTESY OF THE SMITHSONIAN Royal British Columbia Museum — 2MARISSA ROTHNational Gallery3 Vancouver, Canada. 3WWW.GEOCITIES.COM/ASIAGLOBE/GALLERY 13
  14. 14. The Donald W. Reynolds Center for American Art and Portraiture Opens in Washington, D.C. by Daniel Davies and the Reynolds Center Public Affairs Staff KEN RAHAIM, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTIONFollowing a six-and-a-half-year, $283-million renovation, the SmithsonianAmerican Art Museum and NationalPortrait Gallery are once again wel-coming visitors to a historic landmarkbuilding in the heart of the vibrant PennQuarter neighborhood. Collectively, themuseums celebrate the vision and cre-ativity of all Americans. Our collectionstell America’s stories through art, history,and biography. Here, you will findnineteenth-century grandeur enhancedby twenty-first-century additions.Glorious Building—A Temple of InventionThe National Historic Landmark buildingthat houses the Smithsonian AmericanArt Museum and the National Portrait Entrance to The Donald W. Reynolds Center for American Art and Portraiture home to theGallery is one of the oldest public build- National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum.ings constructed in early Washington,D.C., and is considered one of the In 1953, the building was slated for 588 windows were crafted from hand-finest examples of Greek Revival archi- demolition, to make way for a parking blown glass in Poland to simulate thetecture in the United States. In 1836, garage. The nascent historic preserva- slight irregularities of old panes, andarchitect Robert Mills designed the tion movement successfully campaigned more than 12,000 square feet of originaloriginal U.S. Patent Office Building to save it, and in 1955 President Dwight marble floor pavers were restored in thewith three storeys of spacious interiors D. Eisenhower ordered that it be pre- museums’ hallways. Recently uncoveredfor the display of more than 200,000 served. In 1958, Congress transferred the skylights span more than two citymodels of patented inventions, from the building to the Smithsonian to house blocks, and flood the third floorcotton gin to the first telephone. The art collections, and the National Portrait galleries with dramatic natural light.building was a hub of activity during Gallery and Smithsonian American Artthe Civil War period, serving as a mili- Museum opened to the public in 1968.tary hospital from September 1861 to Lunder Conservation In January 2000, the museums closed Center—Preserving OurApril 1863, with Walt Whitman and the building for extensive renovations.Clara Barton tending to wounded On Oct. 12, 2005, the Smithsonian Treasuressoldiers. Abraham Lincoln held his announced that the two museums and The Lunder Conservation Center, sharedinaugural ball at the Patent Office their activities would now be known by the Smithsonian American ArtBuilding on March 6, 1865. The upper collectively as the Donald W. Reynolds Museum and the National Portraitfloors of the west and north wings Center for American Art and Portraiture. Gallery, is the first facility that perma-were ravaged by fire in 1877. Nearly nently reveals to the public the preser-87,000 patent models were destroyed. vation and daily conservation workAdolf Cluss was appointed architect Artisan Craftsmanship— that is normally conducted behind theto reconstruct the damaged wings Dramatic Enhancements scenes. Featuring floor-to-ceiling glassin the popular Victorian “modern The meticulous restoration required a walls, the Center allows visitors to seeRenaissance” style. worldwide search for skilled artisans to the modern techniques that conser- The Patent Office moved out of the produce historically-accurate details. vators uses to examine and treat thebuilding in 1932, and the Civil Service Thousands of encaustic and geometric national treasures entrusted to bothCommission moved into the building. tiles were specially made in England, museums. The Center’s five state-of-14
  15. 15. the-art laboratories and studios are of each artwork, artist biographies, audio of basketball star Shaquille O’Neal, a equipped to treat paintings, prints, interviews, still images, and nearly 70 32-foot-wide glowing map of the United drawings, photographs, sculptures, videos created especially for the Center. States with more than 300 televisions by folk art objects, decorative arts, and Check out the Luce Foundation Center Nam June Paik, and a visionary sculp- frames. Visit the Lunder Conservation online at LuceFoundationCenter.si.edu. ture by folk artist James Hampton made Center online at LunderCenter.si.edu. from miles of gold and silver foil are Nan Tucker McEvoy just a few of the thousands of artworks Luce Foundation Center Auditorium—State of the now on view. The Smithsonian American Art for American Art— Art Performance Space Museum is home to the largest collec- Explore our Collection The Nan Tucker McEvoy Auditorium is tion of American art in the world. Its The Luce Foundation Center for host to artists, lecturers, dancers, cura- holdings—more than 41,000 artworks American Art is the first visible art tors, musicians and many more per- in all media spanning more than three storage and study center in Washington, formers. The Smithsonian American centuries—tell the story of America D.C. This innovative public space pro- Art Museum has partnerships with the through the visual arts, and represent the vides new ways to experience American Washington National Opera, Blues most inclusive collection of American art, and displays nearly quadruple the Alley, and the Shakespeare Theatre art of any museum today. It is the number of artworks on view in the Company, among other collaborations. nation’s first federal art collection, galleries. Although the Luce Foundation The National Portrait Gallery has devel- predating the 1846 founding of the Center contains more than 3,300 art- oped an intriguing series of archival, Smithsonian Institution. The Smithsonian works, its imaginative design and documentary and feature films sure to American Art Museum’s Renwick Gallery, thoughtful organization allow visitors please any film buff. Don’t miss an located on Pennsylvania Avenue at to focus quickly on areas of interest; opportunity to explore all the museums 17th Street, N.W., is dedicated to exhi- from there, they are free to browse have to offer! biting American crafts and decorative or explore in more depth. arts from the 19th to 21st century. The Center features paintings densely Galleries—Find Yourself The National Portrait Gallery is a hung on screens; sculptures, craft, and on Our Walls landmark destination for people inter- folk art arranged on shelves; and por- Collectively, the National Portrait Gallery ested in learning the fascinating stories trait miniatures, bronze medals, and and the Smithsonian American Art of great Americans who have shaped jewelry in drawers that slide open at the Museum celebrate the vision and cre- our country. It is the only museum of touch of a button. More than 60 large ativity of all Americans. The collections its kind in the United States to combine sculptures are installed on the main tell America’s stories through art, history, aspects of American history, biography floor. Interactive computer kiosks pro- and biography. The iconic “Lansdowne” and art. The National Portrait Gallery vide insightful information about every portrait of George Washington by was established by an Act of Congress object on display, including a discussion Gilbert Stuart, a riveting photograph in 1962 as a “free public museum . . . depicting men and women who have made significant contributions to theHUGH TALMAN, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION history, development and culture of the people of the United States.” The museum’s collection includes 19,400 works, ranging from paintings and sculpture to photographs and drawings. Check out ReynoldsCenter.org for up-to-date information, and be sure to visit the museums in person! We’re open from 11:30 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. every day—stop by for lunch in our Upper West Side Café or an after-work cocktail in our outdoor Portico Café. Daniel Davies is the Zone Facilities Manager for the Gallery Place Zone The Luce Foundation Center for American Art offers three floors of open storage displaying 3,500 paintings, sculptures, miniatures, craft objects and folk art pieces from the of the Smithsonian Institution in Smithsonian American Art collection. Washington, D.C. 15
  16. 16. Getty Center Becomes First Facility in the U.S. to be Rated “Green” through LEED-EB Certification by Joseph E. May, PE The following article was published in the spring 2005 practices are projected to save more than $2 billion annually. edition of Papyrus. The first part of this article is adapted The Executive Order, signed by the governor in December from a Getty Center press release on the LEED-EB award. 2004, aims to reduce energy consumption for state-owned buildings by 20% by 2015. On February 14, 2005, the Getty Center became the first “As a LEED-EB certified facility, the Getty Center is pro- facility in the United States to be awarded LEED-EB viding a healthy and conducive climate for employees and (Leadership in Energy & Environment Design—Existing visitors, resulting in a more productive workforce and a Buildings) certification in the post-pilot phase of the program. better-served consumer base. We are proud of the dedication Administered by the U.S. Green Building Council, LEED is and commitment of our Facilities staff in achieving this cer- the nation’s most widely recognized and accepted green tification: the result of more than 3,000 man-hours performed building rating system. with a focused and cohesive effort across our site,” said The accreditation was presented at IFMA’s (International Bradley Wells, Vice-President of Finance and Administration Facility Managers Association) Best Practices Forum, a two-day for The J. Paul Getty Trust. “In addition, while reducing event held at the Getty Center on February 14 and 15, 2005. emissions and waste, the Getty Center’s improved energy Best Practices Forum participants came to share new practical and water efficiency has also cut operating costs, making ideas that they have adapted to their individual organizations. this green model economically appealing to other facilities.” The Getty’s efforts in creating a work environment that The lasting impact of the Getty Center’s consciously is not only good for workers, but also for the community and green decisions will be noticeable for years to come, espe- the environment, supports Governor Schwarzenegger’s newly cially within the immediate community and in the city of signed Executive Order promoting the Green Building Action Los Angeles, with its effects felt well beyond the region. Plan for California. At present, commercial buildings in The U.S. Green Building Council is the nation’s foremost California use 36% of the state’s electricity, and account for coalition of leaders from across the building industry, and a large portion of greenhouse gas emissions, as well as use works to promote buildings that are environmentally respon- of raw materials and waste management. While the estimated sible, profitable, and healthy places to live and work. The electricity costs for California’s commercial and institutional Council created the LEED certification to provide a standard buildings exceed $12 billion a year, cost-effective efficiency measurement with which to define “green”, helping to pre- vent false or exaggerated claims known as “green-washing”, and to encourage whole-building, integrated design pro-©J. PAUL GETTY TRUST cesses that facilitate positive results for the environment and occupant health. LEED-EB-certified buildings such as the Getty Center help to promote efforts to optimize energy and water efficiency, as well as recycling programs; to establish environmentally responsible processes, in order to minimize the impact of buildings on the environment; to reduce building-operation costs; to improve indoor environment quality; to provide a framework for sustainability as part of the organization’s culture; report environment stewardship efforts to cus- tomers and communities; and, to communicate the need for best practices. From left to right, from the J. Paul Getty Trust: Will Spencer, In October 2004, the U.S. Green Building Council issued Facilities Services Manager; Lynne Tjomsland, Grounds Manager; Version 2 of the LEED-EB specification. Version 2 incorpo- Joe May, Maintenance Planning and Support Manager; Jim Bullock, Director of Facilities; John Donohoe, Head of Engineering and rated the findings from the pilot program, and became the Maintenance; Michael Orth, Custodial and Contracts Manager, specification for the post-pilot period for LEED-EB certifica- and Mike Rogers, Capital Projects Support Manager. tion. At nearly the same time, interest in LEED-EB certification 16

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