Introduction• Passé• Simple• Imparfait• Passé Simple*• Compound• Passé Composé• Plus-que-parfait• Passé Antérieur*• Présent • Futur• Futur• FuturAntérieur
LImparfait• LImparfait is a descriptive past tense which indicates an ongoing state ofbeing or a repeated or incomplete action• The beginning and end of the state of being or action are not indicated.• Often translated into English as was or had been ___-ing
LImparfait• Can indicate any of the following:• Habitual actions or states of being• Physical and emotional descriptions: time, weather, age, feelings• Actions or states of an unspecified duration• Background information in conjunction with the passé composé• Wishes or suggestions• Conditions in si clauses• The expression être en train de and venir de in the past
Passé Composé• The passé composé is the most common French past tense• Often used in conjunction with the imparfait• The Passé Composé can express any of the following:• An action completed in the past• An action repeated several times in the past• A series of actions completed in the past• This is a compound verb form. It uses the auxiliary verbs être et avoir.
Passé Composé contre lImparfait• A common error in French is to use the imparfait to translate every instanceof the English preterit. In English, the preterit can be used to express a pastroutine as well as a one-time occurrence. French uses two different tenses forthese two situations.• Imparfait : Quand jétais petit, jallais voir ma grand-mère tous les jeudis.• Passé Composé : Un jeudi, je ne suis pas allé chez elle.• Imparfait : -Hier soir je navais pas mes clés.• Passé Composé : -Alors quest-ce que tu as fait?
Passé Simple• The passé simple (English simple past or preterit) is the literary equivalent tothe passé composé• It is used only in formal writing (historical or literary writing) and veryformal speech• Important to know about, but you will probably never need to write in passésimple
Plus-que-parfait• The Plus-que-parfait (Past perfect or pluperfect) is used to indicate an actionin the past that occurred before another action in the past• The past action can be either mentioned in the same sentence or implied• Compound conjugation: the imperfect of the auxiliary verb (either avoir orêtre) and the past participle of the main verb• Ex: Il navait pas mangé (avant de faire ses devoirs). –He hadnt eaten (before doing hishomework).
Passé Antérieur• Passé Antérieur is the literary equivalent of the plus-que-parfait (past perfect)• Used for literature and historical accounts to indicate an action in the pastthat occurred before another action in the past• Usually introduced by on of the conjunctions: après que, aussitôt que, dès que,lorsque, or quand• Conjugated using the passé simple of the auxiliary verb and the partparticiple of the main verb
Présent• Le présent de lindicatif has a similar usage to the present tense in English; itcan express the following:• Current actions and situations• Habitual actions• Absolute and general truths• Actions which occur immediately• Conditions such as in si clauses
Futur• Le futur (le futur simple) is very similar to the English future tense: it talksabout upcoming events.• Equivalent to the English "will"+ main verb• Ex: Jirai au magasin demain. (I will go to the store tomorrow.)• Ex: Ils mangeront dans lavion. (They will eat on the plane.)
Futur• There are some differences between the uses of le futur and the EnglishFuture tenses:• Certain conjunctions use le futur: après que (after), aussitôt que (as soon as), dès que (assoon as), espérer que (to hope that), lorsque (when), quand (when), une fois que (once)• In journalism and other factual narration, le futur is often used in Frencheven though the events are in the past.• In French, le futur can also be used for polite orders and requests, in place of thevous form of the imperative: Vous fermerez la porte, sil vous plaît.
Futur Antérieur• The Futur Antérieur is most commonly used like the English future perfect:to describe an action that will have happened or will be finished by a specific pointin the future.• Compound Conjugation formed by the future of the auxiliary verb and thepast participle of the main verb.• Ex: Dès que vous aurez fini votre examen, vous pourrez partir. (As soon as you havefinished your exam, you will be able to leave.)
Futur AntérieurThere are three uses of the futur antérieur that do not correspond to the Englishfuture perfect:• In a subordinate clause that begin with the conjunctions: aussitôt que, dès que, lorsque, quand, unefois que, and après que, the future perfect is used to express a future action with will becompleted before the action in the main clause.• Nous le ferons aussitôt quelle sera arrivée. (We will do it as soon as she has arrived.)• The future perfect can make simple assumptions regarding past events, where English modalverb "must" would be used:• Luc est heureux ; il aura gagné. (Luc is happy; he must have won.)• In historical narratives, the events of a persons life can be described with the future perfecteven though those events have long since passed.• Napoléon aura pris un décision important. (Napoleon would make an important decision.)