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Economic and Business Research on 3D Printing

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Keynote talk as part of "Printing, Innovation and Business Models" track at 2019 R&D Management Conference in Paris, June 19, 2019

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Economic and Business Research on 3D Printing

  1. 1. Economic and Business Research on 3D Printing Joel West KGI – Keck Graduate Institute The Claremont Colleges R&D Management Conference 2019 19 Juin 2019
  2. 2. Agenda • Brief history of 3DP • 3DP biz-econ research • Developing higher impact research • Moving forward
  3. 3. Previous 3D Printing Conferences • “The Business and Economic Impacts of 3D Printing” • RWTH Aachen, June 2014 • “3D Printing Paris 2018 Conference” • École Polytechnique, June 2018
  4. 4. A Brief History of 3D Printing
  5. 5. • 3D printing is 30+ years old • Started with niche industrial markets • Proliferation of patented technologies, new firms • Limited applications due to price, performance • Now: larger consumer markets • Leveraging open source hardware • Reaching hobbyist market like early PCs • Still no “killer app” • Today: a $5-10 billion market 3D Printer Market
  6. 6. Process First Patent (Priority Date) Key Inventor (Employer) Feedstock Stereolithography (SLA) 1984 Chuck Hill (UVP, later 3D Systems) Liquid plastic Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 1986 Carl Deckard (U. Texas) Plastic or metal powder Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 1989 Scott Crump (Stratasys) Continuous spool of plastic (later metal) Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP) 1989 Michael Cima, Emmanual Sachs (MIT) Liquid plastic or plastic-metal PolyJet 1999 Hanan Gothait (Objet) Liquid plastic Key 3D Printing Technologies Source: West & Kuk (2016)
  7. 7. • Chuck Hill • Invented stereolithography and 3D printing (1984) • Laser dries points in pool of liquid resin • Founded 3D Systems (1986) • IPO: 1987 • Growth much slower than expected 3D Systems
  8. 8. • Scott Crump • Invented fused deposition modeling (1989) • Inspired by a glue gun, cheap spool of plastic (or metal) • Founded Stratasys (1989) • IPO: 1994 • Growing via M&A • Merged with Objet (2012) • Bought MakerBot (2013) Stratasys
  9. 9. • Three segments: hardware, materials, services • Industrial vs. other B2B vs. consumer • 3D Systems/Stratasys stagnant • Each with unprofitable with flat revenues $0.7b/year • New entrants, fragmentation with patent expiration • Industrial market ca. $2b/year (Wohlers) • Rapid growth in other markets • Consumer, healthcare (prosthetics) • ≈$10b in 2018, $14b in 2019 (IDC) 3D Printing Today
  10. 10. Open Source Software Talent pool is limited •Not everyone is a programmer •Not everyone will contribute to OSS 3D Printing Talent pool is limited •Not everyone is a 3D designer/sculptor •Not everyone can design own 3D printable objects Despite DIY Hype, Limited Contributor Pool
  11. 11. 3D Printing Biz-Econ Research
  12. 12. 81 SSCI papers published 2008-2018 Bus/Econ Research Thus Far SSCI: Business, management, economics; “3d printer” or “3d printing” 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
  13. 13. • Adoption • Overall • Creating new markets (niches) • Business models • Competitive advantage • Policy: regulation & subsidies • Technology/cost limitations Managerial Questions
  14. 14. • Short-run manufacturing • Online collaboration • Print on demand • Sustainable supply chains • RepRap • Makerspaces Phenomena
  15. 15. • Adoption • Business models/strategies • Digitalization: physical objects, online collaboration • Impacts: manufacturing, supply chain, sustainability, societal, other • Open innovation, collaboration, IP • Policy Theoretical Issues
  16. 16. Cite Authors Title Who Cites 116 Rayna & Striukova …How 3D printing is changing business model innovation 3D printing, supply chain 108 Baumers et al The cost of additive manufacturing… 3D printing, supply chain 55 Bogers, Hadar, Bilberg Additive manufacturing for consumer-centric business models … 3D printing, business models 40 Jiang, Kleer, Piller Predicting the future of additive manufacturing: A Delphi study… 3D printing, Delphi studies 32 Sandström …emergence of an ecosystem for 3D Printing—Insights from the hearing aid industry's transition… 3D printing, manufacturing 35 Ford, Mortara, Minshall …Introduction to the Special Issue 3D printing, knowledge brokers 25 Jia et al …supply chain-centric business models in 3D chocolate printing: A simulation study 3D printing, food 3D printing 21 West & Kuk How MakerBot leveraged Thingiverse in 3D printing … 3D printing, innovation communities Most Cited Journal: TFSC 30% of citations come from 17 articles in TFSC
  17. 17. Going Forward
  18. 18. • Continuing recommendations • Community of researchers, conference tracks, beyond Europe • Funding for PhD/postdoc students • More rigorous research • Strong empirics • Stronger theory, more general contribution • Get beyond the phenomenon Recommendations
  19. 19. • Ben-Ner & Siemsen, Calif. Management Review, 2017 • Garmulewicz et al, Calif. Management Review, 2018 • Unruh, Calif. Management Review, 2018 • d’Aveni, Harvard Business Review, 2015 • Rindfleisch, J. of Product Innovation Management, 2017 • Kyriakou et al, MIS Quarterly, 2017 • Greul et al, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 2018 A/A* Publications
  20. 20. • Most papers have implications for 3D printing • Can we find implications beyond 3D printing? • Learning from other literatures: • Open source: • Managing online communities • Coordinating, governing decentralized production • Fine-tuning degrees of openness • Crowdsourcing: • Matching seekers/solvers • Motivating contributors • Optimizing collaboration models Getting Beyond the Phenomenon
  21. 21. Having an Impact AOM Session #1724: Tuesday Aug 13, 8am
  22. 22. Thank You

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