Papyrus Fall/Winter 2006


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Papyrus Fall/Winter 2006

  1. 1. I N T E R N AT I O N A L A S S O C I AT I O N O F M U S E U M FA C I L I T Y A D M I N I S T R AT O R S VOLUME 8 NUMBER 1 PAPYRUS FALL-WINTER 2006–2007 All I wanna do is have some fun, until the sun comes up over Santa Monica Boulevard… by Dan Davies While we were in Los Angeles for the 16th Annual IAMFA hotel restaurant and had a wonderful lunch within feet of Conference, a forest fire raged in the mountains to the north. the surf. We stopped at Channel Islands National Park, and Smoke drifting south and west enhanced some of the spec- it was so clear we could see several of the islands from their tacular sunsets we saw on September 17–20, 2006. I don’t rooftop observation deck. Then it was back to Santa Monica think we can give Joe May, Don Battjes and Randy Murphy and a walk on the Pier. Don’t worry. I’m not about to tell (Getty, LACMA and MOCA, respectively) credit for those you about my whole trip like someone telling those dreaded sunsets, but they certainly get all due credit for almost vacation stories, but this first day was so rich that we were everything else we saw, heard, tasted and enjoyed as that certain the conference and the associated events would brief week flew by. surely follow suit. We were not disappointed. My wife, Kim, and I arrived a few days early to get the lay The action picked up right away with Keith McClanahan’s of the land. We drove up the Pacific Coast Highway as far inaugural IAMFA Benchmarking Workshop on Sunday. The as Muscle Shoals (not to be confused with Muscle Beach), turnout was excellent, and all in attendance gave positive just shy of Santa Barbara. There, we found a classic seaside continued on page 2DANIEL H. DAVIES INSIDE THIS ISSUE Welcome Home from Sunny Southern California! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Message from the President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Great Canadian Experience 2007: IAMFA’s 17th Annual Conference . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Museum and Gallery Air Conditioning Control Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute . . 14 Is Outsourcing Right for Your Organization? . . 16 Pandas Up-Close and Personal: A Tour of the Smithsonian National Zoo’s New Asia Trail. . . 18 Museum Benchmarks 2005, Survey of Facility Management Practices and Benchmarking Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Work Management Center Communication. . . 20 Restoring a Landmark: Conservation Projects at Tudor Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Letter from the Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 The Getty gardens, as seen on the evening of the Gala Dinner.
  2. 2. All I wanna do is have some fun . . . — continued from page 1 DANIEL H. DAVIES DANIEL H. DAVIESreviews of the first-ever web-based sur-vey. The Conference enticed almost 100members to convene in Santa Monica,joined by more than 30 guests who, asis our custom, enjoyed a unique andmemorable program of their very own.This year, the members’ program rivaledthe guest program for visual stimulusand the wow factor. We started off Monday at the spec-tacular Getty Villa. Limited to 1,400 visi-tors a day, this is a must-see when you election for that position. Conference Hot Wheels than you could shakeget to LA, and we saw it in a way few dates for Ottawa (September 16–18, a stick at. Nobody missed the boat,others will share. Our guests spent this 2007), and London (September 15–17, though. The guests, who’d spent theday at Universal Studios, except for the 2008) were announced. From the morning at the Reagan Library andrare stowaway that snuck onto the Villa floor, several notable contributions then lunched at Duke’s in Malibu,bus. Tuesday, members started at the were made, including one suggestion rejoined the members on the bus rideL.A. County Museum of Art (LACMA) to publish an introductory IAMFA bro- down to Marina del Rey for a fantasticand were thrilled with the major on- chure, and another to author the cur- dinner cruise on a Fantasea Yacht.going Transformation project on this riculum for the Facilities Track at the On Wednesday, we couldn’t shakehuge city property. Among the several AAM Conference. the guests. The whole swarm of ussessions there, we also squeezed in the Next, it was off to Petersen’s Auto- descended on the Museum of Contem-Annual Meeting, at which Guy Larocque, motive Museum for a guided tour porary Art (MOCA) for breakfast andPresident, and Richard Kowalczyk, V.P. among some of the most classic sheet an insightful guided tour — oh, andfor Administration, were re-elected by metal around — and that’s saying a don’t forget those museum shops —acclamation. Jim Moisson’s term as lot for southern California. Among the before we headed across the street forTreasurer was also extended to realign hundreds of specimens were two a tour and lunch at the Walt Disneywith the bylaws schedule of odd-year Batmobiles, the Love Bug, and more continued on page 3Members and their guests gathered at the Getty for the Gala Dinner.2
  3. 3. Welcome Home from Sunny Southern California! by Kim DaviesOnce again, with my lucky black A very special thank you to Van andumbrella in tow, we had a wonderful Paul, who took care of the guests. Weweek of weather for the IAMFA con- enjoyed your company and appreciateference in Los Angeles. Nary a drop the time you devoted to us, to ensureof rain in sight. Considering the raging that we got the most out of our trip towildfires to the north, perhaps I should L.A. Paul . . . thank you for arranginghave left my umbrella at home. the additional “coffee breaks” on Thank you to Joe May, Randy Wednesday. You enabled me, andMurphy and Don Battjes for intro- some of my companions, to absorbducing me to your wonderful city. some culture and support the localThe opportunity to tour MOCA with economy at the same time.a representative from the education It is always hard to say goodbye todepartment was great. I still do not friends, and this year is no different. I,“get” Jackson Pollock, but it was fun for one, am already looking forwardto work my way through what the to next September in Ottawa. Until Kim Davies attended her sixth straightvarious artists were trying to say with then, au revoir: good-bye for now — IAMFA Conference Guest Program in LAthe help of my fellow IAMFA visitors I am brushing up on my high school with husband Dan. Now that the kidsand our guide. French for next year. are grown, there is more time to travel.All I wanna do is have some fun . . . — continued from page 2Concert Hall: another Frank Gehry this outstanding conference experience DANIEL H. DAVIESmasterpiece. After lunch, we toured the together for the 16th IAMFA roundup.Japanese American National Museum A special thanks also goes out to alland environs. The day — and the the host facilities and to all the sponsorsentire conference — were capped off that enhanced our program throughwith an evening at The Getty Center. their support. The hand-off was madeFirst order of business was the tradi- to next year’s conference committeetional group photo. Then, wine, cheese, after the Gala Dinner. Christian Pagéhors d’oeuvres (that’s just before horse has picked up the ball and is stridingin Webster’s Dictionary) and another toward our next extravaganza, whichwest-coast sunset. Then we moved you won’t want to miss! Mark yourinside to visit some of the fabulous calendar now and submit that budgetgalleries before the incredible Gala request early. We shall convene againDinner with harp accompaniment. for our 17th Annual Conference inRumor has it, apparently with photo- Ottawa, Canada, September 17–19,graphic evidence, that there was a 2007. Until then, watch these pagesproposal of marriage tendered at some for news you can use and updatespoint during the evening. This has yet to the script. No rain. No mudslides. on the plan as it takes be substantiated, however, and the No earth tremblers. And the forest fireinvitations have not arrived in the mail, stayed well enough out of the area that Daniel Davies is the Zone Facilitiesso we’ll just have to stay tuned for more our proceedings were never at risk. Manager for the Gallery Place Zoneon that, perhaps in Ottawa. Otherwise, Congratulations and thanks to all those of the Smithsonian Institution inthe entire program seems to have been named and anonymous who worked Washington D.C., and is the Editorpulled off in fine fashion and according many long hours and days to bring of Papyrus. 3
  4. 4. Message from the President Benchmarking Committee members Finally, I would be remiss if I didn’t have already taken note of areas that recognize the tremendous leadership of Guy Larocque, can be improved for next year’s survey Joe May in organizing the 2006 IAMFA President of IAMFA and workshop that is taking place in Annual Conference in Los Angeles. Joe, Ottawa at the next annual IAMFA con- along with his colleagues Don Batjes ference in September 2007. They are and Randy Murphy were outstandingTaking a Leadership Role also looking at ways to encourage an in producing a very successful confer-Newspapers are running articles on increase in the number of participants, ence that was of great benefit to thethe rapid changes to the faces of our in order to broaden the database and participants. On behalf of the Board ofcommunities, populations are moving to add statistical validity to the results. Directors and the members of IAMFA,from rural areas into our cities, immi- However, the search for ways to take we congratulate Joe and his teamgration in developed countries is grow- leadership roles within our organiza- and thank them for this excellenting rapidly, and the influence of the tion must not stop there. It is incum- achievement.motor vehicle is being debated as a bent upon each of us to do our ownglobal endangerment issue. Our world research to find new and better ways IAMFA Board of Directorsis vastly different than what it was only to build, operate and maintain ourdecades ago, when many of our current buildings, to respond to the needs of Presidentpractices were established. “Business as a more diverse range of visitors, to Guy Larocque Canadian Museum of Civilization andusual” is no longer sufficient to respond find storage space within our walls, Canadian War Museumto the realities of today. and to “green” our practices. Gatineau, Canada As an international organization, As you know, one of the initiatives guy.larocque@civilization.caIAMFA has a role to play in meeting taken by some IAMFA members is thethe challenges that we all face in our creation of the Building Label Com- V.P., Administration Richard Kowalczykprofession. Museums and cultural insti- mittee, which seeks to create a standard Smithsonian Institutiontutions are becoming more accessible by which buildings can be labeled in Washington, D.C., USAthrough outreach programs, electronic accordance with their level of environ- and collaborations among insti- mental sustainability.This is a majortutions, which are all means of attracting undertaking because of the diversity V.P., Regional Affairs John de Lucya wider range of audiences. Collections of measurable and non-measurable The British Libraryare growing and putting pressure on factors that could go into the creation London, space, as a result of acquisitions of this standard, not to mention the john.delucy@bl.ukbased on research, archaeological field- difficulties in arriving at a consensuswork, and from estates bequeathed to among all stakeholders. But this is Treasurer Jim Moissonmuseums from an aging population. exactly the kind of bold leadership Harvard University Art MuseumsThe rise in awareness of the need to initiative that IAMFA is encouraging Cambridge, MA, USAprotect the natural environment is chal- from its members. james_moisson@harvard.edulenging the way we operate and con- Your participation to date in thestruct the buildings that are home to our development of IAMFA`s strategic plan Secretary and Papyrus Editor Daniel H. Daviescultural institutions. These and many has been very much appreciated and Smithsonian Institutionother challenges have been discussed will go a long way towards charting Washington, D.C., USAand debated among members of IAMFA the course for our organization over the ddavies@si.eduat our annual conferences, and through next five years. This plan will provideour networking channels. It is the a framework for leadership initiatives Chairman — Conference 2007 Christian Pagéresponsibility of IAMFA to continue that I hope will leave a lasting and Canadian Museum of Civilizationto foster these discussions, and to beneficial mark on the cultural insti- Corporationchallenge its members to be more tutions that we serve. If we approach Gatineau, Canadaengaged in these debates. our concerns in an open and visionary The search for best practices through way, we can demonstrate leadershipbenchmarking has become a corner- in turning opportunities that can be For additional contact information,stone activity for IAMFA members over grasped and explored into realistic please visit our website at www.iamfa.orgthe years, and this will continue. The accomplishments.4
  5. 5. The Great Canadian Experience 2007: IAMFA’s 17th Annual Conference by Christian PagéThe Ottawa-Gatineau Conference Com- HANIF BAYAT ( looks forward to welcomingyou to Canada’s picturesque NationalCapital Region in September 2007 forour next conference. Ottawa is Canada’s capital city,where the region’s three dominantcultures — Native, French and English— interact harmoniously. Located atthe confluence of two rivers, the cityis a scenic delight and boasts stun-ning national monuments, world-classmuseums, outstanding architectureand beautiful green spaces. The RideauCanal — famous as the world’s longestwinter skateway — is lined with lushgardens, impeccably groomed streetsand recreational pathways for cyclistsand pedestrians alike. Home to nearlya million people of all nationalities,Ottawa offers a wide range of fine The Peace Tower and West Block on Parliament Hill in Ottawa.restaurants, galleries and shops, givingit international appeal with a small- Ian MacLean — Canada Science and away from the Gothic splendor oftown ambiance. For more information Technology Museum Corporation Canada’s Parliament Buildings. Roomsplease visit: at the Fairmont are available at the Ed Richard — National Gallery of The Conference Committee is already rate of $209.00 CDN per night. This Canadahard at work organizing next year’s con- price is guaranteed from Saturdayference, including a great guest pro- Pierrette Lagrois — National Gallery September 15, 2007 to Wednesdaygram. The Committee’s members are: of Canada September 19, 2007. All members are responsible for making their ownGuy Larocque — Canadian Museum of Jean Allard — Library and Archives reservations. Please call the GlobalCivilization Corporation Canada Reservation Center at 1-800-441-1414Christian Pagé — Canadian Museum Terresa McIntosh — Library and within North America, or 506-863-6310of Civilization Corporation Archives Canada continued on page 6 Marc Chrétien — Canadian Museum of Nature Gilles Landry — National Arts Centre The Committee will be meeting monthly to discuss its progress in organizing IAMFA’s 17th Annual Conference, and looks forward to providing members and their guests with an outstanding experience. Fall is particularly spectacular in the region,View in the Grand Hall River End, and the Committee has already reservedCanadian Museum of Civilization. Art a block of rooms at the Fairmont One of the many fine dining areas insidefrom Alex Janvier called Morning Star. Château Laurier, located just steps the Fairmont Château Laurier. 5
  6. 6. IAMFA’s 17th Annual Conference — continued from page 5for International Reservations. We rec-ommend that callers identify themselvesas being with the International Associa-tion of Museum Facility Administratorsgroup (IAMFA) for ease of booking. Youmay also book through the followingpromotional code “GRIAM1” at thewebsite link,3043,,00.HTML?sPromoCode=GRIAM1&lPropertySeq=100109 About the Fairmont Château Laurier Regardless of how you make your Constructed at the turn of the twentieth century, the Château Laurier was part ofreservations, reservation requests must a network of deluxe hotels built across Canada by Charles Melville Hays, Generalbe received by August 1, 2007 in Manager of the Grand Trunk Railway. The Château Laurier’s design combinesorder to qualify for the group rate. French Renaissance style with the neo-Gothic lines of the Parliament Buildings. Over the past few weeks, the Com- Unfortunately, Hays never saw the hotel completed. Days before the hotel wasmittee has also been working on the scheduled to open on April 26, 1912, Hays was returning from England on the ill-Web page for next year’s conference, fated Titanic. Hays and the male members of his party perished on April 14, 1912,which will contain general information and the hotel’s grand opening was delayed until June 1, 1912.on the 2007 conference, the conferencemanual, members and guest agenda, Since its opening, the Fairmont Château Laurier has hosted a who’s-who of royalty,presentations, sponsors, transportation, heads of state, politicians and entertainers. It has been home to former Primerestaurants and much more. Ministers Richard Bedford Bennett and Pierre Elliot Trudeau, and King George VI, We are looking forward to seeing Queen Elizabeth II and her consort Prince Philip, Winston Churchill, Charles deeveryone next September in Ottawa, Gaulle, The King and Queen of Siam, Nelson Mandella, and former U.S. Presidentand will do our best to make this Hoover have all graced the hotel registry. The hotel was also the longtime home ofevent the best Canadian experience internationally known photographer Yousuf Karsh, one of the foremost portraitistsfor everyone. of the twentieth century. The 2006 conference in Los Angelesthis past September was a unique andwell-organized event with flawless Los Angeles conference was a great Christian Pagé, FMA RPA works for theplanning. I would like to take this success, and I hope to use the knowl- Canadian Museum of Civilizationopportunity to thank the members edge that I gained from the LA Con- Corporation, and is Chairman of theof the committee — Joe May, Don ference Committee to organize another 2007 IAMFA Conference Committee.Battjes, Randy Murphy and their staff successful conference in Canada’s— for this memorable experience. The National Capital. HARRY FOSTER, CMCCanadian Museum of Civilization6
  7. 7. Museum and Gallery Air Conditioning Control Systems by Howard HallMuseums and galleries, as all facility managers know, have readings are then compared, and the two that are closestparticular requirements for maintaining environmental con- together are averaged, with the third reading ignored.ditions — including temperature, and especially humidity This averaged reading is the Triple Redundancy value,control — to ensure that priceless collections and works of and is used both to monitor room conditions and toart are preserved for future generations to enjoy. control the plant. The National Gallery in London, England aims at main- It was realized some time ago that there were sometaining room temperature for the permanent collection be- serious deficiencies with this arrangement. This promptedtween 21°C +/- 1 K (approx. 70°F +/- 2 R) in winter and an in-depth review of all aspects of the control systems, to23°C +/- 1 K (approx. 73°F +/- 2 R) in summer, and room see what improvements could be made to reduce cyclinghumidity at a constant 55% rh +/- 5% rh, with minimal short- of control components, while ensuring that optimum roomterm variation, given that stability of relative humidity is of conditions are maintained.particular importance for works of art. This review was wide-ranging and covered the following Although these conditions have been maintained success- items, which are discussed in more detail below:fully over the years, it was noticed that this was sometimes • Triple Redundancy sensors;at the expense of not-inconsiderable cycling of controlcomponents such as control valves and humidifiers. It was • branch duct humidity control;thought that control would be more effective if this cycling • primary room temperature and humidity control;was reduced; it might even yield further improvement inthe environmental stability of the galleries. • a dewpoint-controlled plant; The design of the air-conditioning systems varies from • an anti wind-up and anti wind-down strategy, andgallery to gallery, as they were installed at different times,under different contracts, with various design consultants. • communication between outstations.Most, however, follow convention by having a cooling coil,supply fan and re-heater, with branch duct humidification Triple Redundancyby steam injection supplied from either central steam-raising The concept of triple redundancy came about due to theboilers or individual electrode steam generators. The con- unreliability of early designs for relative humidity sensors,trol systems are conventional, with the cooling coil control and the necessity for constant monitoring of room con-valve demand signal overridden by the humidity control ditions where paintings are on display or in storage. If anyloop, in the event that dehumidification is required. If humi- of the group of three sensors develops a fault, the remainingdification is required, the re-heater control valve opens to two are averaged, and if two sensors develop a fault, thenmaintain temperature, and steam is injected. the third sensor remains in service. This design approach was challenged when the first The flaw in this logic is best illustrated by consideringgallery refurbishment by Andrew Reid & Partners was what happens if there is a slight drift in the reading obtainedundertaken in 1995. Andrew Reid & Partners instead from the middle sensor.promoted the use of a dewpoint-controlled plant, for Take the following example:reasons that are explained later. Triple Redundancy (TRL) sensors are employed through- T1 20.0°C (68°F)out the National Gallery —probably because this concept T2 20.9°C (69.62°F)was part of the advice provided by the Museums and T3 22.0°C (71.6°F)Galleries Group (MAGG) division of the Property Services TRL value = 20.45°C (68.8°F) — average of T1 and T2.Agency (PSA), which was the government departmentformerly in charge of facilities management for public If the value of T2 drifts by say + 0.2°C (+ 0.36°F) then:buildings. As a result, it is likely that this concept has been T1 20.0°C (68°F)employed in other museums originally under PSA control. T2 21.1°C (69.98°F)Triple Redundancy sensors comprise three individual tem- T3 22.0°C (71.6°F)perature and relative humidity sensors, mounted on a com- TRL value = 21.55°C (70.8°F) — average of T2 and T3.mon base plate, which measure room conditions. The three continued on page 8 7
  8. 8. Museum and Gallery Air Conditioning Control Systems — continued from page 7 The result is a sudden jump in TRL value of 1.1 K (2 R), output to the humidifier — or override of the cooling valvewhich provides an unwanted step-change in the room tem- — is then modulated as required to control this value (theperature input into the control system. The same can happen secondary loop). The only problem is that, historically, thewith the humidity control loop. This is highly undesirable. controls were set up to regulate supply-duct relative humidity Far from being a theoretical risk, this occurs in practice, instead of absolute humidity. Since relative humidity changescausing disruption to the control system, the degree of which with changes in temperature, ongoing temperature changesdepends on the relative spread of the three individual occurring via the temperature-control loop have an impactsensors (the sensors would normally be closer together on the stability of the humidity-control loop. A furtherthan this example). problem is that the supply-duct relative humidity might The effect is illustrated in Fig. 1a, which illustrates the only require short-term variations of perhaps +/- 5% toimpact upon the stability of the control system (TEG 6 VAV control room humidity. However, this could occur any-Box Output) in one of the Sainsbury Wing galleries. where within a control band that has to cover a range of A new TRL strategy was devised, which overcame this perhaps 30% to 85% as the supply duct temperature rangesdrawback while remaining true to the original concept of from, say, 30°C (86°F) in heating mode to 15°C (59°F) inproviding three individual sensors for both temperature cooling mode. This is not an ideal situation from a controland humidity measurement, even though modern sensors point-of-view.are much more reliable. This is based on selecting the At the National Gallery, this arrangement was changedmiddle (median) sensor value, and using this as the TRL by using the building management system (BMS) to cal-value, taking into account how to treat any failed sensors culate the supply-duct mixing ratio (kg water/kg dry air,that are out of limits. This new strategy was tested thoroughly which is sometimes known as “moisture content” andbefore it was downloaded into existing outstations serving approximates absolute humidity), using the existing tem-live galleries. perature and relative humidity sensors. This is then con- Fig. 1b shows the improvement obtained in the same trolled between limits of 6 g/kg dry air (43 grains/lb),gallery when using the new TRL strategy. and 10 g/kg dry air (71 grains/lb), depending on room conditions — see also comments under anti-wind strategyBranch Duct Humidity Control below. The advantage is that the temperature- and humidity- control loops are uncoupled, so that one does not influ-There tends to be some confusion in the industry as a whole, ence the other, providing improved control stability. Thesewhereby relative humidity is treated as if it were an absolute limits also remain the same, irrespective of whether themeasurement of humidity which can be added or taken system is in heating or cooling mode.away in order to bring room conditions under control. The At the same time, the monitoring of external humidityair-conditioning systems at the National Gallery have been was amended to monitor the ambient mixing ratio. This isset up using cascade control. This means that any move- much more meaningful than monitoring ambient relativement away from the required room humidity setpoint resets humidity, which is highly dependent on ambient temperature.the supply-duct setpoint (the primary loop), and the control 100 100(˚C) Sensor 1 VAV box ouput (˚C) Sensor 1 VAV box ouput (Full (Full Sensor 2 heating) Sensor 2 heating) Sensor 3 Sensor 324 TRL value 24 TRL value 50 5023 23 0 0 (Full (Full22 cooling) 22 cooling) -50 -5021 2120 -100 20 -100 11:40 15:30 01:30 08:00 14/07/2004 14/07/04 09/12/2004 09/12/04Figure 1a Figure 1b8
  9. 9. Primary Room Temperature and Humidity address the situation, should either temperature or the room-Control mixing ratio not be maintained, for whatever reason. This is done — if temperature is not maintained, for example —Having made this change to the secondary control loop, it by adjusting the mixing ratio setpoint to the value that iswas decided to apply this logic to the primary (room control) required to obtain 55% rh at the actual measured roomloop. The thinking was that, if room temperature is con- temperature, should the re-heater loop become saturatedtrolled at setpoint and room absolute humidity (expressed (i.e., the re-heater valve is fully open). This means that,as mixing ratio) is also controlled at setpoint (where this is whilst the room-mixing ratio is controlled, it is not at thecalculated by the BMS from setpoint temperature and 55% expense of losing control of room relative humidity.relative humidity), then 55% rh will be maintained. Although This improvement is subtle when applied to asome small errors occur when using simplified formulae conventional plant, but assumes more importance whenfor this calculation, the same errors arise in measurement applied to a dewpoint-controlled plant. This is because anyas when calculating the mixing ratio setpoint, so they dehumidification signal causes the cooling coil valve to open,cancel each other out. which reduces supply air temperature just at the time that If the room temperature were, say, 20°C (69°F)/58% rh, additional re-heat is being called for to increase roomthen consider what control action is required to return the temperature. This is not particularly to design conditions of 21°C (70°F)/55% rh. Quite Figs. 2a and 2b demonstrate the improvement obtainedsimply, the required control action is to raise the room in Gallery 29 — in particular, the reduced diurnal cyclingtemperature, since by doing so, the room relative humidity of room temperature.will fall to 55% without requiring any response from the Figs. 3a and 3b demonstrate the improvement obtainedhumidity-control loop. in the cycling of the CHW cooling-coil control valve. Of course, at the end of the day, it is a room’s relativehumidity that is important, so a strategy was included to continued on page 10 (˚C) (% RH) (˚C) (% RH) 26 Temperature (˚C) Relative humidity (%) 60 24 Temperature (˚C) Relative humidity (%) 60 25 55 23 55 24 50 22 50 23 45 21 45 22 40 20 40 15/08 17/08 19/08 21/08 23/08 05/12 07/12 09/12 11/12 13/12 2004 2004Figure 2a Figure 2b % % 80 % valve open 80 % valve open 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 18:00 21:00 00:00 03:00 06:00 21:00 00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 05/09/04 06/09/04 08/12/04 09/12/04Figure 3a Figure 3b 9
  10. 10. Museum and Gallery Air Conditioning Control Systems — continued from page 9Dewpoint-Controlled Plant Although there was initially some concern about the riskHaving mentioned a dewpoint-controlled plant above, a of legionella spores when using wet mats, this is addressedbrief explanation of why this type of plant has been adopted by the following: (1) moisture is picked up by the air streamis called for. through evaporation, not by any form of spray; (2) the When using a conventional plant, any requirement to temperature of the pond, which is monitored, is invariablydehumidify the room causes the cooling-coil control valve below 20°C (68°F), and (3) the pond is kept sterilized usingto open, lowering the off-coil air temperature. This results ultraviolet sterilizing equipment. Another bonus is that therein the supply air becoming saturated, and there is latent is no need for any water treatment, and maintenance — forremoval of moisture. The supply air is then re-heated to the most part — only involves occasional washing-down ofmaintain room temperature. This does work but, depending the matrix.on what the supply air temperature is at the start of theprocess, relies on how much dehumidification effect there Anti Wind-Up and Anti Wind-Downis as the cooling coil valve starts to open. This can lead to Strategya control delay, which is not a good idea when trying to Although this might seem an odd title, it refers to a techniquemaintain close control. In addition, if there is a need to that was developed to overcome a particular problemincrease room humidity, there could well be a control common to control systems, which causes control delaydelay in obtaining useful steam output if a local steam and resulting deterioration in control.generator is used. To make matters worse, the control of Where, for example, the supply air temperature setpointelectrode type humidifiers can be notoriously difficult, is determined by the primary control loop, temperatureespecially if the supply-duct relative humidity is already limits need to be defined. These may typically be set atclose to saturation. 14°C (57°F) minimum and 30°C (86°F) maximum. However, The dewpoint plant that has been installed under recent if these temperatures cannot be reached — either becauserefurbishments at the National Gallery is configured such the off-cooling coil temperature is already higher than 14°Cthat there is a cooling coil (or a heating and cooling coil) (57°F), or because there is insufficient heating capacity tolocated immediately upstream of a wet mat adiabatic reach 30°C (86°F) — problems can occur. If the setpointhumidifier, which is kept permanently saturated. The air cannot be reached, there is no point setting it so low (or asleaving the wet mat is always close to being saturated high) because, when the control demand changes, there is(depending on the efficiency of the wet mat). Thus, the no control effect (i.e., control delay) until such time as themixing ratio of the supply air can be adjusted easily — setpoint temperature respectively rises (or falls) above (orwithout any control delay, and in much more stable fashion below) the actual temperature. This problem applies to— by modulating the cooling and (where fitted) heating both temperature- and humidity-control loops.coil control valves. As the supply air is brought close to This is illustrated in Fig. 4, which shows the effect ofsaturation, there should always be some re-heat in order to having a supply-duct temperature setpoint of 14°C (57°F),control temperature independent of humidity control. This when the actual supply-duct temperature at 17°C (63°C)sounds like it might waste energy; however, heat-recoverycoils are fitted to extract heat from the room return air,and this is used as the first stage of re-heat. In the NationalGallery, during most of its hours of operation, there is a (°C) %requirement to both cool and humidify the mixed air, which G18_S_DUCT_SP 25 G18_SUP_DUCT_TEMPcomprises return air and fresh air. Since the wet mat does G18_RECLM_DMND 80both, by virtue of being an adiabatic process, this is done 18_HTG_DMNDat minimal cost, apart from water consumption. As heat 60recovery is employed, this is a cost-effective approach that 20provides stability of control, which is ideal for museum and 40gallery applications. When wet-mat plants were first installed, humidity control 20 15was achieved by adjusting the wet-mat leaving air temper-ature (dewpoint control), but we changed this to control the 0supply air-mixing ratio instead, as this takes into account 16:59 17:59 18:59 19:59variations in wet-mat efficiency. Figure 410
  11. 11. is already higher with both the re-claim and re-heat valves Communication between Outstationsclosed. When there is a call for heating at 5:15 p.m., this As the room sensors are sometimes wired to a local out-prompts a rise in the supply-duct temperature setpoint, but station, this information needs to be sent to the plant controlit takes about 45 minutes for this to reach the actual supply outstation. Sometimes this is arranged through hard-wiring,temperature, during which time the heating valves stay and sometimes it is arranged via inter-controller communi-shut. In this particular case, the re-claim has only a limited cation (comms). In both cases, we found that some amend-effect, and the supply temperature is only brought under ments improved the resolution of data transfer, which yieldedcontrol when the re-heat valve opens. This tends to cause subtle improvements in accuracy of control. For example,a momentary dip in room temperature. there is not much point in setting the limits of room relative The solution was to devise a strategy which limits the humidity as 0–100%, as this is not likely to exceed 70%setpoint range to the actual measured temperature when the or fall below 40%. If it did, the plant would not be doingcontrol valve reaches the extent of its travel. For example, anything different than it would if the room limits of 50%if the re-heat valve is closed, there is no point setting the minimum and 60% maximum had been reached. Althoughtemperature setpoint any lower than the actual supply air the accuracy of data being provided to the scientifictemperature, as the valve can’t close any further. Hence, department for purposes of long-term monitoring is notif the setpoint is limited to the actual temperature, when compromised, the resolution of data transfer to the plantre-heat is next called for, the control system can respond control outstation is improved by a factor of three.instantly to a change in setpoint. All these factors, when put together, have yielded useful This is known as an anti wind-up and anti wind-down improvements in the control systems, reducing wastefulstrategy, and provides significant benefits in avoiding cycling and helping to ensure that the collection is kept incontrol lags, giving more accurate control. It also has the optimum environmental conditions under all circumstances.spin-off benefit that the low and high supply duct limitsare automatically set; they do not have to be pre-set to Howard Hall BSc CEng MCIBSE MIMechE is a mechanicalarbitrary limits. This strategy has been applied to both engineer with Andrew Reid & Partners LLP, which has beentemperature and humidity secondary control loops. associated with the National Gallery since 1990. Safety First! Fire extinguisher training comes in handy to prevent overcooking the holiday feast! 11
  12. 12. Los Angeles — The 16th12
  13. 13. Annual IAMFA Conference 13
  14. 14. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute by Fernando PascalThe Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in scientists are conducting a global survey of levels of geneticPanama is a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, based isolation in coral reef organisms.outside of the United States and dedicated to understanding At the present time, STRI has permanent facilities orbiological diversity. installations at 12 different sites in the Republic of Panama What began in 1923 as small field station on Barro (see Figure 1).Colorado Island, in the Panama Canal Zone, has developed The sites are: 1 — Tupper/Tivoli/CTPA, 2 — Naos/Puntainto one of the world’s leading research institutions. STRI’s Culebra, 3 — Metropolitan Natural Park Canopy Accessfacilities provide a unique opportunity for long-term eco- Crane, 4 — Barro Colorado Nature Monument, 5 — Gamboa,logical studies in the tropics, and are used extensively by 6 — Galeta Island, 7 — Sherman Canopy Access Crane,some 900 visiting scientists from academic and research 8 — Bocas del Toro (Colon Island), 9 — Cueva de losinstitutions in the United States and around the world Vampiros (Vampire Cave archaeological site), 10 —Coibitaevery year. The work of our resident scientists has allowed Island, 11 — EGE Fortuna (associated site), 12 — Achotinesus to better understand tropical habitats, and has trained (associated site — Inter American Tropical Tuna Commission).hundreds of tropical biologists. In total, STRI operates out of 165 different buildings and STRI aims to provide research facilities which help staff structures, comprising nearly 50,000 square meters, all overscientists, fellows, and visiting scientists to achieve their Panama — not including our Floating Lab: a 100-foot-longresearch objectives. The 38 staff scientists reside in the vessel called the RV Urraca.tropics, and are encouraged to pursue their own research Of course, most of STRI’s field research is conducted onpriorities without geographical limitations. The continuity a 40,000-kilometer-long strip of land and water bordered byof their long-term programs enables in-depth investigations two lines: the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn,which attract an elite group of fellows and visitors. Active as shown in Figure for fellows and visitors further leverages resources, STRI’s physical presence, originally restricted to theand attracts more than 900 scientists to STRI each year. Panama Canal Zone, has now been greatly expanded to Although STRI is based in Panama, research is con- include different areas of Panama and now, the world.ducted throughout the tropics. STRI’s Center for Tropical More information is provided on the STRI web page atForest Science uses large, fully enumerated forest plots to www.STRI.orgmonitor tree demography in 14 countries located in Africa, On the facilities side, we have a total of 72 positions orAsia and the Americas. More than 3,000,000 individual FTEs (full-time equivalents) distributed among Maintenance,trees, representing 6,000 species, are being studied. STRI’s Planning/Design/Construction, Safety and Security.Biological Diversity of Forest Fragments project created At STRI, we provide maintenance and support servicesexperimental forest fragments of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 km2 to for all buildings and structures, including labs and offices,study the consequences of landscape transformation on dorms, backup electrical generators, sewage treatmentforest integrity in the central Amazon region. STRI marine plants, elevators, two canopy-access construction cranesFigure 1 Figure 214
  15. 15. located near both coasts (Caribbean and Pacific), 71 cars,about 62 small boats and medium-sized vessels, etc. Partof our responsibility also includes the payment of all utilitycosts (water and electricity), as well as all mailing costs forofficial correspondence. Our operations are financed by U.S. Federal Funds —from the SI Office of Facilities Engineering and Operations,based in Washington, D.C. and STRI operating funds —and by private donors who are becoming more and morevisible in supporting the construction of new lab and officebuildings. One good example is the E.S. Tupper Researchand Conference Center, constructed in Panama City in 1989with financial support from a foundation set up by the familyof Earl Silas Tupper (of Tupperware fame) and U.S. Federalmatching funds. Support has also been received from several donors forthe construction of most of our buildings in Bocas del Toro, Site No. 8on the Caribbean Coast of Panama (Site No. 8). This, in a nutshell, is STRI. Our mission: To increaseunderstanding of the past, present and future of tropical Fernando Pascal is the Associate Director for Facilities, Officebiodiversity and its relevance to human welfare. of Facilities Engineering and Operations at STRI Panama.The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 15
  16. 16. Is Outsourcing Right for Your Organization? by Guy LarocqueFacility managers in cultural institutions, just like their of a larger business case. An analysis of options for variouscounterparts in private enterprise, are faced more and combinations of outsourcing versus in-house functionsmore with the need to add value to their organizations. should be evaluated against several factors which representThe growth of the facilities outsourcing industry compels the organization’s core values.facility managers to be more strategic in their profession. For example, options for delivering Plant MechanicalFM professionals must see their roles more as providing and Electrical Operations and Maintenance for an institutionstrategic direction, rather than being task managers. This may consider the following options: Totally Outsourced;has never been more evident than now, when large out- Totally In-House, or a hybrid of partly Outsourced/partlysourcing companies with well-developed marketing strate- In-House for certain components of the function. Each ofgies approach senior management in our organizations these options would then be tested against several factorswith promises of added value and reduced costs. We, as or evaluation criteria, such as: Value for Money; CorporateFM professionals, must do the same. We must compete Memory Retention; Core Business; Complementary towith these companies, which are willing to share their Organizational Structure; Human Resources Management;strategies, ranges of services, service delivery methods, Turn-Over Rates and Impact of Churn; Elimination ofexpertise, positive financial impacts, proactive customer Duplication, etc. It is important that each organizationservice, purchasing power, technology and economic identify what evaluation criteria it sees as important for itsstrength with the senior management of our organizations. organization. These factors depend on such things as howLikewise, we should identify to our senior management big the organization is; the type of business the organiza-who we are, why we exist and the positive impact we tion is in (e.g., Museum, Art Gallery, Library and Archives,bring to our organizations. etc.); what that organization’s strategic plan is over a defined period of time; and what external factors may come into play, Strategic management is a total-approach process used such as funding sources, tourism market-share, economicto position our organizations for the future. Outsourcing and socio-political situations, etc. Weighting factors andsome of the facility management functions should be part value ranges could be applied to each evaluation criteria,of a comprehensive approach that incorporates developing in accordance with the organization’s values and strategiesand implementing a strategic plan; developing and imple- and the results set up in a comparison table, as shownmenting a strategic communications plan; reviewing and below, where each option’s strengths and weaknessesjustifying critical business processes; identifying core compe- would be displayed.tencies; confirming service levels provided; selecting andimplementing appropriate technological tools and infra- EXAMPLE OF EVALUATION TABLE FOR THE FACILITYstructure; developing and implementing training and leader- MANAGEMENT FUNCTION OF PLANT MECHANICALship development programs; planning and implementing AND ELECTRICAL OPERATIONStransition management strategies; establishing critical success AND MAINTENANCEfactors and associated key performance indicators (KPIs), (Select Scores of 1–10 X Weighting Factor)and implementing best practices. Totally Outsourcing any facility management function repre- Weighting Out- Totally Hybridsents both a loss and a gain to an organization. Outsourcing Factor sourced In-House Out/Incarries with it a loss of intellectual capital, especially in Value for Money 25%functions that are more specialized. For example, compe- Corporate Memorytent mechanical and electrical maintenance contractors are Retention 10%available in the market, because these are typical functions Core Business 10%for most commercial and institutional buildings. However,IMAX® Theatre projectionists and maintenance technicians Complementary to Org. Structure 20%are more difficult to replace, given their level of specialization.It is important that facility managers do their homework if HR Management 10%they are seriously considering outsourcing any function. Turn-Over Rates 10% The theory that outsourcing non-core functions to third- Eliminate Duplication 15%party outside experts reduces costs and improves service Total Scores 100%delivery is certainly valid, but it must be considered as part16
  17. 17. The results may be surprising for some functions when DANIEL H. DAVIESanalyzed in this objective and structured way. Of course,the results of the analysis would provide senior manage-ment with a clear business case to support whateverrecommendation the analysis produces. When considering outsourcing of a facility managementfunction, it is important to follow certain key guidelinesas follows.Management:• Retain in-house control over strategic plans and directions.• Retain responsibility for setting standards, policy and procedures to which suppliers must conform.• Make the supplier responsible for delivery. L–R: Guy Larocque, Joe May and James Moisson, at the reception• Expect value-for-money. before the Gala Dinner at the Getty.• Encourage cooperative contract management and take advantage of developing technologies. Communications/Understanding Issues:• Retain the right to conduct audits at the supplier’s • Clearly define the scope and interface with in-house premises. staff of what is outsourced.• Never lose sight of the business-driven objectives of • Establish clear roles and responsibilities for the outsourcing. customer, end-user and suppliers.• Aim for continuous improvement. • Maintain regular customer/supplier contact at various levels — even when things are going well.HR Issues: • Establish a partnering relationship of trust with the• Ensure a sufficient number of qualified in-house staff to supplier. remain to manage the outsourced situation. • Hold regular meetings to monitor achievements.• Promote a continuing relationship between the supplier’s staff and end-users. • Define clear escalation procedures to deal with unresolved issues at staff levels.• Review in-house staff skills and numbers on a regular basis. • Encourage the supplier to propose changes based on their expertise.• Involve end-users in monitoring service delivery against targets. • Ensure customer awareness, understanding and• Retain the right to veto the supplier’s choice of key staff. commitment.Service /Business Issues: At the end of the day, it’s all about people. So, regard- less of whether you implement strategic management,• Match expectations with needs. adopt an outsourcing model, or simply become a more• Have a contingency escape plan covering the business-like organization, the transition process must be outsourcing contract, software ownership, etc. carefully planned and managed.• Maintain the right to invite tenders for new work. Guy Larocque, P. Eng is the Director of Facility Manage-• Continue to benchmark the service and consider ment and Security Services for the Canadian Museum of alternative approaches. Civilization Corporation, and current President of IAMFA. 17
  18. 18. Pandas Up-Close and Personal: A Tour of the Smithsonian National Zoo’s New Asia Trail by Alana HousholderNot everyone can proudly say that they Although conservation often helps 3,050 square feet of glass, and morehave been almost peed on by a panda! people and animals, conflicts of interest than 400 tons of steel rebar to build.However, as a visitor to the new Asia often come about. The Asia Trail’s two The Asia Trial was built with environ-Trail, this incident, along with others, conservation plazas have Decision mentally friendly, “green” elements.has forever bonded me to pandas, their Stations, which offer interactive, touch- The walkway, for example, is madefading habitats, and the challenges of screen displays to explain real conser- with tree resins instead of petroleum,conservation. On October 17, 2006, the vation conflicts in China and India. and a plant-covered roof at the slothSmithsonian’s National Zoo opened the These Decision Stations ask your opin- bear habitat provides insulation andAsia Trail, a brand-new collection of ion on how to resolve these conflicts, produces oxygen. The Asia Trail tookdisplays seen among streams, water- just as National Zoo scientists debate two and half years to build and costfalls, rocky mounds, and bamboo for- these issues today as they help to pre- $52.7 million. Private donations ofests. The Asia Trail incorporates a new serve Asian animals and habitats. Some more than $24 million helped fund theGiant Panda habitat which brings visi- scientists work in Asia with local peoples Asia Trail and associated conservationtors close to the pandas — even eye- and other conservationists, whereas programs. Lead corporate sponsorto-eye in some cases. Seeing a giant other scientists stay at the Zoo, work- Fujifilm and exclusive media sponsorpanda walk within touching distance ing on reproductive technology to help Animal Planet supported the Nationaloffers visitors a unique opportunity to stop several of the Asia Trail’s species Zoo with donations of $9.1 millionexperience how little separates Homo from becoming extinct. In addition to and $5 million, respectively.sapiens from other species. exhibits on conservation, visitors can Not only is the Asia Trail open for In addition to being a home to giant see photographs in the Fujifilm Giant onsite visits, but can also be visitedpandas and six other unique Asian Panda Habitat that depict the process of virtually through an online tour. Onspecies (sloth bears, fishing cats, red bringing the giant panda cub Tai Shan the National Zoo’s web pages, ZooGoerpandas, Japanese giant salamanders, into the world. presents a guided tour of the Asia Trailclouded leopards, and Asian small- From a facilities standpoint, the Asia using many onsite cameras. A visit toclawed otters), the Asia Trail surrounds Trail is a challenge to maintain, with a the website, as well as to the Zoo invisitors in the smells, sights, and sounds walk through bamboo-lined pathways, person, is certainly worthwhile. I amof the world’s largest continent. Multi- much of it over stones in a Japanese- sure you will enjoy your visit as muchfaceted exhibits also make a much- style garden formation. The pathway as I did, and you will want to returnneeded plea for conservation of Asia’s is often covered by a mist made by a in the future.almost extinct animals and habitats, very hard-to-manage mist-making sys-many of which are affected by human tem. The mist makes the ground wet, Information and online tour:activities that threaten the animals’ so from a facilities management per- spective, this is a very difficult space It is difficult to see the animals to keep weed-free (or plant/mold free).featured on the Asia Trail in the wild, People can also slip when it is wet, so Alana Housholder is interning withbecause of their rarity. Exhibits show there is a safety issue as well. The Asia the Office of Facilities Managementhow the lives of villagers and wildlife Trail covers nearly six acres of the and Reliability, Donald W. Reynoldsin Asia can be improved by conserva- National Zoo, with a pathway over a Center for American Art & Portraiture,tion education programs and sustain- quarter of a mile long, so the upkeep of Washington, D.C., preparing for herable agricultural practices, such as this walkway is a challenge to maintain. Masters Degree in Museum Studies atbeekeeping and mushroom farming, The building of this exhibit space Georgetown University. Next semester,as well as alternative fuel options such required more than 275 craft and she’ll intern with Sotheby’s in London,as biogas stoves and conservation construction workers, and it took programs. 8,033 cubic yards of concrete, about18