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# Intro. To Sound 111309

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• ### Intro. To Sound 111309

1. 1. Welcome to Introduction to Sound instructor - Joel Porter email questions? - joelporter999@hotmail.com
2. 2. Introduction to Sound... what is sound? * we hear sound as vibrations that move the very small bones in our ears. * sound (like light) MOVES IN WAVES * sound volume or “how loud” something sounds is measured in DECIBELS * the PITCH of a sound is MEASURED in Cycles Per Second or “Hertz”
3. 3. Introduction to Sound Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22, 1857 – January 1, 1894) was a German physicist who clarified and expanded the electromagnetic theory of light that had been put forth by Maxwell. He was the first to satisfactorily demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves by building an apparatus to produce and detect VHF or UHF radio waves. dB is an abbreviation for "decibel". One decibel is one tenth of a Bel, named for Alexander Graham Bell. In acoustics: dB(SPL) sound pressure level, relative to 20 micropascals (PO) or 20 mN/m2, 1kHz, the quietest sound a human can hear, dB(SPL) = 20 log P/PO IdB sound intensity relative to a standard threshold of hearing intensity Io: Io = 10-12 watts/m2; IdB = 10 log I/IO
4. 4. Introduction to Sound * Sound IS IMPORTANT in ﬁlm * Sound for ﬁlm IS NOT the same as... (sound for video, broadcast television & radio or music) * Sound IS fun and easy (all you need is some ears and a brain... you already know what sounds good or bad!) * Sound IS hard and can be very technical (It can take years to gain the experience needed to be a sound person)
5. 5. What IS a Microphone? A microphone, sometimes colloquially called a mic or mike (both pronounced /ˈmaɪk/), is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, recording devices, hearing aids, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, in radio and television broadcasting. Principles of Operation The physics of sound and electricity govern a mic’s general principle of operation: a mic takes sound and translates it into an electrical signal; loud sounds generate a large signal and soft sounds create a small electrical signal. This translation process is always imperfect, and so many different types of mics have been invented to allow different mics to be chosen for different circumstances (i.e., balancing the trade-offs between how particular mics translate sound and the sound being captured by the mic).
6. 6. How does a Microphone work? * Microphones work by converting sound energy into electrical energy, the only difference is how they do it. * Mics are built with a diaphragm that is struck by sound waves. A mic is only able to capture sound that exists (i.e., it records what it hears): • if you sing out of tune then an off-key sound is what the mic records • a thin, soft, wispy voice is still soft, thin & wispy when heard by the mic • a mic cannot be used to overcome poor singing/speaking ability or technique Just as buying an expensive, high quality piano cannot improve your sight-reading ability, so buying a high quality mic will not make a bad voice sound great. Just as a well trained and practiced pianist will play better and sound better on a well made instrument, the right mic, properly used, will capture the most desirable qualities of a voice, producing a much better result than would be achieved with the wrong mic.
7. 7. Types of Microphones * There are many different types of microphones, ones used for entertaining, computer use, communications, and many other applications. * They all do the same thing, they just differ in how they do it, and the quality that they do it. * What you want to record will determine what type you should use. * Basically there are 2 main types... DYNAMIC and CONDENSOR
8. 8. Types of Microphones Dynamic Microphones This type is easily identified by the mesh top of the microphone, almost everyone has used one if they have picked up a microphone. They are almost always used when recording in the studios. You can use dynamic mics with drums, guitars, and bass guitars, and you are also able to use them for vocals. And the best things about dynamic microphones are that they are fairly inexpensive compared to other types of microphones, and they also do not need batteries or a power supply to operate. -works by using a diaphragm made out of plastic, that diaphragm is connected to a small coil of wire that is in between two magnets which makes it encased in a magnetic field. When someone talks into the microphone the vibration creates an electrical current. This current is transferred to a sound amplifier that is connected to the microphone. The reason a dynamic microphone needs a sound amplifier is because the current that is created within the microphone is too little to actually make the sounds. There are a few downsides to using dynamic microphones, one of them is that the microphone is incapable of producing high frequencies... in other words they don’t sound great. Another bad thing about the dynamic microphone is that it takes a lot of amplification to produce the sound.
9. 9. Types of Microphones Capacitor or Condenser Microphones Condenser means capacitor, an electronic component which stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. The term condenser is actually obsolete but has stuck as the name for this type of microphone, which uses a capacitor to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. These are usually more expensive then dynamic microphones because the quality of sound that they produce are better quality. That and because the capacitor microphones can reproduce higher frequency sounds unlike the dynamic mic. The way capacitor microphones work are that there are two conducting plates inside the microphone, one is fixed in a position, and the other is free moving inside the mic. The electric sound is produced when the distance between the two diaphragm is changed. When current comes in contact with the capacitor an electrical current is produced. Voltage must be applied between them is called phantom power. Capacitor microphones are more efficient then the dynamic microphone, but still produces very small electrical signals. They require a special built-in preamplifier to make the signal stronger. Electret Microphone These are very similar as the capacitor microphones, but the only difference is that the diaphragm that is used in these are made with a insulted material and has a permanent electrical charge. An amp is still needed to produce the sound, the Electret mic can be run with a battery in it.
10. 10. Introduction to Sound *ALL Microphones have a Pick Up Pattern! - Microphones have different pickup patterns, or directional capabilities - omnidirectional (or nondirectional) microphone's response is generally considered to be a perfect sphere in three dimensions - most common unidirectional microphone is a cardioid microphone, so named because the sensitivity pattern is heart-shaped. A hyper-cardioid microphone is similar but with a tighter area of front sensitivity and a smaller lobe of rear sensitivity -"Figure 8" or bi-directional microphones receive sound from both the front and back of the element -"Shotgun" microphones are the most highly directional. They have small lobes of sensitivity to the left, right, and rear but are signiﬁcantly less sensitive to the side and rear than other directional microphones are. This results from placing the element at the end of a tube with slots cut along the side; wave cancellation eliminates much of the off-axis sound. Due to the narrowness of their sensitivity area, shotgun microphones are commonly used on television and ﬁlm sets, in stadiums, and for ﬁeld recording of wildlife.
11. 11. Introduction to Sound *take care of your equipment !!! - mics, cords, board and recording devices require you to treat them right!
12. 12. Introduction to Sound audio engineer test tones? - Audio test tones are a special class of artificially-created sounds. An example is the sine-wave tone you sometimes hear at the end of a video. There are two things test tones are usually used for: 1.Testing the quality of an audio signal. 2.Testing the quality of audio hardware systems and identifying faults
13. 13. Introduction to Sound... what is sound? * What you can hear... frequencies! The ear can hear sounds ranging from 20Hz to 20kHz. It is most sensitive to frequencies between 500Hz and 4000Hz, which corresponds almost exactly to the speech band http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R7D1f6U6TpU
14. 14. Introduction to Sound *setting up is EASY if you follow the signal path... - Start at the sound source and work back to your recording device - MIC / MIC CORD / SOUND BOARD / RECORD DEVICE - Troubleshooting is easy when you follow the signal path
15. 15. Introduction to Sound some basic recording tips for the ﬁlm set 1. EQ’d vs. Flat Recordings - when recording on the set go “FLAT” 2. If possible, don’t use Compression or Limiting. 3. A poor recording of a great performance is better than a great recording of a poor performance. 4. High Quality vs. Memory Space - always a challenge.
16. 16. Introduction to Sound Sound Department Basics for the Film Set 1. Be EARLY! 2. TEST the equipment. 3. Hurry Up AND Wait. 4. Sound is always ready. 5. Talk to the Script Supervisor and Assistant Director to get clues on what is to be recorded in each scene. 6. Be an asset, don’t interrupt... the talent or director! If sound needs another take wait until the director says cut. 7. Take Notes on each take on a Sound Log. Make a “qualitative” judgement on each take. 8. During breaks in the action check your recordings. 9. When done keep tapes/ﬂash cards (your recordings) in a safe place, well labeled with your notes. 10. When you break down take the time to put away your equipment neatly and properly.
17. 17. Introduction to Sound “lets do a take!” Protocol for the Film Set 1. AD will yell... quiet up! this is for picture! 2. AD tells sound.... “roll sound”. 3. SOUND replies.... “sound rolling”. 4. SOUND slates the take (scene, take and roll - from clapboard) and “set” when ready. 5. AD then calls for the camera to roll... “roll camera” 6. Camera assistant - starts the camera and announces when camera has “speed”. 7. Take is slated with the clap board. 8. Director calls for “action”. 9. The scene is performed. 10. Director calls for “cut”... to end the take. 11. Sound Department then pauses or stops recording... and makes sound log notes.
18. 18. Introduction to Sound The BOOM Pole 1. Mic position... in front of the camera but NOT in shot. Utilize the microphone’s pick-up pattern. 2. Keep your cords neat and out of the way. 3. Leave one ear of your headphones “uncovered” between takes. 4. It’s a TEAM effort, communicate with your partner on the board. 5. Mic each scene to match the shot perspective. (if its a close-up, mic position is tight and just out of shot... if its a long shot, mic position is farther back)
19. 19. Introduction to Sound Post Production 1. Most of what is recorded on set is reference audio 2. 3 Main Elements of the Soundtrack are: Dialogue/voices (V/O) , Music (MX) and Sound Effects (SFX) 3. EQUALIZATION 4. LIMITERS AND COMPRESSION 5. Digital Audio vs. Analog 6. ADR - Automated Dialogue Replacement 7. Foley Sound Effects vs. CD Libraries 8. Music Libraries and Composers... and licensing 9. Final Mix Down, automated mixes and plug-ins
20. 20. Introduction to Sound EQUALIZATION
21. 21. Introduction to Sound In simple terms, a compressor is an automatic volume control. Loud sounds over a certain threshold are LIMITERS AND COMPRESSION reduced in level while quiet sounds remain untreated (this is known as downward compression, while the less common upward compression involves making sounds below the threshold louder while the louder passages remain unchanged). In this way it reduces the dynamic range of an audio signal. This may be done for aesthetic reasons, to deal with technical limitations of audio equipment, or to improve audibility of audio in noisy environments. In a noisy environment, background noise can overpower quiet sounds (such as listening to a car stereo while driving). A comfortable listening level for loud sounds makes the quiet sounds inaudible below the noise; a comfortable listening level for quiet sounds makes the loud sounds too loud. Compression is used in order to make both the soft and loud parts of a sound more tolerable at the same volume setting. Compression reduces the level of the loud sounds, but not the quiet sounds; thus, the level can be raised to a point where the quiet sounds are more audible without the loud sounds being too loud. Contrast this with the complementary process of an expander, which performs almost the exact opposite function of a compressor, i.e., an expander increases the dynamic range of the audio signal
22. 22. Introduction to Sound LIMITERS AND COMPRESSION
23. 23. Introduction to Sound Digital Audio vs. Analog
24. 24. Introduction to Sound ADR - Automated Dialogue Replacement (additional or automatic, too) Automated dialogue replacement or Additional dialogue recording (ADR) is the process of re-recording the original dialogue after ﬁlming for the purpose of obtaining a cleaner, more intelligible dialogue track (also known as looping or a looping session). In the UK it is called post- synchronisation or post-sync. In conventional ﬁlm production, a production sound mixer records dialogue during ﬁlming. Unless the shoot takes place on a sound stage, accompanying noise from the set, trafﬁc, wind, and the overall ambiance of the surrounding environment can be overbearing. This often results in unusable production sound, and during the post-production process a supervising sound editor or ADR Supervisor reviews all of the dialogue in the ﬁlm and decides which lines will have to be replaced. ADR is used in over 70% of major U.S. ﬁlms.[ ADR is also used to change the original lines recorded on set in order to clarify context, or to improve the actor's diction and timing. For animation such as computer-generated imagery or animated cartoons dialogue is recorded to a pre-edited version of the show. Although the characters' voices are recorded in a studio, ADR is necessary whenever members of the cast can not all be present at once. ADR is recorded during an ADR session, which takes place in a specialized sound studio. The actor, usually the original actor from the set, is shown the scene in question along with the original sound, following which he or she will attempt to recreate the performance as closely as possible. Over the course of multiple re- takes (hence looping) the actor will repeatedly perform the lines while watching the scene, and the most suitable take will make it to the ﬁnal version of the scene.
25. 25. Introduction to Sound ADR - Automated Dialogue Replacement (additional or automatic, too) Automated dialogue replacement or Additional dialogue recording (ADR) is the process of re-recording the original dialogue after ﬁlming for the purpose of obtaining a cleaner, more intelligible dialogue track (also known as looping or a looping session). In the UK it is called post- synchronisation or post-sync. In conventional ﬁlm production, a production sound mixer records dialogue during ﬁlming. Unless the shoot takes place on a sound stage, accompanying noise from the set, trafﬁc, wind, and the overall ambiance of the surrounding environment can be overbearing. This often results in unusable production sound, and during the post-production process a supervising sound editor or ADR Supervisor reviews all of the dialogue in the ﬁlm and decides which lines will have to be replaced. ADR is used in over 70% of major U.S. ﬁlms.[ ADR is also used to change the original lines recorded on set in order to clarify context, or to improve the actor's diction and timing. For animation such as computer-generated imagery or animated cartoons dialogue is recorded to a pre-edited version of the show. Although the characters' voices are recorded in a studio, ADR is necessary whenever members of the cast can not all be present at once. ADR is recorded during an ADR session, which takes place in a specialized sound studio. The actor, usually the original actor from the set, is shown the scene in question along with the original sound, following which he or she will attempt to recreate the performance as closely as possible. Over the course of multiple re- takes (hence looping) the actor will repeatedly perform the lines while watching the scene, and the most suitable take will make it to the ﬁnal version of the scene.
26. 26. Introduction to Sound Foley Sound Effects The Foley artist on a ﬁlm crew is the person who creates many of the natural, everyday sound effects in a ﬁlm, which are recorded during a session with a recording engineer. Before the session, a project will be cued, with notes kept about what sounds need to be created during the foley session. Often, the project will have a sound supervisor who will dictate what sounds need to be covered in a foley session and what needs to be created by special (audio) effects, which is generally left to the sound designer. Sound effects and foley are added during post-production to dialog and real effects that were picked up by microphones on-set. Sometimes (especially in the case of cartoons, many Italian ﬁlms, and almost all Bollywood ﬁlms) there is no sound recorded on-location, and all the sounds need to be added by the foley artist and sound designer, and dubber. The Foley artist may also accent existing sounds to make them more effective—enhancing the sounds of a ﬁstﬁght may require thumping watermelons or cracking bamboo. Many Foley artists take pride in devising their own sound effects apparatuses, often using simple, commonly found materials. Some making-of featurettes show Foley artists at work. The term Foley artist is named after Jack Foley, one of the earliest and best-known Hollywood practitioners of the art. Foley began his career in the ﬁlm industry as a stand-in and screenwriter during the silent era, and later helped Universal make the transition from silent movies to talkies
27. 27. Galloping horses Banging empty coconut shells together Kissing Kissing back of hand Foley SFX - basics Punching someone Thumping watermelons High heels Artist walks in high heels on wooden platform Bone-breaking blow Breaking celery or twisting a head of romaine Footsteps in snow Squeezing a box of corn starch Star Wars sliding doors Pulling a piece of paper from an envelope Star Trek sliding doors Flare gun plus sneakers squeak Bird ﬂapping its wings Flapping a pair of gloves Grass or leaves crunching Balling up audio tape Car crash shaking a metal box ﬁlled with wood and metal scraps Fire Rapid opening and closing of an umbrella along with the crackle of thick cellophane
28. 28. Introduction to Sound Music Libraries and Composers... and licensing Production music is the name given to the music owned by production music libraries and licensed to customers for use in ﬁlm, television, radio and other media. Unlike popular and classical music publishers, who typically own less than 50 percent of the copyright in a composition, music production libraries own all of the copyrights of their music, meaning that it can be licensed without seeking the composer's permission, as is necessary in licensing music from normal publishers. This is because virtually all music created for music libraries is done on a work for hire basis. Production music is therefore a convenient medium for media producers—they can be assured that they will be able to license any piece of music in the library at a reasonable rate. Production music libraries will typically offer a broad range of musical styles and genres, enabling producers and editors to ﬁnd much of what they need in the same library. Music libraries vary in size from a few hundred tracks up to many thousands. The ﬁrst production music library was setup by De Wolfe Music in 1927 with the advent of sound in ﬁlm, the company originally scored music for use in silent ﬁlm
29. 29. Introduction to Sound Final Mix Down...automated mixes and plug-ins Audio Post Production usually refers to audio that is synchronized with video. This applies to TV, cinema, and commercials. One major aspect of audio post production is the use of ADR, or automatic dialogue replacement. Sometimes the original, or production audio, lacks in performance or quality, and the actor or actors are brought into a sound studio to record some or all of their dialogue from the project. Other elements such as foley, music, and voiceover are also added during post production.
30. 30. REVIEW * Sound IS IMPORTANT in ﬁlm * Sound for ﬁlm IS NOT the same as... (sound for video, broadcast television & radio or music) * Sound IS fun and easy (all you need is some ears and a brain... you already know what sounds good or bad!) * Sound IS hard and can be very technical (It can take years to gain the experience needed to be a sound person)
31. 31. That is your Introduction to Sound! instructor - Joel Porter email questions? - joelporter999@hotmail.com