Chapter 24 section 3 notes


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The Outer Planets
Unit7: Astronomy
Chapter 24: The Solar System
Section 3: The Outer Planets

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Chapter 24 section 3 notes

  1. 1. Chapter 24 Section 3: Outer Planets
  2. 2. 23.4 The Outer Planets <ul><li>Outer Planets: Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer Planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pluto is no longer considered a planet. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 planets are gaseous giants ( Jovian Planets ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pluto and Xenon are frozen spheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voyager 1 & 2 probed the 4 gaseous giants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Pgs. 654 - 659
  3. 3. Jupiter: <ul><li>Jupiter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Planet in our Solar System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fifth planet in order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution = 11.9 years to orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation = 10 hrs. (fastest of all planets) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voyager 1 & 2 (1979) probed Jupiter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gathered information about Jupiter’s Moons’ Atmospheres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered 3 more moons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered a faint dust ring orbiting Jupiter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Jupiter’s Composition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen, Helium, Ammonia, Methane, & water vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaseous Atmosphere, Liquid Mantle, & Solid Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clouds form color bands; Winds up to 400 km/hr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Red Spot : Continuous Atmospheric Storm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightning has been observed in the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiates 2x as much heat as it receives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed to be a star “that just didn’t make it” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Images of Jupiter
  6. 6. Jupiter’s Moons <ul><li>Jupiter’s Moons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jupiter has at least 16 moons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four Largest = Galilean Moons (Discovered in 1610) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Io: Closest of the Large moons to Jupiter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most volcanic objects in out Solar System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfuric Lava produces Reddish/Orange color </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds a thin sulfur dioxide atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europa: Composed of solid rock covered with ice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tectonic activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thin oxygen atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Ganymede: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest moon in the Solar System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger than Mercury, Surface covered in Ice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slushy Mantle, Solid rock core </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Callisto: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of heavily cratered Rock/Ice Crust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water/Ice mantle with a rocky core </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Galilean Moons Io with eruption Europa Ganymede Callisto
  9. 9. <ul><li>Saturn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sixth planet; 30 year orbit; 11 hr rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1980 & 1981 surveyed by the Voyagers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ringed Planet” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second Largest planet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very low density (would float in water) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric composition: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly hydrogen & helium; also ammonia, methane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid Hydrogen/helium mantle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small rocky core </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Saturn: <ul><li>Rings composed of 100’s of ringlets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ringlets are made up of ice & rock particles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At least 18 moon orbit Saturn (Most of any planet) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest moon = Titan (2 nd largest in Solar System) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real atmosphere of nitrogen, argon, & methane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thick, smog clouds cover Titan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surface temp. = -180 0 C (-292 o F) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Uranus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest of the gas planets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1781 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 th planet, 84 year orbit, 17 hour rotation ** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Temp. = -328 o F </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Uranus: <ul><li>Voyager 2 surveyed (1986) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered 10 unknown moons (making 15 total) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 largest almost identical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dark color, lack atmosphere, crater riddled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered several dark rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detected a magnetic field tilted 60 0 from axis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere: Hydrogen, Helium & Methane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methane gives planet a blue/green tint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid mantle of water, methane, & ammonia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rocky core </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>** Rotational axis lays on its side (Spins like a tire) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Neptune </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last of the gas planets; discovered in 1846 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbit overlaps Pluto’s at 2 points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change position 8  9 & 9  8 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 orbit = 165 years; 1 rotation = 16 hrs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere: Hydrogen, Helium, Methane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methane gives Neptune bluish tint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winds = 2200 km/hr; Temperature = -417 0 F </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has a dark spot = storm in it’s atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid mantle: water, methane, & ammonia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core: solid rock </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>F. Neptune (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voyager 2 detected 6 moons (Totaling 8) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest moon = Triton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has a thin nitrogen atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly erupting methane geysers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neptune also has rings (thin & thicken at different places) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Pluto: <ul><li>G. Pluto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1930; smallest planetoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 1979 & 1999 Pluto orbited inside Neptune </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rest of the time the ninth planet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orbit = 248 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has a different orbital plane (tilted 17 0 from other planets) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Pluto: <ul><li>Pluto (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by a minimal atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature = -364 o F </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid rocky crust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One Moon, Charon (½ diameter of Pluto) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orbits very close to Pluto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes considered “a double planet” with Pluto </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>H. Xenon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered January 8 th , 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 % larger than Pluto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orbital time unknown; Rotational time unknown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has one known moon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dark & cold (below -225 0 C or -373 o F) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has not been “officially” named yet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Kuiper Belt <ul><li>Kuiper Belt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered by the Hubble Telescope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast disk of icy comets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located near Neptune’s orbit </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Voyagers’ Continuing Mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After passing Saturn in 1980 Voyager 1 headed out of our Solar System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After passing Pluto in 2000 Voyager 2 headed out of our Solar System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both are still transmitting information back to Earth about deep space, and our sun’s long range influence of charged particles </li></ul></ul>